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Human Trafficking

Vörumerki: Sage
Vörunúmer: 9781544378466
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Human Trafficking

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Part I Fundamentals
    • Chapter 1 Human Trafficking in Context
      • No-So-Modern Slavery
        • Challenge Yourself 1.1
      • Root Causes of Human Trafficking: Supply, Demand, and Globalization
      • International Definition of Human Trafficking
      • Key Elements of Human Trafficking
        • Trafficking Involves a Broad Range of Exploitive Practices and Is Not Limited to Sexual Exploitation
        • Case Study: “Cristopher”
        • Trafficking Does Not Require Movement
        • Trafficking Does Not Require Physical Bondage
        • Challenge Yourself 1.2
        • Trafficking Is Distinct From Migrant Smuggling
        • There Is No Such Thing as Consenting to Human Trafficking
        • Focus on Migrant Workers in Thailand
        • Anyone Can Be a Trafficker or a Victim of Human Trafficking
        • Challenge Yourself 1.3
      • Approaches to Combating Human Trafficking
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 2 Challenges, Resources, and Recommendations
      • Challenges to Understanding Human Trafficking
        • Definitions of Human Trafficking
        • Challenge Yourself 2.1
        • Focus on Child Marriage: An Example of Cultural Differences
        • International Laws on Human Trafficking
        • United States Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act
        • Challenge Yourself 2.2
        • Focus on Shared Hope International’s Protected Innocence Challenge
        • Focus on State-Level Attention to Human Trafficking
      • Additional Factors Causing Confusion in Understanding Human Trafficking
        • Smuggling
        • Case Study: “Sonia”
        • Focus on the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center
        • Men and Boys
        • Data and Measurement
        • Challenge Yourself 2.3
      • Existing Resources to Improve Our Understanding of Human Trafficking
        • The Trafficking in Persons Report
        • Focus on the U.S. Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report Tier Rankings
          • The TIP Report: Is It Effective?
          • Politicization of the TIP Report
        • Focus on the Reuters Investigative Report Into the 2015 TIP Report
          • U.S. Authority
          • Data and Methodological Challenges
      • Global Resources to Monitor Human Trafficking
        • The United Nations
        • The Global Slavery Index
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 3 Do Traditional Theories Help Us Understand Human Trafficking?
      • Challenge Yourself 3.1
      • Assessing the Cost/Benefit Ratio: The Motivations of the Trafficker, Victim, and Buyer
        • Rational Choice Theory
        • Routine Activities Theory
        • Situational Crime Prevention
          • Traffickers
        • Focus on Proposed Application of SCP in Turkey to Reduce the Sex Trafficking of Females
          • Victims
          • Sex Buyers
      • Moving Beyond Rational Thinking: Additional Considerations in Explaining the Behavior of Traffickers and Victims at the Individual Level
        • Neutralizing the Decision to Traffic
        • The Role of Strain in the Life of a Trafficking Victim
        • Trauma Bonding
        • Case Study: “Tiffany”: An Illustration of the Development of Trauma-Coerced Bonds
      • Moving Beyond the Trafficker and Victim: Exploring the Impact of Ecological Factors
        • Community and State Disorganization: Creating an Environment Fertile for Trafficking
        • Globalization: Increasing the Options for Maximizing Profit While Reducing Protections to the Vulnerable
      • Conclusion
        • Challenge Yourself 3.2
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 4 The Victims of Human Trafficking
      • Case Study: “Jana”
      • Who Is a Victim?
        • The United States
        • Global
      • Turning Vulnerabilities Into Victimization
        • Gender
          • Push Factors
          • Pull Factors
          • Women Don’t Need to Be Saved
          • Males Are Trafficked Too
        • Challenge Yourself 4.1
        • Youth
          • Children Traveling Alone
          • The Intersection of Child Welfare and Trafficking
          • Weak Child Protection Laws and Policies
        • Poverty
        • Focus on the CNN Freedom Project
        • Statelessness
        • Focus on Statelessness in Thailand
          • Statelessness and Human Trafficking
        • Migrants and Refugees
          • What Is Smuggling? Where Is It Happening?
          • When the Smuggled Become the Trafficked
          • Is This Human Trafficking?
