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Kuby Immunology

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Efnisyfirlit

  • About this Book
    • Cover Page
    • Halftitle Page
    • Icons Used in This Book
    • Title Page
    • Copyright Page
    • Dedication
    • About the Authors
    • Brief Contents
    • Feature Boxes in Kuby Immunology, Eighth Edition
    • Contents
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Overview of the Immune System
    • A Historical Perspective of Immunology
      • Early Vaccination Studies Led the Way to Immunology
      • Vaccination Is an Ongoing, Worldwide Enterprise
      • Immunology Is about More than Just Vaccines and Infectious Disease
      • Immunity Involves Both Humoral and Cellular Components
      • How Are Foreign Substances Recognized by the Immune System?
    • Important Concepts for Understanding the Mammalian Immune Response
      • Pathogens Come in Many Forms and Must First Breach Natural Barriers
      • The Immune Response Quickly Becomes Tailored to Suit the Assault
      • Pathogen Recognition Molecules Can Be Encoded as Genes or Generated by DNA Rearrangement
      • Tolerance Ensures That the Immune System Avoids Destroying the Host
      • The Immune Response Is Composed of Two Interconnected Arms: Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity
      • Immune Cells and Molecules Can Be Found in Many Places
      • Adaptive Immune Responses Typically Generate Memory
    • The Good, Bad, and Ugly of the Immune System
      • Inappropriate or Dysfunctional Immune Responses Can Result in a Range of Disorders
      • The Immune Response Renders Tissue Transplantation Challenging
      • Cancer Presents a Unique Challenge to the Immune Response
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 2: Cells, Organs, and Microenvironments of the Immune System
    • Hematopoiesis and Cells of the Immune System
      • Hematopoietic Stem Cells Differentiate into All Red and White Blood Cells
      • HSCs Differentiate into Myeloid and Lymphoid Blood Cell Lineages
      • Cells of the Myeloid Lineage Are the First Responders to Infection
      • Cells of the Lymphoid Lineage Regulate the Adaptive Immune Response
    • Primary Lymphoid Organs: Where Immune Cells Develop
      • The Site of Hematopoiesis Changes during Embryonic Development
      • The Bone Marrow Is the Main Site of Hematopoiesis in the Adult
      • The Thymus Is the Primary Lymphoid Organ Where T Cells Mature
    • Secondary Lymphoid Organs: Where the Immune Response Is Initiated
      • Secondary Lymphoid Organs Are Distributed throughout the Body and Share Some Anatomical Features
      • Blood and Lymphatics Connect Lymphoid Organs and Infected Tissue
      • The Lymph Node Is a Highly Specialized Secondary Lymphoid Organ
      • The Spleen Organizes the Immune Response against Blood-Borne Pathogens
      • Barrier Organs Also Have Secondary Lymphoid Tissue
      • Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues Also Organize and Maintain an Immune Response
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 3: Recognition and Response
    • General Properties of Immune Receptor-Ligand Interactions
      • Receptor-Ligand Binding Occurs via Multiple Noncovalent Bonds
      • How Do We Describe the Strength of Receptor-Ligand Interactions?
      • Interactions between Receptors and Ligands Can Be Multivalent
      • Combinatorial Expression of Protein Chains Can Increase Ligand-Binding Diversity
      • Adaptive Immune Receptor Genes Undergo Rearrangement in Individual Lymphocytes
      • Levels of Receptor and Ligand Expression Can Vary during an Immune Response
      • Local Concentrations of Ligands May Be Extremely High during Cell-Cell Interactions
      • Many Immune Receptors Include Immunoglobulin Domains
      • Immune Antigen Receptors Can Be Transmembrane, Cytosolic, or Secreted
    • Immune Antigen Receptor Systems
      • The B-Cell Receptor Has the Same Antigen Specificity as Its Secreted Antibodies
      • T-Cell Antigen Receptors Recognize Antigen in the Context of MHC Proteins
      • Receptors of Innate Immunity Bind to Conserved Molecules on Pathogens
    • Cytokines and Their Receptors
      • Cytokines Are Described by Their Functions and the Distances at Which They Act
      • Cytokines Exhibit the Attributes of Pleiotropy, Redundancy, Synergism, Antagonism, and Cascade Induction
      • Cytokines of the IL-1 Family Promote Proinflammatory Signals
      • Class 1 Cytokines Share a Common Structural Motif But Have Varied Functions
      • Class 2 Cytokines Are Grouped into Three Families of Interferons
      • TNF Family Cytokines May Be Soluble or Membrane-Bound
      • The IL-17 Family of Cytokines and Receptors Is the Most Recently Identified
      • Chemokines Induce the Directed Movement of Leukocytes
    • A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Cell Signaling
      • Ligand Binding Can Induce Dimerization or Multimerization of Receptors
