1. Bækur og afþreying
  2. Bækur og kort
  3. Rafbækur
  4. Annað

Pearson Baccalaureate Biology Higher Level 2e

Veldu vöru

Rafræn bók. Uppl. sendar á netfangið þitt eftir kaup
Rafbók til leigu í 90 daga. Útgáfa: 1
Fá vöru senda með tölvupósti

Efnisyfirlit

  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: Cells
    • 1.1: Cell theory, cell specialization, and cell replacement
      • Cell theory
      • Functions of life
      • Cells and sizes
      • Limiting cell size
      • Cell reproduction and differentiation
      • Stem cells
    • 1.2: The ultrastructure of cells
      • What is a prokaryotic cell?
      • Features of prokaryotic cells
      • What is a eukaryotic cell?
      • Organelles of eukaryotic cells
      • A comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
      • A comparison of plant and animal cells and their extracellular components
    • 1.3: Membrane structure
      • Membrane structure
      • Membrane protein functions
    • 1.4: Membrane transport
      • Passive and active transport
      • Passive transport: diffusion and osmosis
      • Active transport and the cell
      • Endocytosis and exocytosis
    • 1.5: The origin of cells
      • Cell theory
    • 1.6: Cell division
      • The cell cycle
      • Mitosis
      • Cancer
  • Chapter 2: Molecular biology
    • 2.1: Molecules to metabolism
      • Molecular biology is the chemistry of living organisms
      • Carbon-based life
      • Biochemical compounds that are important to living organisms
      • Metabolism: reactions controlled by enzymes
      • Metabolism = catabolism + anabolism
    • 2.2: Water
      • The structure of water molecules and the resulting polarity
    • 2.3: Carbohydrates and lipids
      • Monosaccharides: the building blocks of disaccharides
      • Monosaccharides: the building blocks of polysaccharides
      • Fatty acids
      • Condensation reactions result in the formation of triglyceride lipids
      • Energy storage solutions in humans
      • Calculating the body mass index
    • 2.4: Proteins
      • Formation of polypeptides
      • Polypeptides are highly variable
      • Levels of polypeptide and protein structure
      • Some proteins are more than one polypeptide
      • Your unique proteome
      • Proteins can be denatured by heat and alteration of the pH environment
    • 2.5: Enzymes
      • Enzymes are organic molecules that act as catalysts
      • Factors affecting enzyme-catalysed reactions
      • Use of immobilized enzymes in industry
    • 2.6: Structure of DNA and RNA
      • Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids
      • Monomers into polymers
      • Single strand or double strand
    • 2.7: DNA replication, transcription, and translation
      • DNA replication involves ‘unzipping’
      • Formation of two complementary strands
      • Protein synthesis
    • 2.8: Cell respiration
      • Cell respiration is used by all cells to produce ATP
      • Glycolysis is the fi rst step in the cell respiration process
      • Some cells use anaerobic respiration for ATP production
      • Aerobic cell respiration is the most efficient pathway
    • 2.9: Photosynthesis
      • Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy
      • Plants use the pigment chlorophyll to absorb light energy
      • Photosynthesis occurs in two stages
      • Measuring the rate of photosynthesis
      • The effects of changing environmental factors on the rate of photosynthesis
  • Chapter 3: Genetics
    • 3.1: Genes
      • What is a gene?
      • A gene is found at a particular locus on a chromosome
      • Alleles: versions of genes
      • One base can make a big difference
      • How new alleles are produced
      • A genome
    • 3.2: Chromosomes
      • The chromosome in prokaryotes
      • Some prokaryotes also have plasmids but eukaryotes do not
      • Eukaryote chromosomes
      • Multiple chromosomes
      • Homologous chromosomes: the same genes but not always the same alleles
      • Diploid and haploid cells
      • Chromosome number: a defining feature
      • Karyograms and karyotypes
      • Sex determination
    • 3.3: Meiosis
      • Producing four haploid nuclei
      • The halving of the chromosome number
      • DNA is replicated before meiosis
      • Pairing of homologous chromosomes and crossing over
      • Random orientation
      • Halving the chromosome number
      • Fertilization and variation
    • 3.4: Inheritance
      • Mendel’s experiments with pea plants
      • Gametes have only one allele of each gene
      • The two alleles of each gene separate
      • Fusion of gametes
      • Dominant alleles and co-dominant alleles
      • Autosomal genetic diseases in humans
      • Genetic diseases are rare
