Python in a Nutshell

Höfundar: Alex Martelli, Anna Ravenscroft, Steve Holden
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Python in a Nutshell

Rafræn sending. Upplýsingar verða sendar á netfangið þitt eftir kaup
Rafbók til eignar. Rafbók til eignar þarf að hlaða niður á þau tæki sem þú vilt nota innan eins árs frá því bókin er keypt. Útgáfa: 3

Efnisyfirlit

  • Preface
    • How This Book Is Organized
      • Part I, Getting Started with Python
      • Part II, Core Python Language and Built-ins
      • Part III, Python Library and Extension Modules
      • Part IV, Network and Web Programming
      • Part V, Extending, Distributing, v2/v3 Migration
    • Conventions Used in This Book
      • Reference Conventions
      • Version Conventions
      • Typographic Conventions
    • How to Contact Us
    • O’Reilly Safari
    • Acknowledgments
  • I. Getting Started with Python
  • 1. Introduction to Python
    • The Python Language
    • The Python Standard Library and Extension Modules
    • Python Implementations
      • CPython
      • Jython
      • IronPython
      • PyPy
      • Choosing Between CPython, Jython, IronPython, and PyPy
      • Other Developments, Implementations, and Distributions
      • Licensing and Price Issues
    • Python Development and Versions
    • Python Resources
      • Documentation
      • Community
    • Installation
    • Installing Python from Binaries
      • macOS
    • Installing Python from Source Code
      • Microsoft Windows
      • Unix-Like Platforms
    • Installing Jython
    • Installing IronPython
    • Installing PyPy
  • 2. The Python Interpreter
    • The python Program
      • Environment Variables
      • Command-Line Syntax and Options
      • Interactive Sessions
    • Python Development Environments
      • IDLE
      • Other Python IDEs
      • Free Text Editors with Python Support
      • Tools for Checking Python Programs
    • Running Python Programs
    • The jython Interpreter
    • The IronPython Interpreter
    • The PyPy Interpreter
  • II. Core Python Language and Built-ins
  • 3. The Python Language
    • Lexical Structure
      • Lines and Indentation
      • Character Sets
      • Tokens
      • Statements
    • Data Types
      • Numbers
      • Sequences
      • Sets
      • Dictionaries
      • None
      • Callables
      • Boolean Values
    • Variables and Other References
      • Variables
      • Assignment Statements
      • del Statements
    • Expressions and Operators
      • Comparison Chaining
      • Short-Circuiting Operators
    • Numeric Operations
      • Numeric Conversions
      • Arithmetic Operations
      • Comparisons
      • Bitwise Operations on Integers
    • Sequence Operations
      • Sequences in General
      • Strings
      • Tuples
      • Lists
    • Set Operations
      • Set Membership
      • Set Methods
    • Dictionary Operations
      • Dictionary Membership
      • Indexing a Dictionary
      • Dictionary Methods
    • Control Flow Statements
      • The if Statement
      • The while Statement
      • The for Statement
      • The break Statement
      • The continue Statement
      • The else Clause on Loop Statements
      • The pass Statement
      • The try and raise Statements
      • The with Statement
    • Functions
      • The def Statement
      • Parameters
      • “Keyword-only” Parameters (v3 Only)
      • Attributes of Function Objects
      • Function Annotations and Type Hints (v3 Only)
      • The return Statement
      • Calling Functions
      • Namespaces
      • lambda Expressions
      • Generators
      • Recursion
  • 4. Object-Oriented Python
    • Classes and Instances
      • Python Classes
      • The class Statement
      • The Class Body
      • Descriptors
      • Instances
      • Attribute Reference Basics
      • Bound and Unbound Methods
      • Inheritance
      • The Built-in object Type
      • Class-Level Methods
      • Properties
      • __slots__
      • __getattribute__
      • Per-Instance Methods
      • Inheritance from Built-in Types
    • Special Methods
      • General-Purpose Special Methods
      • Special Methods for Containers
