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International Business, European Edition

Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 978EUDTE00324
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International Business, European Edition

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  • Front Matter
    • ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    • PREFACE
      • INTRODUCTION
      • TOPIC COVERAGE AND ORGANIZATION
      • DISTINGUISHING PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES
        • Contemporary Realism
        • Chapter Summary and Review Questions
        • Internet Exercises
        • Take a Stand
      • COMPREHENSIVE LEARNING PACKAGE
      • INSTRUCTOR COMPANION WEB SITE
        • Instructor’s Manual
        • Test Bank
        • PowerPoint Lecture Presentations
        • Student Companion web site
      • GLOBAL MARKET POTENTIAL SYSTEM ONLINE (GMPSO ©) http://www.gmpso2.com
        • Available for use with Czinkota’s International Business
          • How does GMPSO Work?
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      • EUROPEAN EDITION AUTHORS’ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • PART 1 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
    • CHAPTER 1 The Nature of International Business
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • GLOBALIZATION: OPPORTUNITY OR THREAT?
      • GLOBALIZATION: MAKE YOUR CHOICE
      • A THEORETICAL VIEWPOINT
        • Unbundling Globalization
          • Individuals Not Firms, Sectors or Skill Groups
        • The Need for International Business
        • A Definition of International Business
          • GLOBALIZATION: Globalization and Consumption: African Perspective
        • A Brief History
          • Figure 1.1: Growth of world output and trade, 1998–2007.
        • Global Links Today
          • Table 1.1: The top 25 nonfinancial transnational corporations from developing economies, ranked by foreign assets (millions of dollars and number of employees).
          • Table 1.2: The global components of a Big Mac in the Ukraine.
      • EAT LOCALLY, SPEND GLOBALLY
        • POLITICS: Consumers Get Political (1)
        • POLITICS: Consumers Get Political (2)
        • The Structure of the Book
          • ETHICS: Students Against Sweatshops
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISE
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 2 Theory of Trade and Investment
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • GLOBAL OUTSOURCING: COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE TODAY
        • Table 2.1: Examples of global outsourcing of comparative advantage in intellectual skills.
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE AGE OF MERCANTILISM
      • CLASSICAL TRADE THEORY
        • The Theory of Absolute Advantage
          • Figure 2.1: The evolution of trade theory.
        • The Theory of Comparative Advantage
        • A Numerical Example of Classical Trade
          • Table 2.2: Absolute advantage and comparative advantagea.
        • National Production Possibilities
          • Figure 2.2: Production possibility frontiers, specialization of production and the benefits of trade.
          • ETHICS: Over- and Under-Invoicing
        • The Gains from International Trade
        • Concluding Points about Classical Trade Theory
      • FACTOR PROPORTIONS TRADE THEORY
        • Factor Intensity in Production
          • Figure 2.3: Factor proportions in production.
        • Factor Endowments, Factor Prices and Comparative Advantage
        • Assumptions of the Factor Proportions Theory
        • The Leontief Paradox
        • Linder’s Overlapping Product Ranges Theory
      • INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AND PRODUCT CYCLE THEORY
        • The Stages of the Product Cycle
          • POLITICS: When the Numbers Don’t Add Up
        • Trade Implications of the Product Cycle
          • Figure 2.4: Trade patterns and product cycle theory.
      • THE NEW TRADE THEORY: STRATEGIC TRADE
        • Economies of Scale and Imperfect Competition
          • Internal Economies of Scale
          • External Economies of Scale
        • Strategic Trade
          • Price
          • Cost
          • Repetition
          • Externalities
        • The Competitive Advantage of Nations
          • Figure 2.5: Determinants of national competitive advantage: Porter’s diamond.
          • Clusters and the New Economics
      • THE THEORY OF INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT
        • The Foreign Direct Investment Decision
          • Figure 2.6: The foreign direct investment decision sequence.
        • The Theory of Foreign Direct Investment
        • Firms as Seekers
        • Firms as Exploiters of Imperfections
        • Firms as Internalizers
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 3 Culture
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • IS THERE A EUROPEAN IDENTITY?
      • INTRODUCTION
      • CULTURE DEFINED
        • POLITICS: Protecting Mozzarella
      • THE ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
        • Table 3.1: Elements of culture.
        • Language
          • Figure 3.1: Example of an advert that transferred poorly.