      • Ligand Binding Can Induce Phosphorylation of Tyrosine Residues in Receptors or Receptor-Associated Molecules
      • Src-Family Kinases Play Important Early Roles in the Activation of Many Immune Cells
      • Intracellular Adapter Proteins Gather Members of Signaling Pathways
      • Common Sequences of Downstream Effector Relays Pass the Signal to the Nucleus
      • Not All Ligand-Receptor Signals Result in Transcriptional Alterations
    • Immune Responses: The Outcomes of Immune System Recognition
      • Changes in Protein Expression Facilitate Migration of Leukocytes into Infected Tissues
      • Activated Macrophages and Neutrophils May Clear Pathogens without Invoking Adaptive Immunity
      • Antigen Activation Optimizes Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells
      • Cytokine Secretion by Dendritic Cells and T Cells Can Direct the Subsequent Immune Response
      • Antigen Stimulation by T and B Cells Promotes Their Longer-Term Survival
      • Antigen Binding by T Cells Induces Their Division and Differentiation
      • Antigen Binding by B Cells Induces Their Division and Differentiation
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 4: Innate Immunity
    • Anatomical Barriers to Infection
      • Epithelial Barriers Prevent Pathogen Entry into the Body’s Interior
      • Antimicrobial Proteins and Peptides Kill Would-Be Invaders
    • Cellular Innate Response Receptors and Signaling
      • Toll-Like Receptors Initiate Responses to Many Types of Molecules from Extracellular Pathogens
      • C-Type Lectin Receptors Bind Carbohydrates on the Surfaces of Extracellular Pathogens
      • NOD-Like Receptors Bind PAMPs from Cytosolic Pathogens
      • ALRs Bind Cytosolic DNA
      • RLRs Bind Cytosolic Viral RNA
      • cGAS and STING Are Activated by Cytosolic DNA and Dinucleotides
    • Induced Innate Immunity Effector Mechanisms
      • Expression of Innate Immunity Proteins Is Induced by PRR Signaling
      • Phagocytosis Is an Important Mechanism for Eliminating Pathogens
      • Regulated Cell Death Contributes to Pathogen Elimination
      • Local Inflammation Is Triggered by Innate Immune Responses
    • Innate Lymphoid Cells
      • Natural Killer Cells Are ILCs with Cytotoxic Activity
      • ILC Populations Produce Distinct Cytokines and Have Different Roles
    • Regulation and Evasion of Innate and Inflammatory Responses
      • Innate and Inflammatory Responses Can Be Harmful
      • Innate and Inflammatory Responses Are Regulated Both Positively and Negatively
      • Pathogens Have Evolved Mechanisms to Evade Innate and Inflammatory Responses
    • Interactions between the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems
      • The Innate Immune System Activates Adaptive Immune Responses
      • Recognition of Pathogens by Dendritic Cells Influences Helper T-Cell Differentiation
      • Some Antigens Containing PAMPs Can Activate B Cells Independent of Helper T Cells
      • Adjuvants Activate Innate Immune Responses That Increase the Effectiveness of Immunizations
      • Some Pathogen Clearance Mechanisms Are Common to Both Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses
    • Ubiquity of Innate Immunity
      • Some Innate Immune System Components Occur across the Plant and Animal Kingdoms
      • Invertebrate and Vertebrate Innate Immune Responses Show Both Similarities and Differences
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 5: The Complement System
    • The Major Pathways of Complement Activation
      • The Classical Pathway Is Initiated by Antibody Binding to Antigens
      • The Lectin Pathway Is Initiated When Soluble Proteins Recognize Microbial Antigens
      • The Alternative Pathway Is Initiated in Three Distinct Ways
      • The Three Complement Pathways Converge at the Formation of C5 Convertase and Generation of the MAC
    • The Diverse Functions of Complement
      • Complement Receptors Connect Complement-Tagged Pathogens to Effector Cells
      • Complement Enhances Host Defense against Infection
      • Complement Acts at the Interface between Innate and Adaptive Immunities
      • Complement Aids in the Contraction Phase of the Immune Response
    • The Regulation of Complement Activity
      • Complement Activity Is Passively Regulated by Short Protein Half-Lives and Host Cell Surface Composition
      • The C1 Inhibitor, C1INH, Promotes Dissociation of C1 Components
      • Decay-Accelerating Factor Promotes Decay of C3 Convertases
      • Factor I Degrades C3b and C4b
      • CD59 (Protectin) Inhibits the MAC Attack
      • Carboxypeptidases Can Inactivate the Anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a
    • Complement Deficiencies
    • Microbial Complement Evasion Strategies
    • The Evolutionary Origins of the Complement System
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 6: The Organization and Expression of Lymphocyte Receptor Genes
    • The Puzzle of Immunoglobulin Gene Structure
