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Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics

Vörumerki: Elsevier
Vörunúmer: 9781455775668
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Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Videos
  • Volume 1
    • Part I The Field of Pediatrics
      • Chapter 1 Overview of Pediatrics
        • The Changing Pediatric World
        • Morbidities among Children
        • Situational Special-Risk Populations
        • Patterns of Healthcare
        • Planning and Implementing a System of Care
        • The Information Explosion of the 21St Century
        • Organization of the Profession and the Growth of Specialization
        • Bibliography
        • Global Burden and Mortality Trends
        • Causes of Newborn and Child Deaths
        • Understanding Social Determinants and Barriers for Care
        • Evidence-Based Interventions and Innovations to Address Inequities
        • Community Health Workers for Newborn and Child Health
        • The Role of Information Technology and mHealth Platforms
        • Cash Transfers to Reduce Poverty Barriers and Improve Child Health
        • Other Technologies and Innovations
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 2 Quality and Safety in Healthcare for Children
        • The Need for Quality Improvement
        • What is Quality?
        • Framework for Quality
        • Developing Guidelines to Establish the Standard for Quality
        • Improving Quality
        • Measuring Quality
        • Analyzing Quality Data
        • Comparing and Reporting Quality
        • Quality and Patient Safety
        • Implications of the U.S. Healthcare Reform for Quality
        • The Evolution of Quality to Outcomes to Value
        • Information Technology and Quality Improvement
        • Quality Improvement or Research?
        • Expanding Individual Quality Improvement Initiatives to Scale
        • International Efforts for Quality Improvement
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 3 Ethics in Pediatric Care
        • Assent and Parental Permission
        • Treatment of Critically ILL Children
        • Care of Disabled Newborns
        • Declaring Death and Organ Donation
        • Religious or Cultural Objections to Treatment
        • Pediatric Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultation
        • Newborn Screening and Genetic Testing
        • Adolescent Healthcare
        • Research
        • Balancing Maternal and Fetal Interests
        • Justice and Pediatric Ethics
        • Emerging Issues
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 4 Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care
        • The Importance of Culture to Medical Practice
        • Newly Recognized Cultural Groups
        • The Culture of the Medical Profession
        • Cultural Competence
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 5 Maximizing Children's Health
        • Guidelines
        • Tasks of Well-Child Care
        • Infancy and Early Childhood
        • Middle Childhood and Adolescence
        • Office Intervention for Behavioral and Mental Health Issues
        • Strength-Based Approaches and Framework
        • Office System Change for Quality Improvement
        • Evidence
        • Caring for the Child and Youth in the Context of the Family and Community
        • Bibliography
        • Injury Control (Formerly Called Accident Prevention)
        • Scope of the Problem
        • Principles of Injury Control
        • Risk Factors for Childhood Injuries
        • Mechanisms of Injury
        • Bibliography
    • Part II Growth, Development, and Behavior
      • Chapter 6 Overview and Assessment of Variability
        • Biopsychosocial Model and Ecobiodevelopmental Framework: Models of Development
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 7 Cognitive Development
        • Physical Knowledge Development
        • Social Knowledge Development
        • Theories of Cognitive Development
        • Bibliography
        • The Emotional Component
        • The Ethical Component
        • The Aesthetic Component
        • Pedagogic Thinking: Core Concepts Around 3 Major Areas
        • The Developmental Theories of Greenspan, Vygotsky, and Malaguzzi
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 8 Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development
        • Somatic Development
        • Neurologic Development
        • Behavioral Development
        • Psychologic Changes in Parents
        • Threats to Fetal Development
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 9 The Newborn
        • Parental Role in Mother–Infant Attachment
        • The Infant's Role in Mother–Infant Attachment
        • Implications for the Pediatrician
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 10 The First Year
        • Age 0-2 Months
        • Age 2-6 Months
        • Age 6-12 Months
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 11 The Second Year
        • Age 12-18 Months
        • Age 18-24 Months
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 12 The Preschool Years
        • Structural Development of the Brain
        • Physical Development
        • Language, Cognition, and Play
        • Emotional and Moral Development
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 13 Middle Childhood
        • Physical Development
        • Cognitive Development
        • Social, Emotional, and Moral Development
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 14 Adolescence
      • Chapter 15 Assessment of Growth
        • Procedures for Accurate Measurement
        • Derivation and Interpretation of Growth Charts
        • Analysis of Growth Patterns
        • Other Indices of Growth
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 16 Developmental-Behavioral Screening and Surveillance
        • Measurable Delays
        • Psychosocial Risk
        • Early Intervention Services and Eligibility Criteria
        • Primary Care Challenges in Early Detection
        • Policies of the American Academy of Pediatrics
        • Overcoming Logistical Challenges in Primary Care Early Detection and Intervention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 17 Childcare
        • Provision and Regulation of Childcare in America
        • Childcare's Role in Child Health and Development
        • Role of Pediatric Providers in Childcare
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 18 Loss, Separation, and Bereavement
        • Separation and Loss
        • Divorce
        • Move/Family Relocation
        • Separation Because of Hospitalization
        • Military Families
        • Parental/Sibling Death
        • Grief and Bereavement
        • Developmental Perspective
        • Role of the Pediatrician in Grief
        • Treatment
        • Spiritual Issues
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 19 Sleep Medicine
        • Common Sleep Disorders
        • Health Supervision
        • Evaluation of Pediatric Sleep Problems
        • Bibliography
    • Part III Behavioral and Psychiatric Disorders
      • Chapter 20 Assessment and Interviewing
        • Aims of Assessment
        • Presenting Problems
        • General Principles of the Psychosocial Interview
        • Indications for Referral
        • Psychiatric Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Special Considerations in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Infants and Young Children
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 21 Psychological Treatment of Children and Adolescents
        • Stimulants and other Adhd Medications
        • Antidepressants
        • Antipsychotics
        • Mood Stabilizers
        • Medication Use in Physical Illness
        • Bibliography
        • Behavior Therapy
        • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
        • Family Therapy
        • Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
        • Supportive Psychotherapy
        • Parenting Interventions
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 22 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk Factors
        • Assessment
        • Management
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 23 Rumination and Pica
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 24 Motor Disorders and Habits
        • Description
        • Clinical Course
        • Epidemiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Comorbidities
        • Etiology
        • Sequelae
        • Screening
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Description
        • Clinical Course
        • Epidemiology
        • Comorbidity
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Etiology
        • Treatment
        • Habits
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 25 Anxiety Disorders
        • Anxiety Associated with Medical Conditions
        • Safety and Efficacy Concerns About SSRIs
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 26 Mood Disorders
        • Description
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Course