      • Abstract Base Classes
      • Special Methods for Numeric Objects
    • Decorators
    • Metaclasses
      • How Python v2 Determines a Class’s Metaclass
      • How Python v3 Determines a Class’s Metaclass
      • How a Metaclass Creates a Class
  • 5. Exceptions
    • The try Statement
      • try/except
      • try/finally
      • The try/except/finally Statement
    • The with Statement and Context Managers
      • Generators and Exceptions
    • Exception Propagation
    • The raise Statement
    • Exception Objects
      • The Hierarchy of Standard Exceptions
      • Standard Exception Classes
    • Custom Exception Classes
      • Custom Exceptions and Multiple Inheritance
      • Other Exceptions Used in the Standard Library
    • Error-Checking Strategies
      • LBYL Versus EAFP
      • Handling Errors in Large Programs
      • Logging Errors
    • The assert Statement
      • The __debug__ Built-in Variable
  • 6. Modules
    • Module Objects
      • The import Statement
      • The from Statement
    • Module Loading
      • Built-in Modules
      • Searching the Filesystem for a Module
      • The Main Program
      • Reloading Modules
      • Circular Imports
      • sys.modules Entries
      • Custom Importers
    • Packages
      • Special Attributes of Package Objects
      • Namespace Packages (v3 Only)
      • Absolute Versus Relative Imports
    • Distribution Utilities (distutils) and setuptools
      • Python Wheels (and Eggs)
    • Python Environments
      • Enter the Virtual Environment
      • What Is a Virtual Environment?
      • Creating and Deleting Virtual Environments
      • Working with Virtual Environments
      • Managing Dependency Requirements
      • Best Practices with virtualenvs
  • 7. Core Built-ins and Standard Library Modules
    • Built-in Types
    • Built-in Functions
    • The sys Module
    • The copy Module
    • The collections Module
      • ChainMap (v3 Only)
      • Counter
      • OrderedDict
      • defaultdict
      • deque
      • namedtuple
    • The functools Module
    • The heapq Module
      • The Decorate-Sort-Undecorate Idiom
    • The argparse Module
    • The itertools Module
  • 8. Strings and Things
    • Methods of String and Bytes Objects
    • The string Module
    • String Formatting
      • Value Selection
      • Value Conversion
      • Value Formatting
      • New in 3.6: Formatted String Literals
      • Legacy String Formatting with %
      • Format Specifier Syntax
    • Text Wrapping and Filling
    • The pprint Module
    • The reprlib Module
    • Unicode
      • The codecs Module
      • The unicodedata Module
  • 9. Regular Expressions
    • Regular Expressions and the re Module
      • re and bytes Versus Unicode Strings
      • Pattern-String Syntax
      • Common Regular Expression Idioms
      • Sets of Characters
      • Alternatives
      • Groups
      • Optional Flags
      • Match Versus Search
      • Anchoring at String Start and End
      • Regular Expression Objects
      • Match Objects
      • Functions of the re Module
  • III. Python Library and Extension Modules
  • 10. File and Text Operations
    • Other Chapters That Also Deal with Files
    • Organization of This Chapter
    • The io Module
      • Creating a “file” Object with io.open
      • Attributes and Methods of “file” Objects
      • Iteration on “File” Objects
      • File-Like Objects and Polymorphism
      • The tempfile Module
    • Auxiliary Modules for File I/O
      • The fileinput Module
      • The linecache Module
      • The struct Module
    • In-Memory “Files”: io.StringIO and io.BytesIO
    • Compressed Files
      • The gzip Module
      • The bz2 Module
      • The tarfile Module
      • The zipfile Module
      • The zlib Module
    • The os Module
      • OSError Exceptions
      • The errno Module
    • Filesystem Operations
      • Path-String Attributes of the os Module
      • Permissions
      • File and Directory Functions of the os Module
      • The os.path Module
      • The stat Module
      • The filecmp Module
      • The fnmatch Module
      • The glob Module
      • The shutil Module