      • Investigators Proposed Two Early Theoretical Models of Antibody Genetics
      • Breakthrough Experiments Revealed That Multiple Gene Segments Encode the Immunoglobulin Light Chain
    • Multigene Organization of Immunoglobulin Genes
      • ? Light-Chain Genes Include V, J, and C Segments
      • ? Light-Chain Genes Include Paired J and C Segments
      • Heavy-Chain Gene Organization Includes VH, D, JH, and CH Segments
      • The Antibody Genes Found in Mature B Cells Are the Product of DNA Recombination
    • The Mechanism of V(D)J Recombination
      • V(D)J Recombination in Lymphocytes Is a Highly Regulated Sequential Process
      • Recombination Is Directed by Recombination Signal Sequences
      • Gene Segments Are Joined by a Diverse Group of Proteins
      • V(D)J Recombination Occurs in a Series of Well-Regulated Steps
      • Five Mechanisms Generate Antibody Diversity in Naïve B Cells
      • The Regulation of V(D)J Gene Recombination Involves Chromatin Alteration
    • B-Cell Receptor Expression
      • Each B Cell Synthesizes only one Heavy Chain and One Light Chain
      • Receptor Editing of Potentially Autoreactive Receptors Occurs in Light Chains
      • mRNA Splicing Regulates the Expression of Membrane-Bound versus Secreted Ig
    • T-Cell Receptor Genes and Their Expression
      • Understanding the Protein Structure of the TCR Was Critical to the Process of Discovering the Genes
      • The ß-Chain Gene Was Discovered Simultaneously in Two Different Laboratories
      • A Search for the a-Chain Gene Led to the ?-Chain Gene Instead
      • TCR Genes Are Arranged in V, D, and J Clusters of Gene Segments
      • Recombination of TCR Gene Segments Proceeds at a Different Rate and Occurs at Different Stages of Development in aß versus ?d T Cells
      • The Process of TCR Gene Segment Rearrangement Is Very Similar to Immunoglobulin Gene Recombination
      • TCR Expression Is Controlled by Allelic Exclusion
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 7: The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antigen Presentation
    • The Structure and Function of MHC Class I and II Molecules
      • Class I Molecules Consist of One Large Glycoprotein Heavy Chain Plus a Small Protein Light Chain
      • Class II Molecules Consist of Two Nonidentical Membrane-Bound Glycoprotein Chains
      • Class I and II Molecules Exhibit Polymorphism in the Region That Binds to Peptides
    • The Organization and Inheritance of MHC Genes
      • The MHC Locus Encodes the Three Major Classes of MHC Molecules
      • Allelic Forms of MHC Genes Are Inherited in Linked Groups Called Haplotypes
      • MHC Molecules Are Codominantly Expressed
      • Class I and Class II Molecules Exhibit Diversity at Both the Individual and Species Levels
      • MHC Polymorphism Is Primarily Limited to the Antigen-Binding Groove
    • The Role and Expression Pattern of MHC Molecules
      • MHC Molecules Present Both Intracellular and Extracellular Antigens
      • MHC Class I Expression Is Found Throughout the Body
      • Expression of MHC Class II Molecules Is Primarily Restricted to Antigen-Presenting Cells
      • MHC Expression Can Change with Changing Conditions
      • MHC Alleles Play a Critical Role in Immune Responsiveness
      • Seminal Studies Demonstrate That T Cells Recognize Peptide Presented in the Context of Self-MHC Alleles
      • Evidence Suggests Distinct Antigen Processing and Presentation Pathways
    • The Endogenous Pathway of Antigen Processing and Presentation
      • Peptides Are Generated by Protease Complexes Called Proteasomes
      • Peptides Are Transported from the Cytosol to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Chaperones Aid Peptide Assembly with MHC Class I Molecules
    • The Exogenous Pathway of Antigen Processing and Presentation
      • Peptides Are Generated from Internalized Antigens in Endocytic Vesicles
      • The Invariant Chain Guides Transport of MHC Class II Molecules to Endocytic Vesicles
      • Peptides Assemble with MHC Class II Molecules by Displacing CLIP
    • Unconventional Antigen Processing and Presentation
      • Dendritic Cells Can Cross-Present Exogenous Antigen via MHC Class I Molecules
      • Cross-Presentation by APCs Is Essential for the Activation of Naïve CD8+ T Cells
    • Presentation of Nonpeptide Antigens
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 8: T-Cell Development
    • Early Thymocyte Development
      • Thymocytes Progress through Four Double-Negative Stages
      • Thymocytes Express Either aß or ?d T Cell Receptors
      • DN Thymocytes Undergo ß-Selection, Which Results in Proliferation and Differentiation
    • Positive and Negative Selection
      • Thymocytes “Learn” MHC Restriction in the Thymus
      • T Cells Undergo Positive and Negative Selection
      • Positive Selection Ensures MHC Restriction
      • Negative Selection (Central Tolerance) Ensures Self-Tolerance
      • The Selection Paradox: Why Don’t We Delete All Cells We Positively Select?