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Comorbidity
        • Sequelae
        • Etiology and Risk Factors
        • Prevention
        • Screening/Case Finding
        • Stepped Management
        • Early Intervention
        • Treatment
        • Level of Care
        • Bibliography
        • Description
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Course
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Comorbidity
        • Sequelae
        • Etiology/Risk Factors
        • Prevention
        • Case Finding
        • Treatment
        • Level of Care
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 27 Suicide and Attempted Suicide
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk Factors
        • Assessment and Intervention
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 28 Eating Disorders
        • Definitions
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Complications
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 29 Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Course
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Comorbidity
        • Sequelae
        • Etiology and Risk Factors
        • Prevention
        • Screening/Case Finding
        • Level of Care
        • Bibliography
        • Infancy and Toddlerhood
        • Childhood and Adolescence
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 30 Autism Spectrum Disorder
        • Description
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology/Risk Factors
        • Clinical Course
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Comorbidities
        • Sequelae
        • Screening/Case Finding
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 31 Childhood Psychoses
        • Description
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Course
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Comorbidity
        • Sequelae
        • Etiology and Risk Factors
        • Prevention
        • Screening/Case Finding
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Diagnosis and Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
    • Part IV Learning Disorders
      • Chapter 32 Neurodevelopmental Function and Dysfunction in the School-Age Child
        • Terminology and Epidemiology
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Core Neurodevelopmental Functions
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Assessment and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 33 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 34 Dyslexia
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 35 Language Development and Communication Disorders
        • Language and Communication Disorders
        • Motor Speech Disorders
        • Hearing Impairment
        • Hydrocephalus
        • Rare Causes of Language Impairment
        • Noncauses of Language Delay
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Comorbid Disorders
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 36 Intellectual Disability
        • Definition
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Diagnostic Psychologic Testing
        • Complications
        • Prevention
        • Treatment
        • Supportive Care and Management
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
    • Part V Children with Special Needs
      • Chapter 37 Adoption
        • Bibliography
        • Commonly Encountered Infections
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 38 Foster and Kinship Care
        • Epidemiology
        • Legislation in the United States
        • Early Childhood Trauma Leads to Poor Health Outcomes
        • Health Issues
        • Healthcare for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 39 Impact of Violence on Children
        • Bibliography
        • Websites
        • Bullying (“Traditional Bullying”)
        • Cyberbullying
        • School Violence
        • Treatment and Prevention of Bullying and School Violence
        • Bibliography
        • Website Resources
        • Susceptibility of Children in Times of War
        • Psychologic Impact of War
        • Efforts to Protect Children From the Effects of War
        • The Role of Pediatricians and Allied Health Professionals
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 40 Abused and Neglected Children
        • Incidence and Prevalence
        • General Principles for Assessing Possible Abuse and Neglect
        • General Principles for Addressing Child Maltreatment
        • Outcomes of Child Maltreatment
        • Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect
        • Bibliography
        • Definition
        • Presentation of Sexual Abuse
        • The Role of the General Pediatrician in the Assessment and Management of Possible Sexual Abuse
        • Physical Examination of the Child with Suspected Sexual Abuse
        • Sexual Abuse Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 41 Failure to Thrive
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Etiology and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 42 Chronic Illness in Childhood
        • Epidemiology
        • Enhanced Needs of Children with Chronic Illness and Their Families
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 43 Pediatric Palliative Care
        • Care Settings
        • Primary and Subspecialty Palliative Care
        • Communication, Advance Care Planning, and Anticipatory Guidance
        • Bibliography
    • Part VI Nutrition
      • Chapter 44 Nutritional Requirements
        • Dietary Reference Intakes
        • Energy
        • Fat
        • Proteins
        • Carbohydrates
        • Fiber
        • Micronutrients
        • Water
        • Measuring Nutritional Adequacy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 45 Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents
        • Feeding During the First Year of Life
        • Cow Milk Protein–Based Formulas
        • Soy Formulas
        • Protein Hydrolysate Formula
        • Amino Acid Formulas
        • Complementary Feeding
        • Feeding Toddlers and Preschool-Age Children
        • Feeding School-Age Children and Adolescents
        • Nutrition Issues of Importance Across Pediatric Ages
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 46 Nutrition, Food Security, and Health
        • Malnutrition as the Intersection of Food Insecurity and Health Insecurity
        • Food Security
        • Undernutrition
        • Severe Acute Malnutrition
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 47 Overweight and Obesity
        • Epidemiology
        • Body Mass Index
        • Etiology
        • Comorbidities
        • Identification
        • Evaluation
        • Intervention
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 48 Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess
        • Overview of Vitamin A
        • Metabolism of Vitamin A
        • Functions of Vitamin a and Mechanisms of Action
        • Vitamin a Deficiency
        • Hypervitaminosis A
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 49 Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess
        • Deficiency
        • Toxicity
        • Bibliography
        • Deficiency
        • Toxicity
        • Bibliography
        • Deficiency
        • Toxicity
        • Bibliography
        • Deficiency
        • Toxicity
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Deficiency
        • Toxicity
        • Bibliography
        • Deficiency
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 50 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
        • Dietary Needs and Sources
        • Deficiency
        • Toxicity
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 51 Rickets and Hypervitaminosis D
        • Rickets
        • Vitamin D Disorders
        • Calcium Deficiency
        • Phosphorous Deficiency
        • Rickets of Prematurity (See Chapter 106)
        • Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (See Chapter 530)
        • Hypervitaminosis D
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 52 Vitamin E Deficiency
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 53 Vitamin K Deficiency
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 54 Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies
        • Bibliography
    • Part VII Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders
      • Chapter 55 Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders
        • Total Body Water
        • Fluid Compartments
        • Electrolyte Composition
        • Osmolality
        • Bibliography
        • Regulation of Osmolality
        • Regulation of Volume
        • Bibliography
        • Sodium Metabolism
        • Hypernatremia
        • Hyponatremia
        • Bibliography
        • Potassium Metabolism
        • Hyperkalemia
        • Diagnosis
        • Hypokalemia
        • Bibliography
        • Magnesium Metabolism
        • Hypomagnesemia
        • Hypermagnesemia
        • Bibliography
        • Phosphorus Metabolism
        • Hypophosphatemia
        • Hyperphosphatemia
        • Bibliography