      • File Descriptor Operations
    • Text Input and Output
      • Standard Output and Standard Error
      • The print Function
      • Standard Input
      • The getpass Module
    • Richer-Text I/O
      • The readline Module
      • Console I/O
    • Interactive Command Sessions
      • Initializing a Cmd Instance
      • Methods of Cmd Instances
      • Attributes of Cmd Instances
      • A Cmd Example
    • Internationalization
      • The locale Module
      • The gettext Module
      • More Internationalization Resources
  • 11. Persistence and Databases
    • Serialization
      • The json Module
      • The pickle and cPickle Modules
      • The shelve Module
    • DBM Modules
      • The v3 dbm Package
      • v2’s dbm modules
      • Examples of DBM-Like File Use
    • Berkeley DB Interfacing
    • The Python Database API (DBAPI) 2.0
      • Exception Classes
      • Thread Safety
      • Parameter Style
      • Factory Functions
      • Type Description Attributes
      • The connect Function
      • Connection Objects
      • Cursor Objects
      • DBAPI-Compliant Modules
      • SQLite
      • class sqlite3.Connection
      • class sqlite3.Row
  • 12. Time Operations
    • The time Module
    • The datetime Module
      • The date Class
      • The time Class
      • The datetime Class
      • The timedelta Class
    • The pytz Module
    • The dateutil Module
    • The sched Module
    • The calendar Module
  • 13. Controlling Execution
    • Site and User Customization
      • The site and sitecustomize Modules
      • User Customization
    • Termination Functions
    • Dynamic Execution and exec
      • Avoiding exec
      • Expressions
      • Compile and Code Objects
      • Never exec or eval Untrusted Code
    • Internal Types
      • Type Objects
      • The Code Object Type
      • The frame Type
    • Garbage Collection
      • The gc Module
      • The weakref Module
  • 14. Threads and Processes
    • Threads in Python
    • The threading Module
      • Thread Objects
      • Thread Synchronization Objects
      • Thread Local Storage
    • The queue Module
      • Methods of Queue Instances
    • The multiprocessing Module
      • Differences Between Multiprocessing and Threading
      • Sharing State: Classes Value, Array, and Manager
      • Multiprocessing Pool
    • The concurrent.futures Module
    • Threaded Program Architecture
    • Process Environment
    • Running Other Programs
      • Running Other Programs with the os Module
      • The Subprocess Module
    • The mmap Module
      • Methods of mmap Objects
      • Using mmap Objects for IPC
  • 15. Numeric Processing
    • The math and cmath Modules
    • The operator Module
    • Random and Pseudorandom Numbers
      • Physically Random and Cryptographically Strong Random Numbers
      • The random Module
    • The fractions Module
    • The decimal Module
    • The gmpy2 Module
    • Array Processing
    • The array Module
    • Extensions for Numeric Array Computation
      • NumPy
      • Creating a NumPy Array
      • Shape, Indexing, and Slicing
      • Matrix Operations in NumPy
      • SciPy
  • 16. Testing, Debugging, and Optimizing
    • Testing
      • Unit Testing and System Testing
      • The doctest Module
      • The unittest Module
    • Debugging
      • Before You Debug
      • The inspect Module
      • The traceback Module
      • The pdb Module
    • The warnings Module
      • Classes
      • Objects
      • Filters
      • Functions
    • Optimization
      • Developing a Fast-Enough Python Application
      • Benchmarking
      • Large-Scale Optimization
      • Profiling
      • Small-Scale Optimization
  • IV. Network and Web Programming
  • 17. Networking Basics
    • Networking Principles
    • The Berkeley Socket Interface
      • Socket Addresses
      • Client-Server Computing
      • The socket Module
      • Socket Objects
      • A Connectionless Socket Client
      • A Connectionless Socket Server
      • A Connection-Oriented Socket Client
      • A Connection-Oriented Socket Server
    • Transport Layer Security (TLS, AKA SSL)
      • SSLContext