        • Nonverbal Language
        • Religion
        • Values and Attitudes
          • Table 3.2: Effect of value differences on management practice.
        • Manners and Customs
          • Table 3.3: When and what to give as gifts.
        • Material Elements
        • Aesthetics
        • Education
        • Social Institutions
          • Figure 3.2: Different interpretation of the ‘@’ symbol.
          • CULTURE: National Culture – Culture in Russia
      • SOURCES OF CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE
        • Table 3.4: Types of international information.
        • Table 3.5: Managers’ ranking of factors involved in acquiring international expertise.
        • Figure 3.3: An example of culture consulting.
      • CULTURAL ANALYSIS
        • Figure 3.4: A model of cross-cultural behaviour.
        • Figure 3.5: Culture dimension scores for twelve countries (0 = low; 100 = high).
        • Table 3.6: Culture-based segmentation.
      • THE TRAINING CHALLENGE
        • Figure 3.6: Cross-cultural training methods.
        • E-BUSINESS: Online Cultural Training
      • MAKING CULTURE WORK FOR BUSINESS SUCCESS
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 4 Political and Legal Environment
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • CORRUPTION, GUNS AND TERRORISM
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE HOME-COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE
        • LAW: Ensuring Protection of US Exports in the European Union
        • LAW: European Union Product Warranty Directive
        • Embargoes and Sanctions
        • Export Controls
          • POLITICS: The EU Code of Conduct Fails to Prevent French Helicopters Being Produced Under Licence in India and Transferred to Nepal
          • A New Environment for Export Controls
            • POLITICS:Iran’s Nuclear Aspirations
        • Regulating International Business Behaviour
          • POLITICS: Iran’s Boycott of Danish Goods
      • HOST COUNTRY POLITICAL AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
        • Political Action and Risk
          • FIGURE 4.1: Exposure to political risk.
        • Economic Risk
        • Managing the Risk
        • Legal Differences and Restraints
        • The Influencing of Politics and Laws
      • INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND LAWS
        • International Politics
        • International Law
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISE
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
  • PART 2 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND MARKETS
    • CHAPTER 5 Financial Markets
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • CURRENCIES AND THE FEAR OF FLOATING
      • THE MARKET FOR CURRENCIES
        • Exchange Rate Quotations and Terminology
        • Direct and Indirect Quotations
          • Figure 5.1: Exchange rate and cross rate tables.
        • Cross Rates
        • Percentage Change Calculations
          • FIGURE 5.2: Guide to world currencies.
        • Foreign Currency Market Structure
          • FIGURE 5.3: Global currency trading: the trading day.
          • Table 5.1: Typical foreign currency quotations on a Reuters screen.
        • Market Size and Composition
          • FIGURE 5.4: Global foreign exchange market turnover (daily averages in April, billions of US dollars).
          • E-BUSINESS: Online Global Currency Exchange
          • CULTURE: The Linguistics of Currency Trading
      • THE PURPOSE OF EXCHANGE RATES
        • What Is a Currency Worth?
        • The Law of One Price
      • MONETARY SYSTEMS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
        • Table 5.2: The hamburger standard.
        • The Gold Standard
        • The Inter-war Years, 1919–1939
        • The Bretton Woods Agreement, 1944–1971
        • Times of Crisis, 1971–1973
        • Floating Exchange Rates, 1973–Present
      • THE EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM AND THE EURO
        • The Maastricht Treaty and the Euro
          • ‘Why’ Monetary Unification?
          • Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy
          • Fixing the Value of the Euro
            • Table 5.3: The fixing of the exchange rates to the euro (€).
            • Figure 5.5: Monthly average exchange rates: US dollars per euro.
            • Figure 5.6: US dollar to euro currency exchange rate: past trend, present value and a prophetic future projection.
            • POLITICS: Sweden Says ‘No’ to the Euro
      • INTERNATIONAL MONEY MARKETS
        • Eurocurrency Markets
        • Eurocurrency Interest Rates
          • Table 5.4: Exchange rates and Eurocurrency interest rates.
        • Linking Eurocurrency Interest Rates and Exchange Rates
      • INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MARKETS
        • Defining International Financing
          • Figure 5.7: Categorizing international financial transactions: issuing bonds in London.