        • Acid–Base Physiology
        • Normal Acid–Base Balance
        • Clinical Assessment of Acid–Base Disorders
        • Metabolic Acidosis
        • Metabolic Alkalosis
        • Respiratory Acidosis
        • Respiratory Alkalosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 56 Maintenance and Replacement Therapy
        • Maintenance Therapy
        • Maintenance Water
        • Intravenous Solutions
        • Glucose
        • Selection of Maintenance Fluids
        • Variations in Maintenance Water and Electrolytes
        • Replacement Fluids
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 57 Deficit Therapy
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Calculation of the Fluid Deficit
        • Approach to Severe Dehydration
        • Monitoring and Adjusting Therapy
        • Hyponatremic Dehydration
        • Hypernatremic Dehydration
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 58 Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders
        • Acute Diarrhea
        • Pyloric Stenosis
        • Perioperative Fluids
    • Part VIII Pediatric Drug Therapy
      • Chapter 59 Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Pharmacoproteomics
        • Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and the Concept of Personalized Medicine
        • Definition of Pharmacogenetic Terms
        • Developmental or Pediatric Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
        • Developmental Pharmacogenetics of Drug Biotransformation: Applications to Pediatric Drug Therapy Practice
        • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Transporters
        • Pharmacogenetics of Drug Response: Polymorphisms in Drug Receptors, Ion Channels, and Other Drug Targets During Growth and Development
        • Current and Future Applications for Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics in Pediatrics
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 60 Principles of Drug Therapy
        • General Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles
        • The Impact of Ontogeny on Drug Disposition
        • Personalized Medicine
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 61 Anesthesia, Perioperative Care, and Sedation
        • Induction of General Anesthesia
        • Maintenance of Anesthesia
        • Recovery from Anesthesia
        • Postanesthesia Care Unit
        • Preanesthetic Evaluation
        • Postoperative Pain Management
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 62 Pediatric Pain Management
        • Definition and Categories of Pain
        • The Assessment and Measurement of Pain in Children
        • A Conceptual Framework for the Treatment of Pediatric Pain
        • Unconventional Medications in Pediatric Pain
        • Intrathecal Analgesia
        • Nerve Ablation and Destruction
        • Considerations for Special Pediatric Populations
        • Complex Regional Pain Syndromes
        • Myofascial Pain Disorders and Fibromyalgia
        • Erythromelalgia
        • Other Chronic Pain Conditions in Children
        • Managing Complex Chronic Pain Problems
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 63 Poisoning
        • Prevention
        • Approach to the Poisoned Patient
        • Initial Evaluation
        • Principles of Management
        • Supportive Care
        • Selected Compounds Commonly Involved in Pediatric Poisonings
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 64 Complementary Therapies and Integrative Medicine
        • Dietary Supplements
        • Dietary Supplement Safety
        • Dietary Supplement Efficacy
        • Massage and Chiropractic
        • Mind–Body Therapies
        • Acupuncture
        • Bibliography
        • Internet Resources
    • Part IX The Acutely Ill Child
      • Chapter 65 Evaluation of the Sick Child in the Office and Clinic
        • History
        • Physical Exam
        • Risk Factors
        • Management
        • Disposition
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 66 Emergency Medical Services for Children
        • Pediatric Prehospital Care
        • The Emergency Department
        • Emerging Issues in EMSC
        • Bibliography
        • Communications and Dispatch Center
        • Medical Control Physician
        • Transport Team
        • Ground Versus Air Ambulance
        • Transport Physiology
        • Safety
        • Family-Centered Care
        • Referring Hospital Responsibilities
        • Educational Outreach
        • Bibliography
        • Outcome Measures in Emergency Medical Services for Children
        • Risk Adjustment
        • Risk Adjustment Tools in EMSC
        • Bibliography
        • EMSC and the Continuum of Care Model
        • Applying the Continuum of Care Model to the Developing World
        • Humanitarian Disasters
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 67 Pediatric Emergencies and Resuscitation
        • Approach to the Emergency Evaluation of a Child
        • Recognition and Treatment of Respiratory Distress and Failure
        • Recognition and Management of Shock
        • Recognition of Bradyarrhythmias and Tachyarrhythmias
        • Recognition and Management of Cardiac Arrest
        • Vascular Access
        • Nonvascular Emergency Procedures
        • Postresuscitation Care
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 68 Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization
        • Neurocritical Care Principles
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Observation Periods
        • Ancillary Studies
        • Documentation
        • Supportive Care
        • Objections to the Idea of Brain Death
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 69 Syncope
        • Mechanisms
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 70 Shock
        • Epidemiology
        • Definition
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 71 Respiratory Distress and Failure
        • Respiratory Failure
        • Monitoring a Child in Respiratory Distress and Respiratory Failure
        • Management
        • Bibliography
        • Basic Concepts of Ventilator Management
        • Phases of Mechanical Ventilation
        • Additional Ventilatory Modalities
        • Conventional Ventilator Settings
        • Patient-Ventilator Asynchrony
        • Monitoring Respiratory Mechanics
        • Ventilator-Induced LUNG Injury
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 72 Acute Care of the Victim of Multiple Trauma
        • Epidemiology
        • Regionalization and Trauma Teams
        • Primary Survey
        • Secondary Survey
        • Bibliography
        • Lacerations and Cuts
        • Abrasions
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 73 Altitude-Associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)
        • Etiology
        • General Effects of Hypobaric Hypoxia
        • Acute Mountain Sickness
        • High Altitude Cerebral Edema
        • High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
        • Special Considerations
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 74 Drowning and Submersion Injury
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Management
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 75 Burn Injuries
        • Epidemiology
        • Prevention
        • Acute Care, Resuscitation, and Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Special Situations
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 76 Cold Injuries
        • Pathophysiology
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Cold-Induced Fat Necrosis (Panniculitis)
        • Bibliography
    • Part X Human Genetics
      • Chapter 77 Integration of Genetics Into Pediatric Practice
        • Diagnostic Testing
        • Predictive Testing
        • Predispositional Testing
        • Pharmacogenetic Testing
        • Talking to Families
        • Genetic Counseling
        • Physiologic Therapies
        • Replacement Therapies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 78 The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine
        • The Burden of Genetic Disorders in Childhood
        • The Changing Paradigm of Genetics in Medicine
        • Ethics Issues
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 79 The Human Genome
        • Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics
        • Genetic Variation
        • Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Genetic Disease
        • Human Genome Project
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 80 Patterns of Genetic Transmission
        • Family History and Pedigree Notation
        • Mendelian Inheritance
        • Y-Linked Inheritance
        • Digenic Inheritance
        • Pseudogenetic Inheritance and Familial Clustering
        • Nontraditional Inheritance
        • Multifactorial and Polygenic Inheritance
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 81 Cytogenetics
        • Bibliography
        • Aneuploidy and Polyploidy
        • Down Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Translocations
        • Inversions