      • An Alternative Model Can Explain the Thymic Selection Paradox
      • Do Positive and Negative Selection Occur at the Same Stage of Development, or in Sequence?
    • Lineage Commitment
      • Several Models Have Been Proposed to Explain Lineage Commitment
      • Transcription Factors Th-POK and Runx3 Regulate Lineage Commitment
      • Double-Positive Thymocytes May Commit to Other Types of Lymphocytes
    • Exit from the Thymus and Final Maturation
    • Other Mechanisms That Maintain Self-Tolerance
      • TREG Cells Negatively Regulate Immune Responses
      • Peripheral Mechanisms of Tolerance Also Protect against Autoreactive Thymocytes
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 9: B-Cell Development
    • B-Cell Development in the Bone Marrow
      • Changes in Cell-Surface Markers, Gene Expression, and Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements Define the Stages of B-Cell Development
      • The Earliest Steps in Lymphocyte Differentiation Culminate in the Generation of a Common Lymphoid Progenitor
      • The Later Stages of B-Cell Development Result in Commitment to the B-Cell Phenotype and the Stepwise Rearrangement of Immunoglobulin Genes
      • Immature B Cells in the Bone Marrow Are Exquisitely Sensitive to Tolerance Induction through the Elimination of Self-Reactive Cells
    • Completion of B-Cell Development in the Spleen
      • T1 and T2 Transitional B Cells Form in the Spleen and Undergo Selection for Survival and against Self-Reactivity
      • T2 B Cells Give Rise to Mature Follicular B-2 B Cells
      • T3 B Cells Are Primarily Self-Reactive and Anergic
    • The Properties and Development of B-1 and Marginal Zone B Cells
      • B-1a, B-1b, and MZ B Cells Differ Phenotypically and Functionally from B-2 B Cells
      • B-1a B Cells Are Derived from a Distinct Developmental Lineage
    • Comparison of B- and T-Cell Development
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 10: T-Cell Activation, Helper Subset Differentiation, and Memory
    • T-Cell Activation and the Two-Signal Hypothesis
      • TCR Signaling Provides Signal 1 and Sets the Stage for T-Cell Activation
      • Costimulatory Signals Are Required for Optimal T-Cell Activation Whereas Coinhibitory Signals Prevent T-Cell Activation
      • Clonal Anergy Results If a Costimulatory Signal Is Absent
      • Cytokines Provide Signal 3
      • Antigen-Presenting Cells Provide Costimulatory Ligands and Cytokines to Naïve T Cells
      • Superantigens Are a Special Class of T-Cell Activators
    • Helper CD4+ T-Cell Differentiation
      • Helper T Cells Can Be Divided into Distinct Subsets and Coordinate Type 1 and Type 2 Responses
      • The Differentiation of Helper T-Cell Subsets Is Regulated by Polarizing Cytokines
      • Each Effector Helper T-Cell Subset Has Unique Properties
      • Helper T Cells May Not Be Irrevocably Committed to a Lineage
      • Helper T-Cell Subsets Play Critical Roles in Immune Health and Disease
    • T-Cell Memory
      • Naïve, Effector, and Memory T Cells Can Be Distinguished by Differences in Surface Protein Expression
      • Memory Cell Subpopulations Are Distinguished by Their Locale and Effector Activity
      • Many Questions Remain Surrounding Memory T-Cell Origins and Functions
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 11: B-Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Memory Generation
    • T-Dependent B-Cell Responses: Activation
      • Naïve B Cells Encounter Antigen in the Lymph Nodes and Spleen
      • B-Cell Recognition of Cell-Bound Antigen Culminates in the Formation of an Immunological Synapse
      • Antigen Binding to the BCR Leads to Activation of a Signal Transduction Cascade within the B Cell
      • B Cells Also Receive and Propagate Signals through Coreceptors
      • B Cells Use More Than One Mechanism to Acquire Antigen from Antigen-Presenting Cells
      • Antigen Receptor Binding Induces Internalization and Antigen Presentation
      • The Early Phases of the T-Dependent Response Are Characterized by Chemokine-Directed B-Cell Migration
      • Specification of the Stimulated B-Cell Fate Depends on Transcription Factor Expression
    • T-Dependent B-Cell Responses: Differentiation and Memory Generation