      • INTERNATIONAL BANKING AND BANK LENDING
        • Structure of International Banking
      • INTERNATIONAL SECURITY MARKETS
        • The International Bond Market
        • International Equity Markets
          • CULTURE: Equity Market Crises in the Twentieth Century
        • Private Placements
        • Gaining Access to International Financial Markets
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 6 Economic Integration
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • BUILDING BLOCS TOWARD WORLDWIDE FREE TRADE
      • INTRODUCTION
      • LEVELS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
        • Table 6.1: Forms of international economic integration.
        • The Free Trade Area
        • The Customs Union
        • The Common Market
        • The Economic Union
      • ARGUMENTS SURROUNDING ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
        • Trade Creation and Trade Diversion
        • Reduced Import Prices
        • Increased Competition and Economies of Scale
        • Higher Factor Productivity
        • Regionalism versus Nationalism
      • EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
        • Economic Integration in Europe from 1948 to the Mid-1980s
          • POLITICS: Integration Pains
          • Table 6.2: Membership of the European Union.
          • Table 6.3: Main provisions of the Treaty of Rome.
        • The European Union since the Mid-1980s
          • POLITICS
        • Organization of the EU
          • Figure 6.1: Organization and decision making of the EU.
        • Implications of the Integrated European Market
          • Table 6.4: Proposed company responses to European markets.
      • NORTH AMERICAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
        • US–Canada Free Trade Agreement
        • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
          • RETAIL: Reshaping the World Retail Market
          • Latest Developments and Future Prospects for NAFTA
      • OTHER ECONOMIC ALLIANCES
        • Integration in Latin America
        • Integration in Asia
          • POLITICS: In Support of Free Trade in Asia
        • Integration in Africa
      • ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AND THE INTERNATIONAL MANAGER
        • Effects of Change
        • Strategic Planning
        • Reorganization
        • Lobbying
      • CARTELS AND COMMODITY PRICE AGREEMENTS
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 7 The Challenge of Emerging Markets
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • HIGH-TECH TEACHING IN CHINA
      • INTRODUCTION
      • DOING BUSINESS WITH CHANGING ECONOMIES
        • COMPETITION: From Global Partners to Global Competitors
        • Figure 7.1: The world economic pyramid.
        • INVESTMENT: R&D Investment: Pathway to Growth
        • A Brief Overview of Transition Economies
          • Table 7.1: Population of changing economies.
        • A Brief Overview of Emerging Economies
          • Table 7.2: Human capital of India and China.
        • A Brief Overview of Lesser-Developed Economies
        • The Realities of Economic Change
      • ADJUSTING TO GLOBAL CHANGE
        • Figure 7.2: Average annual growth rates in hourly compensation costs, 1994–2004.
        • Figure 7.3: Manufacturing (value added) as a percentage of GDP.
        • International Business Challenges and Opportunities
          • Table 7.3: Business climates in key economies.
      • STATE ENTERPRISES AND PRIVATIZATION
        • Reasons for State-Owned Enterprises
        • The Effect of State-Owned Enterprises on International Business
        • Privatization
          • Figure 7.4: Trends in global privatization.
          • POLITICS: ‘For Sale’ Signs Up in Russia
        • The Less-Developed Markets35
      • THE ROLE OF THE MULTINATIONAL FIRM
        • ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Meeting Need and Opportunity in Developing Markets
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
  • PART 3 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGY
    • CHAPTER 8 Entry and Expansion
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • EXPANDING A BUSINESS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT
      • MOTIVATIONS TO GO ABROAD
        • Table 8.1: Major motivations to firms.
        • Proactive Motivations
        • Reactive Motivations
          • ENTREPRENEURSHIP: An International Bug
      • STRATEGIC EFFECTS OF GOING INTERNATIONAL
        • Figure 8.1: Profit and risk during early internationalization.
      • ENTRY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
        • Exporting and Importing
          • Figure 8.2: Evolution of a manufacturer’s decision on entry mode.
      • INTERNATIONAL INTERMEDIARIES
        • Export Management Companies
          • Compensation of EMCs
          • Power Conflicts between EMCs and Clients
        • Trading Companies
          • Expansion of Trading Companies
        • Private Sector Facilitators
        • Public Sector Facilitators
          • Table 8.2: Selected export promotion agencies around the globe.
        • Licensing
          • CULTURE: TV Programme Licences Are International
        • Franchising
      • LOCAL PRESENCE
        • Inter-firm Co-operation
          • Reasons for Inter-firm Co-operation
            • Figure 8.3: Complementary strengths create value.