        • Deletions and Duplications
        • Insertions
        • Isochromosomes
        • Marker and Ring Chromosomes
        • Bibliography
        • Turner Syndrome
        • Klinefelter Syndrome
        • 47,XYY
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Pallister-Killian Syndrome
        • Hypomelanosis of Ito
        • Uniparental Disomy
        • Imprinting
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 82 Genetics of Common Disorders
        • Linkage Mapping
        • Genetic Association
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 83 Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases
        • Scope of Genetic Disease
        • Clinical Evaluation
        • Available Commercial Laboratory Genetic Studies
        • Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays
        • Exome Sequencing
        • Gene Function Studies
        • Pediatric Issues
        • Considerations for Families of Undiagnosed Children
        • The Diagnostic Spectrum
        • Bibliography
    • Part XI Metabolic Disorders
      • Chapter 84 An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism
        • Common Characteristics of Genetic Disorders of Metabolism
        • Mass Screening of Newborn Infants
        • Clinical Manifestations of Genetic Metabolic Diseases
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 85 Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids
        • Classic Phenylketonuria
        • Hyperphenylalaninemia Caused by Deficiency of the Cofactor Tetrahydrobiopterin
        • Tetrahydrobiopterin Defects Without Hyperphenylalaninemia
        • Bibliography
        • Tyrosinemia Type I (Tyrosinosis, Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Hepatorenal Tyrosinemia)
        • Tyrosinemia Type II (Richner-Hanhart Syndrome, Oculocutaneous Tyrosinemia)
        • Tyrosinemia Type III (Primary Deficiency of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase [4-HPPD])
        • Hawkinsinuria
        • Transient Tyrosinemia of the Newborn
        • Alkaptonuria
        • Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency
        • Albinism (See also Chapters 622 and 653)
        • Bibliography
        • Homocystinuria (Homocystinemia)
        • Hypermethioninemia
        • Cystathioninemia (Cystathioninuria)
        • Bibliography
        • Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency (Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency)
        • Bibliography
        • Hartnup Disorder
        • Bibliography
        • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
        • Isovaleric Acidemia
        • Multiple Carboxylase Deficiencies (Defects in Utilization of Biotin)
        • Isolated 3-Methylcrotonyl Coenzyme a (CoA) Carboxylase Deficiency
        • 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria
        • ß-Ketothiolase (3-Oxothiolase) Deficiency (Mitochondrial Acetoacetyl Coenzyme a Thiolase [T2] Deficiency)
        • Cytosolic Acetoacetyl Coenzyme a Thiolase Deficiency
        • Mitochondrial 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme a Synthase Deficiency
        • 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaric Aciduria
        • Succinyl Coenzyme A:3-Ketoacid Coenzyme a Transferase (SCOT) Deficiency
        • Mevalonic Aciduria
        • Propionic Acidemia (Propionyl Coenzyme a Carboxylase Deficiency)
        • Methylmalonic Acidemia
        • Combined Methylmalonic Aciduria and Homocystinuria (cblC, cblD, cblF, cblJ, and cblX Defects)
        • Bibliography
        • Hypoglycinemia
        • Hyperglycinemia
        • Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia, Glycine Encephalopathy
        • Sarcosinemia
        • D-Glyceric Aciduria
        • Trimethylaminuria
        • Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis
        • Bibliography
        • 3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
        • Phosphoserine Aminotransferase Deficiency
        • Bibliography
        • Hyperprolinemia
        • Prolidase Deficiency
        • Bibliography
        • Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency
        • Glutathionemia (?-Glutamyl Transpeptidase Deficiency)
        • Genetic Disorders of Metabolism of ?-Aminobutyric Acid
        • Bibliography
        • Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency (Infantile Parkinsonism, Autosomal Recessive Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, Segawa Syndrome, Autosomal Recessive Form)
        • Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency
        • Dopamine ß-Hydroxylase Deficiency
        • Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Deficiency
        • ?-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
        • Defects in Neurotransmitters Transporter Proteins
        • Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency
        • Hyperprolinemia
        • 3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
        • Phosphoserine Aminotransferase Deficiency
        • Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia
        • Bibliography
        • Genetic Causes of Hyperammonemia
        • Clinical Manifestations of Hyperammonemia
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment of Acute Hyperammonemia
        • Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase and N-Acetylglutamate Synthetase Deficiencies
        • Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency
        • Argininosuccinate Synthetase (ASS) Deficiency (Citrullinemia)
        • Argininosuccinate Lyase Deficiency (Argininosuccinic Aciduria)
        • Arginase Deficiency (Hyperargininemia)
        • Transient Hyperammonemia of the Newborn
        • Ornithine
        • Hyperammonemia-Hyperornithinemia-Homocitrullinemia Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)-Dependent Epilepsy
        • Glutaric Aciduria Type I
        • Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (Familial Protein Intolerance)
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology and Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Atypical Canavan Disease
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 86 Defects in Metabolism of Lipids
        • Defects in the ß-Oxidation Cycle
        • Defects in the Carnitine Cycle
        • Defects in the Electron Transfer Pathway
        • Defects in Ketone Synthesis Pathway
        • Defects in Ketone Body Utilization
        • Bibliography
        • Peroxisomal Disorders
        • Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-Linked)
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology of Blood Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease
        • Blood Lipids and Atherogenesis
        • Plasma Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport
        • Hyperlipoproteinemias
        • Bibliography
        • GM1 Gangliosidosis
        • The GM2 Gangliosidoses
        • Gaucher Disease
        • Niemann-Pick Disease
        • Fabry Disease
        • Fucosidosis
        • Schindler Disease
        • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
        • Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency
        • Krabbe Disease
        • Farber Disease
        • Wolman Disease and Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease
        • Bibliography
        • I-Cell Disease
        • Pseudo-Hurler Polydystrophy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 87 Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates
        • Liver Glycogenoses
        • Muscle Glycogenoses
        • Bibliography
        • Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase Deficiency Galactosemia
        • Galactokinase Deficiency
        • Uridine Diphosphate Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
        • Bibliography
        • Deficiency of Fructokinase (Essential or Benign Fructosuria)
        • Deficiency of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase (Aldolase B, Hereditary Fructose Intolerance)
        • Bibliography
        • Disorders of Gluconeogenesis
        • Disorders of Pyruvate Metabolism
        • Bibliography
        • Essential Pentosuria
        • Bibliography
        • Sialidosis and Galactosialidosis
        • Aspartylglucosaminuria
        • a-Mannosidosis
        • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 88 Mucopolysaccharidoses
        • Clinical Entities
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 89 Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
        • Gout
        • Abnormalities in Purine Salvage
        • Disorders Linked to Purine Nucleotide Synthesis
        • Disorders Resulting from Abnormalities in Purine Catabolism
        • Disorders of Pyrimidine Metabolism
        • Overactive Cytosolic 5'-Nucleotidase (Pyrimidine Nucleotide Depletion)
        • Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency
        • Acknowledgments
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 90 Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Molecular Pathogenesis
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Prognosis, Treatment, and Patient Resources