      • Diseases caused by sex-linked genes or co-dominant alleles
      • The pattern of inheritance with sex-linked genes
      • Some possible causes of mutations, genetic diseases and cancer
    • 3.5: Genetic modification and biotechnology
      • Exploring DNA
      • Gel electrophoresis
      • PCR: how to make lots of copies of DNA
      • DNA profiling
      • Genetic modification: gene transfer between species
      • Clones
      • Natural methods of cloning
      • Animals cloned from embryos
      • Animals cloned from adult cells
  • Chapter 4: Ecology
    • 4.1: Species, communities, and ecosystems
      • The interdependence of living organisms
      • What is a species?
      • Populations can become isolated
      • Autotrophs and heterotrophs
      • Consumers
      • Detritivores
      • Saprotrophs
      • Communities
      • Ecosystems
      • Where do autotrophs get their nutrients?
      • Nutrient cycling
      • The sustainability of ecosystems
    • 4.2: Energy flow
      • The importance of sunlight to ecosystems
      • The role of photosynthesis
      • Food chains
      • Cellular respiration and heat
      • Heat cannot be recycled
      • Where does the heat go?
      • Food webs and energy levels in trophic levels
    • 4.3: Carbon cycling
      • Carbon
      • The role of autotrophs in the carbon cycle
      • Carbon in aquatic ecosystems
      • Cycling of carbon dioxide
      • Methane in the carbon cycle
      • The oxidation of methane
      • Peat as a fossil fuel
      • Oil and gas as fossil fuels
      • Carbon dioxide is produced when fossil fuels are used
      • Limestone
    • 4.4: Climate change
      • The atmosphere
      • The roles of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the greenhouse effect
      • Different gases, different impacts
      • The warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat)
      • How greenhouse gases heat the atmosphere
      • Global climate change is affected by greenhouse gases
      • The industrial revolution
      • Threats to coral reefs
      • Are humans causing climate change?
  • Chapter 5: Evolution and biodiversity
    • 5.1: Evidence for evolution
      • Darwin and Wallace
      • What is evolution?
      • The fossil record and evolution
      • Artificial selection and evolution
      • Evolution of homologous structures by adaptive radiation
      • Continuous variation and the concept of gradual divergence
    • 5.2: Natural selection
      • The mechanism for evolution
      • Mutation, meiosis, and sexual reproduction
      • To adapt or not to adapt?
      • Passing on successful characteristics
      • Natural selection and the frequency of characteristics
    • 5.3: Classification of biodiversity
      • The binomial system of names for species
      • A hierarchy of taxa
      • A common ancestral species
      • Reclassification
      • Natural classification
    • 5.4: Cladistics
      • Characteristics used for classifi cation
      • Clades
      • Analogous and homologous traits
      • Cladograms
      • Reclassification
  • Chapter 6: Human physiology
    • 6.1: Digestion and absorption
      • Digestion is an enzyme-facilitated chemical process
      • The anatomy of the human digestive system
      • The alimentary canal is a muscular tube
      • The role of the pancreas during digestion
      • The role of the small intestine in digestion and absorption
    • 6.2: The blood system
      • Arteries, capillaries, and veins
      • The heart, a double pump
      • Control of the heart rate
      • Changes in pressure within the heart chambers keep the blood moving
      • Build-up of plaque in arteries leads to atherosclerosis
    • 6.3: Defence against infectious disease
      • Primary defence is to keep pathogens out
      • When pathogens get past skin and mucous membranes
      • What is HIV and how does it affect the human immune system?
      • The use of antibiotics to combat bacterial infections
      • An unsolved dilemma: bacterial resistance to antibiotics
    • 6.4: Gas exchange
      • Overview of the respiratory system
      • The mechanism of ventilation
      • Causes and consequences of emphysema
      • Causes and consequences of lung cancer
    • 6.5: Neurones and synapses
      • The organization of the human nervous system
      • Neurones
      • What is a nerve impulse?
      • Saltatory conduction by neurones that have a myelin sheath
      • Synapses: chemical communication between neurones
      • A new class of insecticides based on blocking synaptic transmission
    • 6.6: Hormones, homeostasis, and reproduction
      • Homeostasis
      • Selected hormones and their functions
      • Insulin and glucagon help regulate glucose levels