          • Types of Inter-firm Co-operation
            • Figure 8.4: Forms of inter-firm co-operation.
        • Equity Participation
        • Joint Ventures
          • Consortia
        • Managerial Considerations
        • Full Ownership
          • Table 8.3: Comparison of conditions of implementation, advantages and disadvantages of various entry modes.
      • A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION
        • Figure 8.5: A comprehensive model of international market entry and development.
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 9 Strategic Planning, Organization, Implementation and Control
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF GLOBAL MARKETS
      • GLOBALIZATION
        • Figure 9.1: Evolution of global strategy.
        • Globalization Drivers3
          • Market Factors
          • Cost Factors
            • Table 9.1: Consolidation in the paper industry 1998–2002.
          • Environmental Factors
          • Competitive Factors
          • The Outcome
            • ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Mininationals Leap into Global Markets
            • Figure 9.2: The global landscape by industry and market.
      • THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS
        • Understanding and Adjusting the Core Strategy
          • Figure 9.3: Global strategy formulation.
          • Market and Competitive Analysis
          • Internal Analysis
        • Formulating Global Marketing Strategy
          • Choice of Competitive Strategy
            • Figure 9.4: Competitive strategies.
          • Country-Market Choice
            • Figure 9.5: Example of a market-portfolio matrix.
            • Figure 9.6: Example of strategic interconnectedness matrix.
          • Segmentation
            • Figure 9.7: Bases for global market segmentation.
            • Table 9.2: Global segments based on cultural values.
        • Global Programme Development
          • Product Offering
          • Marketing Approach
          • Location of Value-Added Activities
            • Table 9.3: Globalization of the marketing mix.
          • Competitive Moves
        • Implementing Global Programmes
          • Challenges
        • Localizing Global Moves
          • Management Processes
          • Organization Structures
            • E-BUSINESS: Taking Globalism to the Extremes
          • Corporate Culture
      • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
        • Organizational Designs
          • Little or No Formal Organization
            • Figure 9.8: The export department structure.
          • The International Division
            • Figure 9.9: The international division structure.
          • Global Organizational Structures
        • Product Structure
          • Figure 9.10: The global product structure (Kodak).
        • Area Structure
          • Figure 9.11: The global area structure.
        • Functional Structure
          • Figure 9.12: The global functional structure.
        • Customer Structure
        • Mixed Structure
          • Figure 9.13: Global matrix structure (S&M stands for Sales and Marketing).
        • Matrix Structure
        • Evolution of Organizational Structures
          • Figure 9.14: Evolution of international structures.
      • IMPLEMENTATION
        • Locus of Decision Making
          • Table 9.4: Levels of co-ordination.
        • Factors Affecting Structure and Decision Making
        • The Networked Global Organization
          • Figure 9.15: The networked global organization.
          • ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Centres of Excellence
        • Promoting Internal Co-operation
          • Table 9.5: Teaching programmes at Ford Motor Co.
        • The Role of Country Organizations
          • Figure 9.16: Roles for country organizations.
      • CONTROLS
        • Types of Controls
          • E-BUSINESS: Knowledge across Boundaries
          • Bureaucratic/Formalized Control
            • Table 9.6: Comparison of bureaucratic and cultural control mechanisms.
          • Cultural Control
            • Figure 9.17: Securing country–organization co-operation.
        • Exercising Controls
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND – STRATEGY
      • FOR DISCUSSION
      • TAKE A STAND – ORGANIZATION
      • FOR DISCUSSION
  • PART 4 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS
    • CHAPTER 10 Marketing, Logistics and Supply-Chain Management
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • BEING A GOOD SPORT GLOBALLY
      • MARKETING IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS
      • TARGET MARKET SELECTION
        • Identification and Screening
          • Preliminary Screening
            • Figure 10.1: The screening process in target market choice.
          • Estimating Market Potential
          • Estimating Sales Potential
          • Identifying Segments
        • Concentration versus Diversification
          • Expansion Alternatives
          • Factors Affecting Expansion Strategy
          • Market-Related Factors
            • Table 10.1: Factors affecting the choice between concentration and diversification strategies.
          • Mix-Related Factors
          • Company-Related Factors
      • MARKETING MANAGEMENT
        • Standardization versus Adaptation
          • Table 10.2: Standardization versus adaptation.