        • Case Study: The Life of Migrants Crossing the U.S. Southern Border
        • Disabilities
        • Challenge Yourself 4.2
        • Religious Vulnerabilities
          • Religious Belief Systems
          • Religious Minorities
        • Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
        • Political Instability, War, and Conflict
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 5 The Traffickers
      • Challenge Yourself 5.1
      • Motivation
        • Offenders’ Self-Reported Justifications and Risk Mitigation Strategies
      • Roles
        • Recruiters
          • Abusive Recruitment Practices
        • Focus on Prosecution for Unfair Recruitment Practices
          • Policies and Legislation Against Unfair Recruitment Practices
        • Transporters
        • Case Study: Recruiter Working in a Transit Station
          • Buses and Trains
          • Airplanes
        • Case Study: Transportation Used by Trafficker to Exploit Victim, and Used by Victim for Escape
          • Response
        • Case Study: Flight Attendant Identifies Trafficker and Trafficking Victim
        • Other Roles in Trafficking Operations
        • Case Study: Manager in a Trafficking Operation
      • Organizational Structure of Trafficking Operations
        • Focus on Human Trafficking by MS-13
        • Case Study: Human Trafficking in a Regional Hierarchy—the Fuk Ching
      • Characteristics of Traffickers
        • Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background
        • Gender
        • Case Study: Female Trafficker Working With a Romantic Partner
        • Victims Who Become Traffickers
        • Age
        • Family/Marital Status
        • Case Study: Family Involvement in Trafficking
        • Occupation
        • Government Corruption
          • Perceived Corruption
          • Involvement of Corrupt Government Officials
        • Case Study: Corruption at Multiple Levels of Government
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
  • Part II Sex Trafficking
    • Chapter 6 The Colliding Worlds of Prostitution and Human Trafficking
      • What Is Prostitution?
      • Prevalence
      • Demographics
        • Gender
        • Age
      • Push Factors for Prostitution
        • Poverty and Gender
        • Abuse and Addiction
        • Socialization
        • Challenge Yourself 6.1
        • Focus on Why and How Pimps Do What They Do
      • Are Prostitution and Sex Trafficking the Same Thing?
        • Case Study: The Challenges Faced by a Prostitute by Choice
      • Regulating Prostitution
        • The United States
        • Challenge Yourself 6.2
        • Focus on How All Laws Are Not Created Equal
          • Acknowledging the Nonconsenting Sex Worker in the U.S.
        • Focus on How What Happens in Vegas Stays in Vegas
        • Global Perspectives
          • International Trends in Regulating Prostitution
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Regulation
      • Efforts to Control Prostitution and Their Impacts on Sex Trafficking
        • Criminalization
        • Challenge Yourself 6.3
        • Abolition
        • Focus on Sweden
        • Decriminalization
        • Focus on New Zealand
        • Case Study: India’s Sex Work Collectives
        • Legalization
        • A New Model?
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 7 Moving Past the Prostitution Debate: An Examination of Sex Trafficking
      • Case Study: “Tonya”
      • An Introduction to Sex Trafficking
      • Explaining the Prevalence of Sex Trafficking
        • Challenge Yourself 7.1
      • Stages in Sex Trafficking
        • Recruitment
        • Trafficking Experience
        • Case Study: Through the Eyes of the Victim: The Experiences of Four Thai Girls Trafficked to Japan
        • Case Study: Violence in Brothels
        • Case Study Continued: Through the Eyes of the Victim: The Experiences of Four Thai Girls Trafficked to Japan
        • Identification
        • Case Study: Escaping From Brothels
        • Recovery and Reintegration
        • Case Study Continued: Through the Eyes of the Victim: The Experiences of Four Thai Girls Trafficked to Japan
        • Focus on the Challenge of Housing in the U.S.—Where to Place Sex Trafficking Victims Immediately After Identification
      • Child Sex Trafficking
        • Special Legislative Attention to Child Sex Trafficking
          • United States
          • International Law
        • Focus on the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (“the Convention”)
        • Magnitude
        • Vulnerabilities
          • Child Welfare Involvement
          • Age
        • Focus on Sex Trafficking and HIV/AIDS
          • Race
          • Drug Addiction
          • Homelessness
          • LGBTQ Youth
        • Focus on Gang Involvement and Sex Trafficking
      • Women and Children Are Not the Only Victims
        • Males
        • Challenge Yourself 7.2
        • Case Study: Urban Light
        • LGBTQ Individuals
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 8 Sex Trafficking: Demand and Prevention
      • Demand
        • Sex Tourism
        • Challenge Yourself 8.1
        • The Use of the Internet to Drive Demand
        • Challenge Yourself 8.2
        • Focus on FOSTA: The Takedown of Backpage
        • Challenge Yourself 8.3
      • Reactions to Sex Trafficking
      • Prevention
        • Trauma-Informed Care
        • Research
        • Using Technology for Good
          • DARPA
          • Thorn
          • Project Vic
      • Protection
        • Safe Harbor
        • Challenge Yourself 8.4
        • Post-Conviction Relief
        • Human Trafficking Courts
        • Temporary Visas
          • United States
          • Canada
          • United Kingdom
        • Challenge Yourself 8.5
      • Prosecution
        • Case Study: “Jennifer”
        • Focus on the Human Trafficking Knowledge Portal Case Law Database
        • Case Study: Successful Investigations Lead to Successful Prosecutions
      • Partnership
        • Task Forces
        • Other Forms of Partnership
        • Focus on Strategies to Reduce Sex Trafficking Between Nepal and India
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
  • Part III Labor Trafficking
    • Chapter 9 More Than Unfair Labor Practices
      • What Is Labor Trafficking?