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 91 The Porphyrias
        • The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway
        • Classification and Diagnosis of Porphyrias
        • d-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Porphyria
        • Acute Intermittent Porphyria
        • Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria
        • Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
        • Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria
        • Hereditary Coproporphyria
        • Erythropoietic Protoporphyria
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 92 Hypoglycemia
        • Definition
        • Significance and Sequelae
        • Substrate, Enzyme, and Hormonal Integration of Glucose Homeostasis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Classification of Hypoglycemia in Infants and Children
        • Persistent or Recurrent Hypoglycemia in Infants and Children
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
    • Part XII The Fetus and the Neonatal Infant
      • Chapter 93 Overview of Mortality and Morbidity
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 94 The Newborn Infant
        • General Appearance
        • Skin
        • Skull
        • Face
        • Neck
        • Chest
        • Lungs
        • Heart
        • Abdomen
        • Genitals
        • Anus
        • Extremities
        • Neurologic Examination
        • Bibliography
        • Maintenance of Body Heat
        • Antiseptic Skin and Cord Care
        • Other Measures
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Nurseries and Breastfeeding
        • Drugs and Breastfeeding
        • Contraindications to Breastfeeding
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 95 High-Risk Pregnancies
        • Genetic Factors
        • Maternal Factors
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 96 The Fetus
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Infectious Diseases
        • Noninfectious Diseases
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 97 The High-Risk Infant
        • Incidence
        • Etiology
        • Monozygotic Versus Dizygotic Twins
        • Prognosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Definitions
        • Incidence
        • Very Low Birthweight Infants
        • Factors Related to Premature Birth and Low Birthweight
        • Assessment of Gestational Age at Birth
        • Spectrum of Disease in Low-Birthweight Infants
        • Nursery Care
        • Immaturity of Drug Metabolism
        • Prognosis
        • Predicting Neonatal Mortality
        • Discharge From the Hospital
        • Home Care
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Prognosis
        • Management
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 98 Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period
        • Congenital Anomalies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 99 Nervous System Disorders
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Pathophysiology and Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Brachial Palsy
        • Phrenic Nerve Paralysis
        • Facial Nerve Palsy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 100 Delivery Room Emergencies
        • Respiratory Distress and Failure
        • Failure to Initiate or Sustain Respiration
        • Neonatal Resuscitation
        • Meconium
        • Shock
        • Pneumothorax
        • Airway Obstruction
        • Abdominal Wall Defects
        • Injury during Delivery
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 101 Respiratory Tract Disorders
        • The First Breath
        • Breathing Patterns in Newborns
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Apnea and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Incidence
        • Etiology and Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Prevention
        • Treatment
        • Complications of Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Intensive Care
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Prevention
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (Bochdalek)
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology and Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 102 Digestive System Disorders
        • Vomiting
        • Diarrhea
        • Constipation
        • Meconium Plugs
        • Meconium Peritonitis
        • Pathology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Physiologic Jaundice (Icterus Neonatorum)
        • Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia
        • Jaundice Associated with Breast-Feeding
        • Neonatal Hepatitis
        • Congenital Atresia of the Bile Ducts
        • Inspissated Bile Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Incidence and Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Treatment of Hyperbilirubinemia
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 103 Blood Disorders
        • Bibliography
        • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Caused by Rh Incompatibility
        • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Caused by Blood Group a and B Incompatibility
        • Other Forms of Hemolytic Disease
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn
        • Neonatal Thrombocytopenic Purpura
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 104 Genitourinary System
        • Renal Vein Thrombosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 105 The Umbilicus
        • Umbilical Cord
        • Congenital Omphalocele
        • Tumors
        • Hemorrhage
        • Granuloma
        • Infections
        • Umbilical Hernia
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 106 Metabolic Disturbances
        • Hyperthermia in the Newborn
        • Neonatal Cold Injury
        • Edema
        • Hypocalcemia (Tetany)
        • Hypermagnesemia
        • Substance Abuse and Neonatal Abstinence (Withdrawal)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 107 The Endocrine System
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 108 Dysmorphology
        • Classification of Birth Defects
        • Molecular Mechanisms of Malformations
        • Approach to the Dysmorphic Child
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 109 Infections of the Neonatal Infant
        • Bibliography
        • Pathogenesis of Intrauterine Infection
        • Pathogenesis of Ascending Bacterial Infection
        • Pathogenesis of Late-Onset Postnatal Infections
        • Bibliography
        • Immunoglobulin
        • Complement
        • Neutrophils
        • Cytokines/Inflammatory Mediators
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Prematurity
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bacterial Sepsis
        • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Suspected Intrauterine Infection
        • Bibliography
        • Pneumonia and Pneumonitis
        • Meningitis
        • Bibliography
        • Empiric Therapy
        • Directed Therapy
        • Antimicrobial Resistance
        • Bacteremia
        • Pneumonia
        • Meningitis
        • Adjunctive Therapies
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Maternal Strategies
        • Antifungal Prophylaxis
        • Other Strategies for Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections
        • Antimicrobial Stewardship
        • Bibliography
    • Part XIII Adolescent Medicine
      • Chapter 110 Adolescent Development
        • Physical Development
        • Neurologic, Cognitive, and Moral Development
        • Psychosocial Development
        • Implications for Providers and Parents
        • Bibliography
        • Terms and Definitions
        • Factors That Influence Sexual Identity Development
        • Gender Variance/Gender Role Nonconformity among Children and Adolescents
        • Gender-Variant and Transgender Identity Among Children and Adolescents
        • Bibliography
        • Definitions
        • Prevalence of Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Youth
        • Development of Sexual Orientation in Childhood and Adolescence
        • Stigma, Risk, and Resilience
        • Health and Mental Health
        • Recommendations for Care
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 111 The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems
        • Access to Healthcare
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 112 Delivery of Healthcare to Adolescents
        • Bibliography
        • Interviewing the Adolescent
        • Psychosocial Assessment
        • Physical Examination
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 113 Violent Behavior
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 114 Substance Abuse
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Screening for Substance Abuse Disorders
        • Diagnosis
        • Complications
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Pharmacology and Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Cigarettes
        • Pharmacology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes)