          • Factors Affecting Adaptation
        • Marketing Mix Policy
          • Product Policy
            • Figure 10.2: Factors affecting product adaptation decisions.
          • Pricing Policy
            • LOGISTICS: Export Documentation
            • LOGISTICS: Terms of Shipment and Sale
          • Distribution Policy
          • Promotional Policy
            • LOGISTICS: Distribution and Supply-Chain Management – Logistics in China
            • LOGISTICS: Ocean Shipping
            • LOGISTICS: Air Shipping
      • INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS DEFINED
      • SUPPLY-CHAIN MANAGEMENT
        • Figure 10.3: The international supply chain.
      • DIMENSIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS
        • International Transportation Issues
          • Table 10.3: Evaluating transportation options.
        • International Inventory Issues
      • INTERNATIONAL PACKAGING ISSUES
        • Figure 10.4: Stresses in intermodal movement.
      • INTERNATIONAL STORAGE ISSUES
        • Special Trade Zones
      • MANAGEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS
        • Centralized Logistics Management
        • Decentralized Logistics Management
        • Outsourcing Logistics Services
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • TAKE A STAND (1)
      • FOR DISCUSSION
      • TAKE A STAND (2)
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 11 Financial Management
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • THE FINANCIAL CHALLENGES OF SCHERING-PLOUGH
      • INTRODUCTION
      • WHAT IS THE GOAL OF MANAGEMENT?
        • Global Financial Goals
          • ETHICS Stockholder Wealth Maximization and Corporate Culture: The Enron Debacle
        • Genus Corporation
          • Tax Management
            • Figure 11.1: Genus corporation and foreign subsidiaries.
          • Currency Management
          • Funds Flow Management
        • Multinational Management
          • Table 11.1: Genus corporation’s consolidated gross profits (in 000s).
      • IMPORT/EXPORT TRADE FINANCING
        • Figure 11.2: Trade financing with a letter of credit.
        • Trade Financing Using a Letter of Credit (L/C)
      • MULTINATIONAL INVESTING
        • Capital Budget Components and Decision Criteria
        • A Proposed Project Evaluation
          • Table 11.2: Multinational capital budget: Singapore manufacturing facility.
        • Risks in International Investments
      • INTERNATIONAL CASH FLOW MANAGEMENT
        • Figure 11.3: Operating and financing cash flows of a multinational firm.
        • Operating Cash Flows and Financing Cash Flows
        • Intra-firm Cash Flows and Transfer Prices
          • POLITICS Swiss Unit Pays Penalty for Transfer Pricing Abuse
        • Cash Management
          • Figure 11.4: Netting and cash pooling of cash flows in the multinational firm.
          • Netting
          • Cash Pooling
          • Leads and Lags
            • Figure 11.5: Establishing a re-invoicing centre in the multinational firm.
          • Re-Invoicing
          • Internal Banks
      • FOREIGN EXCHANGE EXPOSURE
        • Transaction Exposure
          • CULTURE To Hedge or Not to Hedge?
        • Transaction Exposure Management
          • ETHICS The Role of Currency Gains in Amazon.com’s Quest for Profits
        • Risk Management versus Speculation
        • Currency Risk Sharing
      • ECONOMIC EXPOSURE
        • Impact of Economic Exposure
        • Economic Exposure Management
      • COUNTERTRADE
        • POLITICS The Booming Business of Countertrade
        • A Definition of Countertrade
          • Table 11.3: A sample of barter agreements.
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
    • CHAPTER 12 Human Resource Management1
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • SEARCHING FOR GLOBAL EXECS
      • INTRODUCTION
      • MANAGING MANAGERS
        • Early Stages of Internationalization
        • Advanced Stages of Internationalization
          • Figure 12.1: International management development.
        • Inter-firm Co-operative Ventures
        • Sources for Management Recruitment
          • Table 12.1: The major advantages and disadvantages of expatriates.
        • Selection Criteria for Overseas Assignments
          • Table 12.2: Criteria for selecting managers for overseas assignment.
          • Competence Factors
          • Adaptability Factors
          • Personal Characteristics
            • CULTURE Women and the Global Corporate Ladder
          • The Selection and Orientation Challenge
            • Figure 12.2: Companies offering cultural training.