      • Some Activated B Cells Differentiate into Plasma Cells That Form the Primary Focus
      • Other Activated B Cells Enter the Follicles and Initiate a Germinal Center Response
      • The Mechanisms of Somatic Hypermutation and Class Switch Recombination
      • Memory B Cells Recognizing T-Dependent Antigens Are Generated Both within and outside the Germinal Center
      • Most Newly Generated B Cells Are Lost at the End of the Primary Immune Response
    • T-Independent B-Cell Responses
      • T-Independent Antigens Stimulate Antibody Production in the Absence of T-Cell Help
      • Two Novel Subclasses of B Cells Mediate the Response to T-Independent Antigens
    • Negative Regulation of B Cells
      • Negative Signaling through CD22 Balances Positive BCR-Mediated Signaling
      • Negative Signaling through the Receptor Fc?RIIb Inhibits B-Cell Activation
      • CD5 Acts as a Negative Regulator of B-Cell Signaling
      • B-10 B Cells Act as Negative Regulators by Secreting IL-10
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 12: Effector Responses: Antibody- and Cell-Mediated Immunity
    • Antibody-Mediated Effector Functions
      • Antibodies Provide Protection against Pathogens, Toxins, and Harmful Cells in a Variety of Ways
      • Different Antibody Classes Mediate Different Effector Functions
      • Fc Receptors Mediate Many Effector Functions of Antibodies
      • Protective Effector Functions Vary among Antibody Classes
      • Antibodies Have Many Therapeutic Uses in Treating Diseases
    • Cell-Mediated Effector Responses
      • Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Recognize and Kill Infected or Tumor Cells via T-Cell Receptor Activation
      • Natural Killer Cell Activity Depends on the Balance of Activating and Inhibitory Signals
      • NKT Cells Bridge the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 13: Barrier Immunity: The Immunology of Mucosa and Skin
    • Common Themes in Barrier Immune Systems
      • All Barrier Surfaces Are Lined by One or More Layers of Epithelial Cells
      • Barrier Organs Are Populated by Innate and Adaptive Immune Cells That Interact with Epithelium and Secondary Lymphoid Tissue
      • Barrier Immune Systems Initiate Both Tolerogenic and Inflammatory Responses to Microorganisms
    • Intestinal Immunity
      • The Gut Is Organized into Different Anatomical Sections and Tissue Layers
      • Gut Epithelial Cells Vary in Phenotype and Function
    • Setting the Stage: Maintaining Immune Homeostasis in the Intestine
      • The Gut Immune System Maintains a Barrier between the Microbiome and the Epithelium
      • Antigen Is Delivered from the Intestinal Lumen to Antigen-Presenting Cells in Multiple Ways
      • Immune Homeostasis in the Intestine Is Promoted by Several Innate and Adaptive Cell Types
      • The Immune Systems in the Small and Large Intestines Differ
      • Commensal Microbes Help Maintain Tolerogenic Tone in the Intestine
    • Springing into Action: Intestinal Immune System Response to Invasion
      • The Gut Immune System Recognizes and Responds to Harmful Pathogens
      • The Intestinal Immune System Can Mount Both Type 1 and Type 2 Responses
    • Dysbiosis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Celiac Disease
    • Other Barrier Immune Systems
      • The Respiratory Immune System Shares Many Features with the Intestinal Immune System
      • The Skin Is a Unique Barrier Immune System
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 14: The Adaptive Immune Response in Space and Time
    • Immune Cells in Healthy Tissue: Homeostasis
      • Naïve Lymphocytes Circulate between Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues
      • Extravasation Is Driven by Sequential Activation of Surface Molecules
      • Naïve Lymphocytes Browse for Antigen along the Reticular Network of Secondary Lymphoid Organs
    • Immune Cell Response to Antigen: The Innate Immune Response
      • Innate Immune Cells Are Activated by Antigen Binding to Pattern Recognition Receptors
      • Antigen Travels in Two Different Forms to Secondary Lymphoid Tissue via Afferent Lymphatics
      • Antigen-Presenting Cells Presenting Processed Antigen Travel to the T-Cell Zones of Secondary Lymphoid Tissue
      • Unprocessed Antigen Travels to the B-Cell Zones