        • Unfair Practices Versus Labor Trafficking
        • Challenge Yourself 9.1
      • Portrait of Labor Trafficking in the U.S.
        • Prevalence
        • Laws
        • Focus on the 13th Amendment
        • U.S. Law
        • Focus on Which U.S. Government Agencies Are Involved in Anti-Trafficking Efforts
        • Migrant Workers in the U.S.
        • Focus on History of Temporary Work Visa Programs in the U.S.
        • Case Study: H-2B Visa
      • Portrait of Labor Trafficking Globally
        • Prevalence
        • Challenge Yourself 9.2
        • Revenue
        • Industries
          • Domestic Work
        • Case Study: Qatar Commits to Strengthen Workers’ Rights for Two Million Migrants
          • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries
          • Construction, Manufacturing, Mining, Utilities, and Hospitality
        • International Laws
        • Case Study: Labor Trafficking in the United Kingdom
      • Vulnerabilities and Demographics of Labor Trafficking Victims
        • Migration
        • Age
        • Gender
        • Education and Literacy
        • Poverty
        • Marginalized Populations
      • Child Labor Trafficking
        • Case Study: Forced Labor in North Korea
        • Case Study: Forced Labor of Talibés
        • Consequences of Child Labor Trafficking
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
      • Full-Length Case Studies
    • Chapter 10 Responses to Labor Trafficking
      • Reactions to Labor Trafficking
        • Challenge Yourself 10.1
      • Theoretical Frameworks Guiding Existing Responses to Labor Trafficking
        • Human Rights Approach
        • Labor Approach
        • Review of Human Rights Guaranteed by International Statutes
        • Research
        • Data-Driven Responses to Labor Trafficking
          • Use of Financial Services Data
        • Challenge Yourself 10.2
          • Use of Big Data to Identify Traffickers
        • Focus on the Global Emancipation Network
      • Recovery: The Identification of Traffickers and Victims
        • Prioritize Prosecution of Civil Labor Violations
        • Increase Investigation Efforts
        • Focus on Justice at Work
        • Involve Health Care Providers
        • Case Study: When Traffickers Have Diplomatic Immunity
        • Case Study: Health Care Provider Identifies Labor Trafficking Victim
        • Transparency in Supply Chain Laws, aka “Name and Shame”
        • Focus on Supply Chain Transparency
        • Resources and Restoration
        • Case Study: Recovery and Restoration For Natalia
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
  • Part IV Other Forms of Human Trafficking
    • Chapter 11 Child Soldiers
      • Case Study: Junior Nzita Nsuami
      • Historical Context
      • Definition
        • Focus on Definitions
      • Where Are Child Soldiers Found?
        • Country-Level Examples
      • Is This Human Trafficking?