      • Diabetes
      • Human reproduction
      • How does a person become male or female?
      • Role of sex hormones during puberty
      • The menstrual cycle
      • In vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • Chapter 7: Nucleic acids
    • 7.1: DNA structure and replication
      • Is DNA the genetic material?
      • DNA structure
      • DNA packaging
      • Types of DNA sequences
      • DNA replication
      • Replication, DNA sequencing, and the Human Genome Project
    • 7.2: Transcription and gene expression
      • Is there a central dogma of molecular biology?
      • Transcription: DNA ? RNA
    • 7.3: Translation
      • Ribosomes
      • Translation: RNA ? protein
  • Chapter 8: Metabolism, cell respiration, and photosynthesis
    • 8.1: Metabolism
      • Metabolism
      • Metabolic pathways
      • Induced-fit model of enzyme action
      • Activation energy
      • Mechanism of enzyme action
      • Inhibition
    • 8.2: Cell respiration
      • Oxidation and reduction
      • An overview of respiration
      • Glycolysis
      • Mitochondria
      • The link reaction and the Krebs cycle
    • 8.3: Photosynthesis
      • The chloroplast
      • The overall process of photosynthesis
      • The chloroplast and photosynthesis
  • Chapter 9: Plant biology
    • 9.1: Transport in the xylem of plants
      • Basic leaf structure
      • Plant water and mineral movement
      • Stomata and guard cells
      • The cohesion–tension theory of plant fluid movement
      • Roots and fluid movement in plants
      • Plant adaptations for water conservation
    • 9.2: Transport in the phloem of plants
      • The movement of organic molecules in plants
      • The pressure-flow hypothesis
    • 9.3 Growth in plants
      • Plant tissues and meristems
      • Plant hormones
    • 9.4: Reproduction in plants
      • Variety in flowers
      • Angiosperms
      • Flower structure and function
      • Pollination and fertilization
      • The seed
      • The control of flowering in angiosperms
  • Chapter 10: Genetics and evolution
    • 10.1: Meiosis
      • Multiple genes
      • Chromosome replication
      • The exchange of DNA material
      • New combinations of alleles
      • Chiasmata formation
      • Homologous chromosome separation
      • Sister chromatid separation
      • Independent assortment of genes
    • 10.2: Inheritance
      • Dihybrid crosses
      • Autosomes and sex chromosomes
      • Linkage groups
      • Linked genes
      • Polygenic inheritance
      • Continuous and discrete variation
      • Polygenic characteristics
      • Chi-squared tests
    • 10.3: Gene pools and speciation
      • Interbreeding populations
      • Evolution and allele frequencies
      • Reproductive isolation of populations
      • Directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection
      • Speciation due to divergence of isolated populations
  • Chapter 11: Animal physiology
    • 11.1: Antibody production and vaccination
      • Fundamentals of the immune response
      • Diseases that cross from one species to another
      • Production of monoclonal antibodies
      • Allergies are the result of an immune response releasing histamine
    • 11.2: Movement
      • Endoskeletons and exoskeletons
      • Muscles work in antagonistic pairs
      • Synovial joints provide limited movements
      • A muscle fibre is a muscle cell
    • 11.3: The kidney and osmoregulation
      • Nitrogenous waste products and excretion
      • Anatomy of the kidney
      • Kidney nephrons and osmoregulation
      • Kidney failure and other medical issues related to kidney function
    • 11.4: Sexual reproduction
      • Spermatogenesis: the production of male gametes by meiosis
      • Oogenesis: the production of female gametes by meiosis
      • Mature spermatozoa and ‘ova’
      • Comparing and contrasting spermatogenesis and oogenesis
      • Fertilization in animals can be external or internal
      • Fertilization
      • Early development: implantation into the endometrium by the blastocyst
  • Chapter 12: Option A: Neurobiology and behaviour
    • A.1: Neural development
      • Neural tube formation
      • Axon growth
      • Multiple synapses
      • The plasticity of the nervous system
    • A.2: The human brain
      • The neural tube expands to form the brain
      • Different parts of the brain have specific roles
      • The autonomic nervous system has two divisions
      • The cerebral cortex
      • Brain metabolism requires large energy inputs
    • A.3: Perception of stimuli
      • Sensory receptors and diversity of stimuli
      • Receptors detect changes in the environment
      • The structure and function of the human eye
    • A.4: Innate and learned behaviour