      • Blood-Borne Antigen Is Captured by Specialized APCs at the Marginal Zone of the Spleen
    • First Contact between Antigen and Lymphocytes
      • Naïve CD4+ T Cells Arrest Their Movements after Engaging Antigens
      • B Cells Seek Help from CD4+ T Cells at the Border between the Follicle and Paracortex of the Lymph Node
      • Dynamic Imaging Adds New Perspectives on B- and T-Cell Behavior in Germinal Centers
      • CD8+ T Cells Are Activated in the Lymph Node via a Multicellular Interaction
      • A Summary of the Timing of a Primary Response
      • Differentiation into Central Memory T Cells Begins Early in the Primary Response
      • The Immune Response Contracts within 10 to 14 Days
    • The Effector and Memory Cell Response
      • Activated Lymphocytes Exit the Lymph Node and Recirculate through Various Tissues
      • Chemokine Receptors and Adhesion Molecules Regulate Homing of Memory and Effector Lymphocytes to Peripheral Tissues
    • The Immune Response: Case Studies
      • CD8+ T-Cell Response to Infection with Toxoplasma gondii
      • Resident Memory T-Cell Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
      • Host Immune Cell Response to a Tissue Graft
      • Dendritic Cell Contribution to Listeria Infection
      • T-Cell Response to Tumors
      • Regulatory T Cells Inhibit the Immune Response in Multiple Ways
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 15: Allergy, Hypersensitivities, and Chronic Inflammation
    • Allergies: Type I Hypersensitivity
      • IgE Antibodies Are Responsible for Type I Hypersensitivity
      • Many Allergens Can Elicit a Type I Response
      • IgE Antibodies Act by Binding Antigen, Resulting in the Cross-Linking of Fce Receptors
      • IgE Receptor Signaling Is Tightly Regulated
      • Granulocytes Produce Molecules Responsible for Type I Hypersensitivity Symptoms
      • Type I Hypersensitivities Are Characterized by Both Early and Late Responses
      • There Are Several Categories of Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions
      • Susceptibility to Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions Is Influenced by Both Environmental Factors and Genetics
      • Diagnostic Tests and Treatments Are Available for Allergic Reactions
      • Why Did Allergic Responses Evolve?
    • Antibody-Mediated (Type II) Hypersensitivity
      • Transfusion Reactions Are an Example of Type II Hypersensitivity
      • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Is Caused by Type II Reactions
      • Hemolytic Anemia Can Be Drug Induced
    • Immune Complex–Mediated (Type III) Hypersensitivity
      • Immune Complexes Can Damage Various Tissues
      • Immune Complex–Mediated Hypersensitivity Can Resolve Spontaneously
      • Auto-Antigens Can Be Involved in Immune Complex–Mediated Reactions
      • Arthus Reactions Are Localized Type III Hypersensitivity Reactions
    • Delayed-Type (Type IV) Hypersensitivity
      • The Initiation of a Type IV DTH Response Involves Sensitization by Antigen
      • The Effector Phase of a Classical DTH Response Is Induced by Second Exposure to a Sensitizing Antigen
      • The DTH Reaction Can Be Detected by a Skin Test
      • Contact Dermatitis Is a Type IV Hypersensitivity Response
    • Chronic Inflammation
      • Infections Can Cause Chronic Inflammation
      • There Are Noninfectious Causes of Chronic Inflammation
      • Obesity Is Associated with Chronic Inflammation
      • Chronic Inflammation Can Cause Systemic Disease
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 16: Tolerance, Autoimmunity, and Transplantation
    • Establishment and Maintenance of Tolerance
      • Antigen Sequestration, or Evasion, Is One Means to Protect Self Antigens from Attack
      • Central Tolerance Processes Occur in Primary Lymphoid Organs
      • Cells That Mediate Peripheral Tolerance Are Generated Outside Primary Lymphoid Organs
      • Multiple Immune Cell Types Work in the Periphery to Inhibit Anti-Self Responses
    • Autoimmunity
      • Some Autoimmune Diseases Target Specific Organs
      • Some Autoimmune Diseases Are Systemic
      • Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Can Favor Susceptibility to Autoimmune Disease
      • What Causes Autoimmunity?