  • 18. Asynchronous Alternatives
    • Coroutine-Based Async Architectures
    • The asyncio Module (v3 Only)
      • Coroutines in asyncio
      • asyncio’s Event Loop
      • Synchronization and Queues
    • The selectors Module
      • selectors Events
      • The SelectorKey Class
      • The BaseSelector Class
      • When to Use selectors
  • 19. Client-Side Network Protocol Modules
    • Email Protocols
      • The poplib Module
      • The smtplib Module
    • HTTP and URL Clients
      • URL Access
      • The Third-Party requests Package
      • The urllib Package (v3)
      • The urllib Module (v2)
      • The urllib2 Module (v2)
    • Other Network Protocols
  • 20. Serving HTTP
    • WSGI
      • WSGI Servers
    • Python Web Frameworks
      • Full-Stack Versus Lightweight Frameworks
      • A Few Popular Full-Stack Frameworks
      • Some Popular Lightweight Frameworks
  • 21. Email, MIME, and Other Network Encodings
    • MIME and Email Format Handling
      • Functions in the email Package
      • The email.message Module
      • The email.Generator Module
      • Creating Messages
      • The email.encoders Module
      • The email.utils Module
      • Example Uses of the email Package
      • rfc822 and mimetools Modules (v2)
    • Encoding Binary Data as ASCII Text
      • The base64 Module
      • The quopri Module
      • The uu Module
  • 22. Structured Text: HTML
    • The html.entities (v2: htmlentitydefs) Module
      • The BeautifulSoup Third-Party Package
      • The BeautifulSoup Class
      • The Navigable Classes of bs4
      • bs4 find... Methods (“Search Methods”)
      • bs4 CSS Selectors
      • An HTML Parsing Example with BeautifulSoup
    • Generating HTML
      • Editing and Creating HTML with bs4
      • Building HTML with bs4
      • Templating
      • The jinja2 Package
      • The jinja2.Environment Class
      • The jinja2.Template Class
  • 23. Structured Text: XML
    • ElementTree
      • The Element Class
      • The ElementTree Class
      • Functions in the ElementTree Module
      • Parsing XML with ElementTree.parse
      • Building an ElementTree from Scratch
      • Parsing XML Iteratively
  • V. Extending, Distributing, v2/v3 Migration
  • 24. Extending and Embedding Classic Python
    • Extending Python with Python’s C API
      • Building and Installing C-Coded Python Extensions
      • Overview of C-Coded Python Extension Modules
      • Return Values of Python’s C API Functions
      • The Initialization Module
      • Reference Counting
      • Accessing Arguments
      • Creating Python Values
      • Exceptions
      • Abstract Layer Functions
      • Concrete Layer Functions
      • A Simple Extension Example
      • Defining New Types
    • Extending Python Without Python’s C API
      • ctypes
    • Cython
      • The cdef and cpdef Statements and Function Parameters
      • The ctypedef Statement
      • The for…from Statement
      • Cython Expressions
      • A Cython Example: Greatest Common Divisor
    • Embedding Python
      • Installing Resident Extension Modules
      • Setting Arguments
      • Python Initialization and Finalization
      • Running Python Code
  • 25. Distributing Extensions and Programs
    • setuptools
      • The Distribution and Its Root
      • The setup.py Script
      • The requirements.txt File
      • The MANIFEST.in File
      • The setup.cfg File
    • Distributing Your Package
      • Create the Distribution
      • Registering and Uploading to a Repository
  • 26. v2/v3 Migration and Coexistence
    • Preparing for Python 3
    • Minimizing Syntax Differences
      • Avoid “Old-Style” Classes
      • print as a Function
      • String Literals
      • Numeric Constants
      • Text and Binary Data
      • Never Sort Using cmp
      • except Clauses
      • Division
      • Incompatible Syntax to Avoid for Compatibility
    • Choosing Your Support Strategy
      • Steady As She Goes—v2-only Support
      • v2/v3 Support with Conversion
      • 2to3 Conversion: A Case Study
      • v2/v3 Support with a Single Source Tree
      • v3-only Support
  • Index

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