        • Smokeless Tobacco
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Synthetic Marijuana
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Complications
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
        • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
        • Phencyclidine
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Withdrawal
        • Overdose Syndrome
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 115 The Breast
        • Female Disorders
        • Male Disorders
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 116 Menstrual Problems
        • Menstrual Irregularities
        • Bibliography
        • History and Physical Examination
        • Laboratory Studies
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Irregular Menstrual Bleeding
        • Heavy and Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 117 Contraception
        • Bibliography
        • Intrauterine Devices
        • Implants
        • Bibliography
        • Depo-Provera
        • Progestin-Only Pills
        • Bibliography
        • Combined Oral Contraceptives
        • Transdermal Patch
        • Vaginal Ring
        • Bibliography
        • Copper IUD
        • Ulipristal Acetate
        • Levonorgestrel
        • Bibliography
        • Condoms
        • Bibliography
        • Diaphragm, Cervical Cap, and Sponge
        • Spermicides
        • Withdrawal
        • Fertility Awareness–Based Methods
        • Lactational Amenorrhea Method
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 118 Adolescent Pregnancy
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Pregnancy Counseling and Initial Management
        • Characteristics of Teen Parents
        • Medical Complications of Mothers and Babies
        • Psychosocial Outcomes/Risks for Mother and Child
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 119 Adolescent Rape
        • Epidemiology
        • Types of Rape
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Interview and Physical Examination
        • Laboratory Data
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 120 Sexually Transmitted Infections
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 121 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
    • Part XIV Immunology
      • Section 1 Evaluation of the Immune System
        • Chapter 122 Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency
          • B Cells
          • T Cells
          • Natural Killer Cells
          • Phagocytic Cells
          • Complement
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 The T-, B-, and NK-Cell Systems
        • Chapter 123 T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, and Natural Killer Cells
          • Lymphopoiesis in the Fetus
          • Postnatal Lymphopoiesis
          • Inheritance of Abnormalities in T-, B-, and Natural Killer–Cell Development
          • Prenatal Diagnosis and Carrier Detection
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 124 Primary Defects of Antibody Production
          • Common Variable Immunodeficiency
          • Selective IgA Deficiency
          • IgG Subclass Deficiencies
          • Immunoglobulin Heavy- and Light-Chain Deletions
          • Hyper-IgM Syndrome
          • X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 125 Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity
          • Thymic Hypoplasia (Digeorge Syndrome)
          • Defective Expression of the T-Cell Receptor–CD3 Complex
          • T-Cell Activation Defects
          • CD8 Lymphocytopenia Caused by Mutations in the Gene Encoding Zeta-Associated Protein 70
          • LCK Deficiency
          • Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
          • Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis Ectodermal Dysplasia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 126 Primary Combined Antibody and Cellular Immunodeficiencies
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Caused by Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Common Cytokine Receptor ? Chain
          • Autosomal Recessive Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
          • Reticular Dysgenesis
          • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
          • Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia
          • Defective Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens
          • Immunodeficiency with Thrombocytopenia and Eczema (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome)
          • Ataxia-Telangiectasia
          • Interferon-? Receptors 1 and 2, IL-12 Receptor ß1, and IL-12P40 Mutations
          • Germline STAT-1 Mutation
          • IL-1R–Associated Kinase 4 Deficiency and Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
          • Natural Killer Cell Deficiency
          • Hyper-IgE Syndromes
          • Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
          • Immune-Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-Linked Syndrome
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 The Phagocytic System
        • Chapter 127 Neutrophils
          • The Phagocytic Inflammatory Response
          • Hematopoiesis
          • Neutrophil Maturation and Kinetics
          • Neutrophil Function
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 128 Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells
          • Development
          • Activation
          • Functional Activities
          • Dendritic Cells
          • Abnormalities of Monocyte-Macrophage or Dendritic Cell Function
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 129 Eosinophils
          • Diseases Associated with Eosinophilia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 130 Disorders of Phagocyte Function
          • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
          • Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome
          • Myeloperoxidase Deficiency
          • Chronic Granulomatous Disease
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 131 Leukopenia
          • Neutropenia
          • Lymphopenia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 132 Leukocytosis
          • Neutrophilia
          • Monocytosis
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 The Complement System
        • Chapter 133 The Complement System
          • Classical and Lectin Pathways
          • Alternative Pathway
          • Membrane Attack Complex
          • Control Mechanisms
          • Participation in Host Defense
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 134 Disorders of the Complement System
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
        • Chapter 135 Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
          • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation From an HLA-Identical Sibling Donor
          • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
          • Acute Myeloid Leukemia
          • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
          • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
          • Myelodysplastic Syndromes Other Than Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia
          • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin Disease
          • Acquired Aplastic Anemia
          • Constitutional Aplastic Anemia
          • Thalassemia
          • Sickle Cell Disease
          • Immunodeficiency Disorders
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 136 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Alternative Sources and Donors
          • Unrelated Donor Transplants
          • Umbilical Cord Blood Transplants
          • Haploidentical Transplants
          • Donor Versus Recipient Natural Killer–Cell Alloreactivity
          • Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 137 Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Venoocclusive Disease
          • Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease
          • Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease
          • Venoocclusive Disease
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 138 Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
        • Chapter 139 Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
          • Bibliography
    • Part XV Allergic Disorders
      • Chapter 140 Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease
        • Key Elements of Allergic Diseases
        • Mechanisms of Allergic Tissue Inflammation
        • Genetic Basis of Atopy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 141 Diagnosis of Allergic Disease
        • Allergy History
        • Physical Examination
        • Diagnostic Testing
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 142 Principles of Treatment of Allergic Disease
        • Environmental Control Measures
        • Pharmacologic Therapy
        • Allergen Immunotherapy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 143 Allergic Rhinitis
        • Etiology and Classification
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Complications