      • Innate behaviour
      • Innate behaviour in invertebrates
      • Reflexes
      • Reflex arc
      • Reflex conditioning
      • Learned behaviour
      • Imprinting
      • Operant conditioning is a form of learning
      • Learning is the acquisition of skill or knowledge
      • Memory
    • A.5: Neuropharmacology
      • Synaptic transmission
      • Interactions at the synapse
      • Modulation of synaptic transmission
      • Memory and learning
      • Psychoactive drugs affect the brain and personality
      • THC and cocaine affect mood, synapse, and behaviour
      • Anaesthetics
      • Endorphins
      • MDMA
    • A.6: Ethology
      • Ethology versus psychology
      • Learned versus innate behaviour
      • Natural selection
      • Migration in European blackcaps
      • Blood sharing in vampire bats
      • Foraging behaviour in shore crabs
      • Breeding strategies in coho salmon
      • Courtship in the bird of paradise
      • Synchronized oestrus in lions
      • Blue tits and learning
  • Chapter 13: Option B: Biotechnology and bioinformatics
    • B.1: Microbiology: organisms in industry
      • Microorganisms in industry
      • Pathway engineering
      • Fermentation
      • Deep-tank fermentation of penicillin
      • Continuous-batch fermentation of citric acid
      • Biogas production by archaeans and bacteria
      • Gram staining
    • B.2: Biotechnology in agriculture
      • Genetic modification of crops
      • Novel products from GM plants
      • Physical methods as a direct means of inserting genes into plants
      • Chemical methods as a direct means of inserting genes into plants
      • Vectors as an indirect means of inserting genes into plants
      • Identifying a target gene using bioinformatics
    • B.3: Environmental protection
      • Responses to pollution incidents
      • Bioremediation
      • Biofiims
      • Bacteriophages and the disinfection of water systems
      • Biofilms clean polluted waterways
    • B.4: Medicine
      • Biotechnology and medicine
      • Markers can detect a genetic disease
      • Markers can detect predisposition to genetic disease
      • DNA microarrays
      • Using genetic material or antigens to detect infection by a pathogen
      • PCR is used to detect strains of flu virus
      • Metabolites that indicate disease
      • Tracking experiments
      • Biopharming
      • Gene therapy uses viral vectors
    • B.5: Bioinformatics
      • Databases
      • BLAST
      • Use of software to construct simple cladograms and phylograms
      • Exploring chromosome 21 in the database Ensembl
      • EST data mining
      • Knockout technology can help determine gene function
      • Other model organisms used in comparative genomics
  • Chapter 14: Option C: Ecology and conservation
    • C.1: Species and communities
      • Limiting factors affect the distribution of species in a community
      • The distribution of species depends on their tolerance of limiting factors
      • Keystone species
      • Each species plays a unique role within a community
      • Competitive exclusion
      • Fundamental niche versus realized niche
      • Use of a transect to correlate the distribution of a plant with an abiotic variable
    • C.2: Communities and ecosystems
      • Energy flow through the ecosystem
      • Conversion ratio in sustainable food production
      • Change in ecosystems over time by primary and secondary succession
      • Species diversity and production in a primary succession
      • Biosphere and biomes
      • Gersmehl diagrams
      • A closed ecosystem
      • Disturbances influence the structure and rate of change in an ecosystem
    • C.3: Impact of humans on ecosystems
      • Biological control: risks and benefits
      • Biomagnification
      • Macroplastics in the marine environment
      • Microplastics in the marine environment
      • Biological control and eradication programmes to reduce the impact of alien species
      • Analysis of data illustrating the cause and effects of biomagnification
    • C.4: Conservation of biodiversity
      • Indicator species and biotic indices
      • Richness and evenness are components of biodiversity
      • Analysis of the biodiversity of two local communities
      • Management of conservation areas
      • In situ conservation methods
      • Ex situ conservation methods
      • Biogeographical factors affect species diversity
      • The impact of edge effect on diversity
    • C.5: Population ecology
      • Population dynamics
      • Population growth curve
      • Carrying capacity (K)
      • Natality, mortality, immigration, and emigration, and the sigmoid growth curve
      • Use of capture–mark–release–recapture method