      • Treatments for Autoimmune Disease Range from General Immune Suppression to Targeted Immunotherapy
    • Transplantation Immunology
      • Demand for Transplants Is High, but Organ Supplies Remain Low
      • Antigenic Similarity between Donor and Recipient Improves Transplant Success
      • Some Organs Are More Amenable to Transplantation Than Others
      • Matching Donor and Recipient Involves Prior Assessment of Histocompatibility
      • Allograft Rejection Follows the Rules of Immune Specificity and Memory
      • Graft Rejection Takes a Predictable Clinical Course
      • Immunosuppressive Therapy Can Be Either General or Target-Specific
      • Immune Tolerance to Allografts Is Favored in Certain Instances
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 17: Infectious Diseases and Vaccines
    • The Importance of Barriers and Vectors in Infectious Disease
    • The Link between Location and Immune Effector Mechanism
      • Mucosal or Barrier Infections Are Typically Controlled by TH2-Type Responses
      • Extracellular Pathogens Must Be Recognized and Attacked Using Extracellular Tools
      • Mechanisms That Recognize Infected Host Cells Are Required to Combat Intracellular Infections
    • Viral Infections
      • The Antiviral Innate Response Provides Key Instructions for the Later Adaptive Response
      • Many Viruses Are Neutralized by Antibodies
      • Cell-Mediated Immunity is Important for Viral Control and Clearance
      • Viruses Employ Several Strategies to Evade Host Defense Mechanisms
      • The Imprinting of a Memory Response Can Influence Susceptibility to Future Viral Infection
    • Bacterial Infections
      • Immune Responses to Extracellular and Intracellular Bacteria Differ
      • Bacteria Can Evade Host Defense Mechanisms at Several Different Stages
    • Parasitic Infections
      • Protozoan Parasites Are a Diverse Set of Unicellular Eukaryotes
      • Parasitic Worms (Helminths) Typically Generate Weak Immune Responses
    • Fungal Infections
      • Innate Immunity Controls Most Fungal Infections
      • Immunity against Fungal Pathogens Can Be Acquired
    • Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
      • Some Noteworthy New Infectious Diseases Have Appeared Recently
      • Diseases May Re-emerge for Various Reasons
    • Vaccines
      • Basic Research and Rational Design Advance Vaccine Development
      • Protective Immunity Can Be Achieved by Active or Passive Immunization
      • There Are Several Vaccine Strategies, Each with Unique Advantages and Challenges
      • Adding a Conjugate or Multivalent Component Can Improve Vaccine Immunogenicity
      • Adjuvants Are Included to Enhance the Immune Response to a Vaccine
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 18: Immunodeficiency Diseases
    • Primary Immunodeficiencies
      • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Are Often Detected Early in Life
      • Combined Immunodeficiencies Disrupt Adaptive Immunity
      • B-Cell Immunodeficiencies Exhibit Depressed Production of One or More Antibody Isotypes
      • Disruptions to Innate Immune Components May Also Impact Adaptive Responses
      • Complement Deficiencies Are Relatively Common
      • NK-Cell Deficiencies Increase Susceptibility to Viral Infections and Cancer
      • Immunodeficiency Disorders That Disrupt Immune Regulation Can Manifest as Autoimmunity
      • Immunodeficiency Disorders Are Treated by Replacement Therapy
      • Animal Models of Immunodeficiency Have Been Used to Study Basic Immune Function
    • Secondary Immunodeficiencies
      • Secondary Immunodeficiencies May Be Caused by a Variety of Factors
      • HIV/AIDS Has Claimed Millions of Lives Worldwide
      • The Retrovirus HIV-1 Is the Causative Agent of AIDS
      • HIV-1 is Spread by Intimate Contact with Infected Body Fluids
      • In Vitro Studies Have Revealed the Structure and Life Cycle of HIV
      • HIV Variants with Preference for CCR5 or CXCR4 Coreceptors Play Different Roles in Infection
      • Infection with HIV Leads to Gradual Impairment of Immune Function
      • Changes over Time Lead to Progression to AIDS
      • Antiretroviral Therapy Inhibits HIV Replication, Disease Progression, and Infection of Others
      • A Vaccine May Be the Only Way to Stop the HIV/AIDS Pandemic
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 19: Cancer and the Immune System
    • Terminology and the Formation of Cancer
      • Accumulated DNA Alterations or Translocation Can Induce Cancer
      • Genes Associated with Cancer Control Cell Proliferation and Survival
      • Malignant Transformation Involves Multiple Steps
    • Tumor Antigens
      • Tumor-Specific Antigens Contain Unique Sequences
      • Tumor-Associated Antigens Are Normal Cellular Proteins with Unique Expression Patterns
    • The Immune Response to Cancer
      • Immunoediting Can Both Protect Against and Promote Tumor Growth
      • Innate and Adaptive Pathways Participate in Cancer Detection and Eradication
      • Some Immune Response Elements Can Promote Cancer Survival
      • Tumor Cells Evolve to Evade Immune Recognition and Apoptosis
    • Anticancer Immunotherapies
      • Monoclonal Antibodies Can Be Used to Direct the Immune Response to Tumor Cells
      • Tumor-Specific T Cells Can Be Expanded, or Even Created
      • Therapeutic Vaccines May Enhance the Antitumor Immune Response