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 144 Childhood Asthma
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Adherence
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 145 Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)
        • Etiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Avoiding Triggers
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 146 Insect Allergy
        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 147 Ocular Allergies
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 148 Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Physical Urticaria
        • Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Angioedema
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Hereditary Angioedema
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 149 Anaphylaxis
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 150 Serum Sickness
        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 151 Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 152 Adverse Reactions to Drugs
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
    • Part XVI Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood
      • Chapter 153 Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease
        • Symptoms Suggestive of Rheumatic Disease
        • Signs Suggestive of Rheumatic Disease
        • Laboratory Testing
        • Imaging Studies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 154 Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases
        • Pediatric Rheumatology Teams and Primary Care Physicians
        • Therapeutics
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 155 Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 156 Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 157 Reactive and Postinfectious Arthritis
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations and Differential Diagnosis
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Complications and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 158 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 159 Juvenile Dermatomyositis
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 160 Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Classification
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 161 Behçet Disease
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 162 Sjögren Syndrome
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Complications and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 163 Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic Autoinflammatory Diseases
        • Familial Mediterranean Fever
        • Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with Periodic Fever Syndrome
        • The Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome
        • Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Fever Syndromes
        • Other Mendelian Autoinflammatory Diseases
        • Genetically Complex Autoinflammatory Diseases
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 164 Amyloidosis
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications and Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 165 Sarcoidosis
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 166 Kawasaki Disease
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory and Radiology Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 167 Vasculitis Syndromes
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 168 Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Complications and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 169 Miscellaneous Conditions Associated with Arthritis
        • Relapsing Polychondritis
        • Mucha-Habermann Disease/Pityriasis Lichenoides Et Varioliformis Acuta
        • Sweet Syndrome
        • Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy
        • Plant Thorn Synovitis
        • Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
        • Bibliography
    • Part XVII Infectious Diseases
      • Section 1 General Considerations
        • Chapter 170 Diagnostic Microbiology
          • Specimen Collection
          • Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial and Fungal Infections
          • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
          • Fungal Cultures
          • Point-of-Care Diagnostics
          • Laboratory Detection of Parasitic Infections
          • Serologic Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 171 The Microbiome and Pediatric Health
          • Measuring the Microbiome
          • Early-Childhood Development of the Microbiome
          • The Microbiome and Physiologic Development
          • Contributions of Microbiome to Disease
          • Therapeutic Manipulation of the Microbiome
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Preventive Measures
        • Chapter 172 Immunization Practices
          • Active Immunization
          • Vaccination System in the United States
          • Recommended Immunization Schedule
          • Vaccines Recommended in Special Circumstances
          • Precautions and Contraindications
          • Improving Immunization Coverage
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 173 Infection Prevention and Control
          • Hand Hygiene
          • Standard Precautions
          • Isolation
          • Additional Measures
          • Surgical Prophylaxis
          • Employee Health
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 174 Childcare and Communicable Diseases
          • Epidemiology
          • Respiratory Tract Infections
          • Gastrointestinal Tract Infections
          • Skin Diseases
          • Invasive Organisms
          • Herpesviruses
          • Blood-borne Pathogens
          • Antibiotic Use and Bacterial Resistance
          • Prevention
          • Standards
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 175 Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally
          • The Pediatric Travel Medicine Consultation
          • Safety and Preventive Counseling Topics
          • Routine Childhood Vaccinations Required for Pediatric Travel
          • Specialized Pediatric Travel Vaccinations
          • Insect-Borne Infections
          • The Returning Traveler
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 176 Fever
          • Definition
          • Pathogenesis
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Features
          • Evaluation
          • Management
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 177 Fever Without a Focus
          • Fever Without Localizing Signs
          • Fever of Unknown Origin
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 178 Infections in Immunocompromised Persons
          • Abnormalities of the Phagocytic System
          • Defective Splenic Function, Opsonization, or Complement Activity
          • B-Cell Defects (Humoral Immunodeficiencies)
          • T-Cell Defects (Cell-Mediated Immunodeficiencies)
          • Combined B-Cell and T-Cell Defects
          • Bibliography
          • Acquired Immunodeficiency From Infectious Agents
          • Malignancies
          • Fever and Neutropenia
          • Transplantation
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 179 Infection Associated with Medical Devices
          • Intravascular Access Devices
          • Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
          • Urethral Catheters
          • Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters
          • Orthopedic Prostheses
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 Antibiotic Therapy
        • Chapter 180 Principles of Antibacterial Therapy
          • Age- and Risk-Specific Use of Antibiotics in Children
          • Antibiotics Commonly Used in Pediatric Practice
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Gram–Positive Bacterial Infections
        • Chapter 181 Staphylococcus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 182 Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 183 Group A Streptococcus
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 184 Group B Streptococcus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 185 Non–Group A or B Streptococci
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 186 Enterococcus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 187 Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 188 Listeria monocytogenes
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 189 Actinomyces
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 190 Nocardia
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 Gram–Negative Bacterial Infections
        • Chapter 191 Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 192 Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 193 Kingella kingae
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Disease
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 194 Haemophilus influenzae
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Diagnosis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 195 Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations.