      • Estimating the size of commercial fishing stocks
    • C.6: Nitrogen and phosphorus cycles
      • The nitrogen cycle
      • The phosphorous cycle
  • Chapter 15: Option D: Human physiology
    • D.1: Human nutrition
      • Essential nutrients: what are they?
      • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
      • Eating and nutrition disorders
    • D.2: Digestion
      • Exocrine secretions are fundamental to the digestive process
      • Gastric secretions and their control
      • What is the role of HCl during the digestive process?
      • What causes stomach ulcers?
      • Adaptations of villi epithelial cells for efficient absorption
      • The importance of fibre in the diet
    • D.3: Functions of the liver
      • Circulation of blood to and from the liver
      • Sinusoids are the capillaries of the liver
      • The liver removes toxins from the blood
      • Regulation of nutrients in the blood
      • The liver recycles components of erythrocytes and haemoglobin
      • Hepatocytes produce and secrete bile and plasma proteins
      • Causes and consequences of jaundice
    • D.4: The heart
      • The heart is composed of cardiac muscle cells
      • The cardiac cycle
      • Myogenic control of heart rate
      • Mapping the cardiac cycle to a normal ECG trace
      • Common heart problems and their treatments
    • D.5: Hormones and metabolism
      • Overview of the endocrine system
      • Steroid hormones
      • Peptide hormones
      • The pituitary gland and its ‘boss’, the hypothalamus
    • D.6: Transport of respiratory gases
      • Haemoglobin
      • Haemoglobin changes shape and affi nity when carrying oxygen
      • Oxygen dissociation curves
      • The Bohr shift
      • Carbon dioxide transport in the blood
      • The rate of ventilation is controlled by the respiratory control centre in the medulla oblongata
      • Living and breathing at high altitude
      • Causes and treatments of emphysema
      • Identification of lung tissues with light and electron micrographs
  • Theory of knowledge
    • What is this chapter all about?
    • On the right track?
    • Debates
    • More debates
    • The TOK framework
    • Nature of science(s)
    • How do we know?
    • Ways of knowing
    • Catching a cold
    • Phrenology
    • Tongue map
    • Art and imagination
    • Decisions, decisions
    • Is there an end?
    • Doctor, which drug treatment is best for me?
    • The placebo effect
    • Models
    • Who’s right?
    • Religion in an age of science
    • Ockham’s razor
    • Limits of perception
    • The eye is not a camera
    • We were wrong, here’s the real story
    • Archaeopteryx
    • The end of spontaneous generation
    • Unprovable assumptions?
    • Scientifi c science
    • Knowledge claims
    • What is nature?
    • Science vocabulary
    • Wiki
    • Seeing is believing: but what if you cannot see?
    • What qualifi es as an experiment?
    • Theory versus myth
    • Biology and values
    • Moral responsibility
    • Science and religion
    • Science and technology
    • Reading your mind
    • Inaccessible worlds
  • Mathematics, and information and communication technology skills
    • 1. Mathematics and statistical analysis
      • Mean
      • Median
      • Mode
      • Range
      • Error bars
      • Standard deviation
      • Comparing the means and spread of data between two or more samples
      • Significant difference between two data sets using a t-test
      • Correlation does not mean causation
      • Graphs
      • Regression models and coefficient of correlation
      • Before and after: by how much did this change?
      • Expected versus observed values: first application of the chi-squared test for goodness of fit
      • Independent or correlated: second application of the chi-squared test as a test for independence
    • 2. Information and communication technology in biology
      • Models
      • Simulations
      • Databases
      • Gathering your own statistics
      • Data-analysis exercises
      • Fieldwork and data logging
      • ICT skills applied to your lab reports
  • The biology extended essay
    • Advice on criteria for assessing your extended essay
  • Suggestions for course study and strategies for the IB biology exam
    • General suggestions for course study
    • Specific suggestions for IB biology course study using this text
    • Strategies for success when answering questions in the IB exams
    • And finally
  • Index
  • Internal assessment for Biology
    • The purpose of internal assessment
    • Guidance on personal engagement and exploration
    • Guidance on analysis
    • Guidance on evaluation
    • Guidance on communication
  • Back Cover