        • Culture Shock
          • Figure 12.3: Culture shock cycle for an overseas assignment.
          • Causes and Remedies
          • Terrorism: Tangible Culture Shock
        • Repatriation
        • Compensation
          • Base Salary and Salary-Related Allowances
            • Table 12.3: International cost comparisons.
          • Nonsalary-Related Allowances
          • Method of Payment
          • Compensation of Host-Country Nationals
      • MANAGING LABOUR PERSONNEL
        • Labour Participation in Management
          • Labour Participation in Decision Making
            • Table 12.4: Degree of worker involvement in decision making of firms.
          • Improvement of Quality of Work Life
        • The Role of Labour Unions
          • ETHICS Global Unions versus Global Companies
        • Human Resource Policies
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
  • PART 5 FUTURE
    • CHAPTER 14 New Horizons
      • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
      • IMPORTING ON THE INTERNET
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
        • The Political Environment
        • Planned versus Market Economies
        • The North -- South Relationship
          • Emerging Markets
            • POLITICS Food Fight in Africa
          • A Divergence of Values
            • Figure 14.1: General economic indicators: GDP volume and GDP growth.
        • The International Financial Environment
          • Figure 14.2: General economic indicators: GDP per capita.
          • Figure 14.3: General economic indicators: GDP composition.
        • The Effects of Population Shifts
        • The Technological Environment
      • GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE NEGOTIATIONS
      • GOVERNMENT POLICY
      • THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
        • International Planning and Research
          • Figure 14.4: Long-term planning.
        • International Product Policy
          • TABLE 14.1: US patents granted to foreign inventors in 2002.
        • International Communications
        • Distribution Strategies
        • International Pricing
      • KNOWLEDGE AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
      • CAREERS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
        • CULTURE Ensuring Student Safety Abroad
        • Further Training
        • Employment with a Large Firm
          • Table 14.2: Web sites in gaining international employment.
        • Opportunities for Women in Global Management
        • Employment with a Small or Medium-Sized Firm
        • Self-Employment
      • SUMMARY
      • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
      • INTERNET EXERCISES
      • TAKE A STAND
      • FOR DISCUSSION
  • PART 6 CASE STUDIES
    • Case Study 1 RENAMING THE VIETNAMESE CATFISH1
      • The US Catfish Industry
      • The Issue
      • Congressional Reaction
      • When Is a Catfish a Catfish?
      • The Issue and the Free Trade
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 2 TURKEY’S KRIZ
      • TURKEY’S KRIZ
      • The Balance of Payments Accounts
        • Figure 1: Turkey’s balance of payments, 1993-2000.
        • Table 1: Sub-accounts of the Turkish current account, 1998-2000 (millions of US dollars).
        • Table 2: Sub-accounts of the Turkish financial account, 1998-2000 (millions of US dollars).
      • Turkish Banking
        • Figure 2: Turkish inflation rate and exchange rate (quarterly).
        • Figure 3: The fall of the Turkish Lira. Time period shown in diagram: 1 June 2000-30 May 2001.
      • Economic Death Spiral
      • Turkish Kriz
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 3 GLOBALIZING A SMALL HYDRAULIC FIRM FROM EASTERN EUROPE1
      • Transformation of a Bulgarian Small Enterprise
      • Environmental Characteristics
      • Market Position
      • Company Performance
      • Competitive Environment
        • Rammer
        • Svedala
        • Case Corporation
        • Darda Corporation
        • Genesis
        • Gradall
        • Grasan
        • Indeco
        • Padley and Venables
        • Aquajet
        • Atlas Copco
        • Brokk
        • Dimas
        • Soosan Breakers
      • Latest Developments
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 4 COSMETICS FROM POLAND1
      • The Polish Cosmetics Market
        • Figure 1: Market size, US$ million.
      • The Company
        • Figure 2: Structure of the R&D department. More details about the research programme can be obtained from: www.drirenaeris.pl/badania/en/badania.php and www.drirenaeris.pl/en/kosmetyki_skladniki.php.
        • Brand Image
        • Diversification
          • Figure 3: Brands and consumer target groups. More information about the products and brands can be found at www.beautyexclusive.com/erisskincare.html.
          • Figure 4: Market segments and company brands.
        • Marketing Communications
        • Internationalization
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 5 GENERAL MOTORS AND AVTOVAZ OF RUSSIA
      • General Motors Corporation
      • The Russian Automobile Industry
        • Table 1: The Russian car industry, 1991-1999 (units).