        • Risk Factors
          • Age Blindness
          • Structural Factors
        • Challenge Yourself 11.1
          • Individual-Level Factors
        • Case Study: Child Soldiers in Africa: A Synopsis of Armed & Underage, an Exposé of Child Soldiers in Africa
        • The Experiences of Child Soldiers
          • Recruitment
        • Living as a Child Soldier
          • Exposure to Violence and Sexual Exploitation
          • Reintegration
        • Case Study: Boko Haram
      • Responses to the Use of Child Soldiers
        • International Responses
          • Improvements to Existing Policy
        • Focus on Child Soldiers International’s 10-Point Checklist
        • The U.S. Child Soldiers Prevention Act
          • The United States’ Failed Opportunity
      • Consequences
        • Psychological Consequences
        • Community Acceptance
        • Other Forms of Human Trafficking
      • Moving Forward
        • Challenge Yourself 11.2
        • Focus on Sierra Leone
        • Research
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 12 Organ Trafficking
      • Brief History of Organ Transplantation
        • Challenge Yourself 12.1
      • Brief History of Trafficking in Organs
      • Forms of Trafficking in Organs
      • Legal and Ethical Frameworks Pertaining to Trafficking in Organs
        • Guiding Instruments
        • Legally Binding Instruments
        • Case Study: Harvesting Organs From Prisoners in China
      • Prevalence of Organ Trafficking
      • Causes of Organ Trafficking
      • Structure of Organ-Trafficking Operations
        • Local Middlemen/Recruiters
        • International Coordinators/Brokers
        • Medical Professionals
        • Case Study: Medical Professional Acts as International Coordinator
        • Medical Facilities and Administrative Staff
        • Lab Technicians
        • Administrative Health Officials
        • Health Insurance Companies
        • Corrupt Government Officials
        • Focus on a Medical Facility Involved in Trafficking
        • Victim Donors
          • Outcomes for Donors
        • Organ Recipients
          • Outcomes for Recipients
        • Case Study: Doctor Charged With Organized Crime: The Medicus Clinic
      • Organ Trafficking as Organized Crime
        • Challenge Yourself 12.2
      • Research
      • Economic Approaches
        • Challenge Yourself 12.3
        • Challenge Yourself 12.4
      • Recovery
        • Identification of Traffickers and Victims
        • Policy Measures
        • Resources and Restoration
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resource
    • Chapter 13 Forced and Child Marriage
      • Case Study: Talamt
      • The Fundaments of Forced and Child Marriage
        • Challenge Yourself 13.1
      • The Prevalence of Forced and Child Marriage
        • Gender
        • Age
        • Case Study: Slave Grooms
      • The Condemnation of Child Marriage
        • If Condemnation Isn’t Universal, Is Child Marriage So Wrong?
        • Challenge Yourself 13.2
      • Global Perspectives of Child Marriage
        • Asia
        • Africa
        • Focus on India: Efforts to Reduce Child Marriage
          • A Comparison of Child Marriage Hot Spots
        • Focus on Ghana
        • The Americas
        • Focus on Tahirih Justice Center’s Work on Forced Marriage
        • Europe
      • What Fuels Child Marriage?
        • Poverty
        • Culture, Religion, and Social Norms
        • Focus on Additional Factors That Contribute to Child Marriage
      • The Consequences of Child Marriage
        • Limited Education
          • A Call for Education and Empowerment
        • Exposure to Domestic Violence
        • Sexual Health
          • Pregnancy
        • Case Study: Aysheh
        • Focus on Obstetric Fistulas
        • Mental Health
      • Responding to Forced and Child Marriage
        • International Response
        • Focus on Reducing Child Marriage in Ethiopia: A Promising Intervention
      • Predicting the Future of Child Marriage
      • Conclusion
      • Key Words
      • Discussion Questions
      • Resources
    • Chapter 14 Conclusion
      • Overview
        • Challenge Yourself 14.1
      • Defining Elements
        • Challenge Yourself 14.2
      • Root Causes
        • Challenge Yourself 14.3
      • Research
      • Identifying Traffickers
      • Where Do We Go From Here?
        • Case Study: “Now I Dare to Speak”: SYSTERM Students Reflect on the Project’s Impact
      • Remaining Issues in the Field of Human Trafficking
        • Primary Prevention Efforts
          • Educational Programs
          • Demand Reduction Efforts
        • Focus on “I Am Little Red”
          • Public Awareness Campaigns
        • Focus on John Schools
        • Focus on Responsible Public Awareness Campaigns for Anti-trafficking
        • Secondary Prevention Efforts
        • Tertiary Prevention Efforts
          • Victim/Survivor Services
          • Prosecuting Traffickers
        • Challenge Yourself 14.4
      • Final Remarks
  • References
  • Index

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Vörumerki: Sage
Vörunúmer: 9781544378466
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