UM RAFBÆKUR Á HEIMKAUP.IS

Bókahillan þín er þitt svæði og þar eru bækurnar þínar geymdar. Þú kemst í bókahilluna þína hvar og hvenær sem er í tölvu eða snjalltæki. Einfalt og þægilegt!

Þú kemst í bækurnar hvar sem er
Þú getur nálgast allar raf(skóla)bækurnar þínar á einu augabragði, hvar og hvenær sem er í bókahillunni þinni. Engin taska, enginn kyndill og ekkert vesen (hvað þá yfirvigt).

Auðvelt að fletta og leita
Þú getur flakkað milli síðna og kafla eins og þér hentar best og farið beint í ákveðna kafla úr efnisyfirlitinu. Í leitinni finnur þú orð, kafla eða síður í einum smelli.

Glósur og yfirstrikanir
Þú getur auðkennt textabrot með mismunandi litum og skrifað glósur að vild í rafbókina. Þú getur jafnvel séð glósur og yfirstrikanir hjá bekkjarsystkinum og kennara ef þeir leyfa það. Allt á einum stað.

Hvað viltu sjá? / Þú ræður hvernig síðan lítur út
Þú lagar síðuna að þínum þörfum. Stækkaðu eða minnkaðu myndir og texta með multi-level zoom til að sjá síðuna eins og þér hentar best í þínu námi.



Fleiri góðir kostir
- Þú getur prentað síður úr bókinni (innan þeirra marka sem útgefandinn setur)
- Möguleiki á tengingu við annað stafrænt og gagnvirkt efni, svo sem myndbönd eða spurningar úr efninu
- Auðvelt að afrita og líma efni/texta fyrir t.d. heimaverkefni eða ritgerðir
- Styður tækni sem hjálpar nemendum með sjón- eða heyrnarskerðingu
Eiginleikar
Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292371535
Taka af óskalista
Setja á óskalista

Umsagnir

Engar umsagnir
Lesa fleiri umsagnir

Pearson Baccalaureate Biology Higher Level 2e

Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292371535
Rafræn bók. Uppl. sendar á netfangið þitt eftir kaup

Veldu vöru

4.990 kr.
Fá vöru senda með tölvupósti
4.990 kr.