      • AvtoVAZ
      • AvtoVAZ Ownership
        • Figure 1: AvtoVAZ’s web of influence and ownership.
        • AvtoVAZ Suppliers
        • Dealerships and Distribution
        • International Activities
          • Table 2: AvtoVAZ suppliers owned or controlled by SOK.
          • Table 3: AvtoVAZ exports.
      • Foreign Entry into Russia
        • Table 4: Foreign car producers in Russia.
      • Renewed Interest
        • Table 5: Russian car market shares by price.
      • Negotiations
        • Market Strategy
        • Timing
        • Financing
        • Structure
        • Progress
      • Questions for Discussion
      • Appendix 1
      • Appendix 2
      • Appendix 3
      • Appendix 4
      • Appendix 5
    • Case Study 6 GLOBAL TELECOM LEADERS MEET A FAMILY CONGLOMERATE
      • Importance of the Turkish Market as an Emerging Economy
      • The Uzan Conglomerate
      • Motorola and Nokia: The Western Partners
        • Figure 1: Motorola: by the numbers.
        • Nokia
          • Figure 2: Motorola performance 1999-2003.
          • Figure 3: Motorola net income/loss 1999-2002.
      • The Turkish Telecom Market
        • Figure 4: Motorola revenues 1999-2002.
        • Figure 5: Telephone subscribers (fixed and mobile) per 100 inhabitants in Turkey.
        • Table 1: Wireless markets in Europe.
      • TelSim’s Foreign Partners and the Default
        • Table 2: Turkish mobile market leaders.
      • The Aftermath of the Conflict
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 7 TOYOTA EUROPE
      • Currency Exposure
      • Management Response
        • Figure 1: Toyota Motor’s European currency operating structure.
        • Figure 2: Daily exchange rates: Japanese yen per euro.
        • Figure 3: Daily exchange rates: British pounds per euro.
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 8 WHEN DIAMONDS WEEP
      • From Mine to Market
      • The De Beers Dynasty
        • Figure 1: Major diamond-producing countries.
        • Figure 2: Global retail sales of diamond jewellery.
      • Controversies Arise
      • The History of Conflict Diamonds
      • Investigators Bring Problem to Light
      • Ties to Terrorist Groups
        • Table 1: Belgian diamond imports compared with exports from certain countries (US$ millions).
      • The Kimberley Process
      • Critics Speak Out
      • The US Response
      • New Technologies Offer Solutions
      • Questions for Discussion
    • Case Study 9 BUILDING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN A MATURE INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF GORENJE
      • Introduction
      • Gorenje’s Timeline
        • 1950–1960
        • 1961–1970
        • 1971–1980
        • 1981–1990
        • 1991–1996
        • 1997–2005
        • 2006
        • 2007
      • The Household Appliance Industry
        • Table 1: SWOT analysis for European home appliance companies.
      • Gorenje’s Business Strategy
      • Gorenje’s Internationalization Strategy
        • Figure 1: Gorenje branding strategies.
        • Table 2: Gorenje’s investments by entry mode.
        • Figure 2: Gorenje large household appliance unit sales by region in 2006.
        • Figure 3: Number of manufactured household appliances by year (in ’000s household appliances).
      • The Future
      • Discussion Questions
    • Case Study 10 BOLIVIA NATIONALIZES THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR1
      • The Nationalization Spree
      • Oil and Gas Resources in Bolivia
      • Oil Resources
      • Gas Resources
        • Figure 1(a): Map of Bolivia.
        • Figure 1(b): Bolivia – a brief profile
      • The Bolivian Gas War
        • Figure 2: Bolivia GDP growth by sectors 1990-2003.
        • Figure 3: Oil production and consumption in Bolivia: 1980-2005. The production and consumption figures are for the months of January to June in every year.
        • Figure 4: History of oil in Bolivia.
        • Figure 5: History of natural gas in Bolivia.
        • Figure 6: Bolivia’s natural gas reserves: 1997-2005.
        • Figure 7: Gas production and consumption in Bolivia: 1980-2003.
        • Table 1: Brief profile of the oil and gas sector in Bolivia (figures reported in 2005).
      • The Nationalization
        • Table 2: Questions in the referendum.