      • Manipulation of Comodulatory Signals, Using Checkpoint Blockade
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Chapter 20: Experimental Systems and Methods
    • Antibody Generation
      • Polyclonal Antibodies Are Secreted by Multiple Clones of Antigen-Specific B Cells
      • A Monoclonal Antibody Is the Product of a Single Stimulated B Cell
      • Monoclonal Antibodies Can Be Modified for Use in the Laboratory or the Clinic
    • Immunoprecipitation- and Agglutination-Based Techniques
      • Immunoprecipitation Can Be Performed in Solution
      • Immunoprecipitation of Soluble Antigens Can Be Performed in Gel Matrices
      • Immunoprecipitation Enables Isolation of Specific Molecules from Cell and Tissue Extracts
      • Hemagglutination Reactions Can Be Used to Detect Any Antigen Conjugated to the Surface of Red Blood Cells
      • Hemagglutination Inhibition Reactions Are Used to Detect the Presence of Viruses and of Antiviral Antibodies
      • Bacterial Agglutination Can Be Used to Detect Antibodies to Bacteria
    • Antibody Assays Based on Molecules Bound to Solid-Phase Supports
      • Radioimmunoassays Are Used to Measure the Concentrations of Biologically Relevant Proteins and Hormones in Body Fluids
      • ELISAs Use Antibodies or Antigens Covalently Bound to Enzymes
      • ELISPOT Assays Measure Molecules Secreted by Individual Cells
      • Western Blotting Is an Assay That Can Identify a Specific Protein in a Complex Protein Mixture
    • Methods to Determine the Affinity of Antigen-Antibody Interactions
      • Equilibrium Dialysis Can Be Used to Measure Antibody Affinity for Antigen
      • Surface Plasmon Resonance Is Now Commonly Used for Measurements of Antibody Affinity
    • Antibody-Mediated Microscopic Visualization of Cells and Subcellular Structures
      • Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry Use Enzyme-Conjugated Antibodies to Create Images of Fixed Tissues
      • Immunoelectron Microscopy Uses Gold Beads to Visualize Antibody-Bound Antigens
    • Immunofluorescence-Based Imaging Techniques
      • Fluorescence Can Be Used to Visualize Cells and Molecules
      • Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Provides Three-Dimensional Images of Extraordinary Clarity
      • Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy Is a Variation of Confocal Microscopy
      • Intravital Imaging Allows Observation of Immune Responses in Vivo
      • Visualization and Analysis of DNA Sequences in Intact Chromatin
    • Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting
      • The Flow Cytometer Measures Scattered and Fluorescent Light from Cells Flowing Past a Laser Beam
      • Sophisticated Software Allows the Investigator to Identify Individual Cell Populations within a Sample
      • Flow Cytometers and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorters Have Important Clinical Applications
      • The Analysis of Multicolor Fluorescence Data Has Required the Development of Increasingly Sophisticated Software
      • CyTOF Uses Antibodies to Harness the Power of Mass Spectrometry
      • Magnets Can Be Used in a Gentle, Sterile Method for Sorting Cells
    • Cell Cycle Analysis
      • Tritiated Thymidine Uptake Was One of the First Methods Used to Assess Cell Division
      • Colorimetric Assays for Cell Division Are Rapid and Eliminate the Use of Radioactive Isotopes
      • Bromodeoxyuridine-Based Assays for Cell Division Use Antibodies to Detect Newly Synthesized DNA
      • Propidium Iodide Enables Analysis of the Cell Cycle Status of Cell Populations
      • Carboxyfluorescein Succinimidyl Ester Can Be Used to Follow Cell Division
    • Assays of Cell Death
      • The 51Cr Release Assay Was the First Assay Used to Measure Cell Death
      • Fluorescently Labeled Annexin A5 Measures Phosphatidylserine in the Outer Lipid Envelope of Apoptotic Cells
      • The TUNEL Assay Measures Apoptotically Generated DNA Fragmentation
      • Caspase Assays Measure the Activity of Enzymes Involved in Apoptosis
    • Analysis of Chromatin Structure
      • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Experiments Characterize Protein-DNA Interactions
      • Chromosome Conformation Capture Technologies Analyze Long-Range Chromosomal DNA Interactions
    • CRISPR-Cas9
    • Whole-Animal Experimental Systems
      • Animal Research Is Subject to Federal Guidelines That Protect Nonhuman Research Species
      • Inbred Strains Reduce Experimental Variation
      • Congenic Strains Are Used to Study the Effects of Particular Gene Loci on Immune Responses
      • Adoptive Transfer Experiments Allow in Vivo Examination of Isolated Cell Populations
      • Transgenic Animals Carry Genes That Have Been Artificially Introduced
      • Knock-in and Knockout Technologies Replace an Endogenous with a Nonfunctional or Engineered Gene Copy
      • The Cre/lox System Enables Inducible Gene Deletion in Selected Tissues
    • References
    • Study Questions
  • Appendix I: CD Antigens
  • Appendix II: Cytokines and Associated JAK-STAT Signaling Molecules
  • Appendix III: Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors
  • Glossary
  • Answers to Study Questions
  • Index

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Vörumerki: Macmillan
Vörunúmer: 9781319188535
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Kuby Immunology

Vörumerki: Macmillan
Vörunúmer: 9781319188535
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