        • Table 3: Results of the referendum.
        • Table 4: Key points in the nationalization decree.
        • Figure 8: Complete text of the presidential decree (28 701) on nationalization of oil and gas sector.
      • Benefits of Nationalization
      • The Criticism
      • The Two Summits
      • The Road Ahead
      • Questions for Discussion
      • FURTHER READING
    • Case Study 11 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AT BAYERISCHE MOTOREN WERKE (BMW)
      • Introduction
      • Background Note
        • Figure 1: BMW group: figures.
      • The Board of Management and Supervisory Board
        • Figure 2: Board of directors
      • Board of Management
        • Tasks and Responsibilities
        • Composition and Compensation
        • Conflicts of Interest
      • The Supervisory Board
        • Tasks and Responsibilities
          • Figure 3: Supervisory board.
        • Formation of Committees
        • Composition and Compensation
        • Conflicts of Interest
        • Transparency
      • Questions for Discussion
      • FURTHER READING
    • Case Study 12 DANFOSS’ BUSINESS STRATEGY IN CHINA1
      • Introduction
      • Background Note
        • Figure 1: Danfoss organization.
        • Table 1: Danfoss worldwide -- financial performance (2001--2005).
      • Danfoss Enters China
        • Figure 2: Air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in China. (Compiled from various sources).
        • Figure 3: Danfoss in China.
      • The Initial Years
      • The China Strategy
        • Table 2: Danfoss’ manufacturing facilities.
        • Figure 4: Danfoss -- product categories in China.
        • Figure 5: Cold food chain in China. (Compiled from various sources).
        • Table 3: Danfoss -- eight most important success factors for doing business in China.
      • The Road Ahead
      • Questions for Discussion
      • FURTHER READING
    • Case Study 13 GAZPROM--NAFTOGAZ UKRAINY DISPUTE: BUSINESS OR POLITICS?1
      • Introduction
      • Background
        • Figure 1: Gazprom’s gas exports to Western Europe in Bcm (2000--2004).
        • Figure 2: Gas exports to Europe transiting through Ukraine and other countries.
        • Exports to Europe
          • Figure 3: Gazprom’s production and financial details.
          • Figure 4: World proven natural gas reserves by region as of 1 January 2004.
      • Disputes with Ukraine
        • Gas Disputes in the 1990s
          • Figure 5: Gazprom’s alternative options for gas exports.
      • Elections in Ukraine
      • Turn of Events
      • Political Aspect
        • Figure 6: Gazprom’s 2006 tariffs per 1000 cubic metres of gas. Compiled from various sources.
        • The Settlement
      • Outlook
      • Questions for Discussion
      • FURTHER READING
    • Case Study 14 WAL-MART’S GERMAN MISADVENTURE1
      • German Blues
      • Background Note
        • Table 1: Wal-Mart retail divisions.
      • Business Segments
      • Wal-Mart’s International Operations
        • Table 2: Wal-Mart specialty divisions.
        • Table 3: Wal-Mart’s international presence in 2003.
        • Table 4: Operating income from international operations.
      • Wal-Mart in Germany
      • Entry Strategy Gone Wrong?
      • Problems in Operating Environment
        • Figure 1: A note on the retailing industry in Germany.
        • Figure 2: Profiles of German retailers.
      • Problems in External Environment
      • Cultural Mismatch
      • Future Prospects
        • Table 5: Sales and operating profit in Germany.
        • Table 6: Customer satisfaction ratings of German retailers.
      • Questions for Discussion
      • FURTHER READING
  • Back Matter
    • GLOSSARY
      • A
      • B
      • C
      • D
      • E
      • F
      • G
      • H
      • I
      • J
      • L
      • M
      • N
      • O
      • P
      • Q
      • R
      • S
      • T
      • U
      • V
      • W
    • REFERENCES
      • Chapter 1
      • Chapter 2
      • Chapter 3
      • Chapter 4
      • Chapter 5
      • Chapter 6
      • Chapter 7
      • Chapter 8
      • Chapter 9
      • Chapter 10
      • Chapter 11
      • Chapter 12
      • Chapter 13
      • Chapter 14
      • Case Study 1
      • Case Study 5
      • Case Study 6
      • Case Study 8
      • Case Study 10
      • Case Study 12
      • Case Study 13
      • Case Study 14
    • INDEX

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Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 978EUDTE00324
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