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 196 Moraxella catarrhalis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis of Infection
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 197 Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 198 Salmonella
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Complications
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Features
          • Complications
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 199 Shigella
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Immunity
          • Clinical Manifestations and Complications
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 200 Escherichia coli
          • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli
          • Enteroinvasive Escherichia Coli
          • Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli
          • Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia Coli
          • Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli
          • Diffusely Adherent Escherichia Coli
          • Enteroaggregative Hemorrhagic Escherichia Coli
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention of Illness
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 201 Cholera
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 202 Campylobacter
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 203 Yersinia
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 204 Aeromonas and Plesiomonas
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 205 Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Burkholderia Mallei (Glanders)
          • Burkholderia Pseudomallei (Melioidosis)
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 206 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 207 Brucella
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 208 Legionella
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 209 Bartonella
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bacillary Angiomatosis
          • Bacillary Peliosis
          • Bacteremia and Endocarditis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
      • Section 6 Anaerobic Bacterial Infections
        • Chapter 210 Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 211 Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 212 Clostridium difficile Infection
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 213 Other Anaerobic Infections
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Common Anaerobic Pathogens
          • Bibliography
      • Section 7 Mycobacterial Infections
        • Chapter 214 Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy
          • Agents Used Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
          • Agents Used Against Mycobacterium Leprae
          • Agents Used Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 215 Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
          • Etiology
          • Terminology: Exposure, Infection, Disease
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnostic Tools
          • Mycobacterial Sampling, Susceptibility and Culture
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 216 Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Long-Term Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 217 Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
      • Section 8 Spirochetal Infections
        • Chapter 218 Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 219 Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 220 Leptospira
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 221 Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 222 Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
      • Section 9 Mycoplasmal Infections
        • Chapter 223 Mycoplasma pneumoniae
          • The Organism
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 224 Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma Hominis, Mycoplasma Genitalium, and Ureaplasma Urealyticum)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
      • Section 10 Chlamydial Infections
        • Chapter 225 Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 226 Chlamydia trachomatis
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 227 Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
      • Section 11 Rickettsial Infections
        • Chapter 228 Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 229 Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 230 Typhus Group Rickettsioses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 231 Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications and Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 232 Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Complications
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
      • Section 12 Fungal Infections
        • Chapter 233 Principles of Antifungal Therapy
          • Polyenes
          • Pyrimidine Analogs
          • Azoles
          • Echinocandins
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 234 Candida
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prophylaxis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Oral Candidiasis
          • Diaper Dermatitis
          • Ungual and Periungual Infections
          • Vulvovaginitis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Primary Immune Defects
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 235 Cryptococcus neoformans
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 236 Malassezia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 237 Aspergillus
          • Asthma
          • Extrinsic Alveolar Alveolitis
          • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
          • Allergic Aspergillus Sinusitis
          • Bibliography
          • Pulmonary Aspergilloma
          • Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
          • Sinusitis
          • Otomycosis
          • Bibliography
          • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis
          • Cutaneous Aspergillosis
          • Invasive Sinonasal Disease
          • Central Nervous System
          • Eye
          • Bone
          • Heart
          • Empirical Antifungal Therapy
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 238 Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 239 Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 240 Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 241 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 242 Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 243 Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 244 Pneumocystis jiroveci
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
      • Section 13 Viral Infections
        • Chapter 245 Principles of Antiviral Therapy
          • Antivirals Used for Herpesviruses
          • Antivirals Used for Respiratory Viral Infections
          • Antiviral Immune Globulins
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 246 Measles
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Inapparent Measles Infection
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 247 Rubella
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnoses
          • Differential Diagnoses
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Vaccination
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 248 Mumps
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 249 Polioviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 250 Nonpolio Enteroviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications and Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 251 Parvoviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 252 Herpes Simplex Virus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 253 Varicella-Zoster Virus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Complications
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 254 Epstein-Barr Virus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Oncogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Specific Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 255 Cytomegalovirus
          • The Virus and Its Interaction with the Host
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 256 Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology/Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 257 Human Herpesvirus 8
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 258 Influenza Viruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Complications
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 259 Parainfluenza Viruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 260 Respiratory Syncytial Virus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 261 Human Metapneumovirus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 262 Adenoviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 263 Rhinoviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 264 Coronaviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 265 Rotaviruses, Caliciviruses, and Astroviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 266 Human Papillomaviruses
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 267 Arboviral Infections in North America
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 268 Arboviral Infections Outside North America
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 269 Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 270 Yellow Fever
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 271 Ebola and Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 272 Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Care
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 273 Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 274 Rabies
          • Epidemiology
          • Transmission
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 275 Polyomaviruses
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 276 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 277 Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 278 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Genetic Counseling
          • Prognosis
          • Family Support
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
      • Section 14 Antiparasitic Therapy
        • Chapter 279 Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy
          • Selected Antiparasitic Drugs for Protozoans
          • Selected Antiparasitic Drugs for Helminths
      • Section 15 Protozoan Diseases
        • Chapter 280 Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 281 Amebiasis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 282 Giardiasis and Balantidiasis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 283 Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia
          • Cryptosporidium
          • Isospora
          • Cyclospora
          • Microsporidia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 284 Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 285 Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 286 African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei Complex)
          • Etiology
          • Life Cycle
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 287 American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi)
          • Etiology
          • Life Cycle
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 288 Malaria (Plasmodium)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications of Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 289 Babesiosis (Babesia)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 290 Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Systemic Signs
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
      • Section 16 Helminthic Diseases
        • Chapter 291 Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 292 Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma Spp.)
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 293 Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichiura)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 294 Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 295 Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 296 Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria bancrofti)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 297 Other Tissue Nematodes
          • Onchocerciasis (Onchocerca Volvulus)
          • Loiasis (Loa Loa)
          • Infection with Animal Filariae
          • Angiostrongylus Cantonensis
          • Angiostrongylus Costaricensis
          • Dracunculiasis (Dracunculus Medinensis)
          • Gnathostoma Spinigerum
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 298 Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 299 Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 300 Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 301 Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)
          • Liver Flukes
          • Lung Flukes
          • Intestinal Flukes
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 302 Adult Tapeworm Infections
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Diphyllobothriasis (Diphyllobothrium Species)
          • Hymenolepiasis (Hymenolepis)
          • Dipylidiasis (Dipylidium Caninum)
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 303 Cysticercosis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 304 Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
  • Volume 2
    • Part XVIII The Digestive System
      • Section 1 Clinical Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease
        • Chapter 305 Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena
        • Chapter 306 Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders
          • Dysphagia
          • Regurgitation
          • Anorexia
          • Vomiting
          • Diarrhea
          • Constipation
          • Abdominal Pain
          • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
          • Abdominal Distention and Abdominal Masses
          • Jaundice
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 The Oral Cavity
        • Chapter 307 Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth
          • Initiation
          • Histodifferentiation–Morphodifferentiation
          • Calcification
          • Eruption
          • Anomalies Associated with Tooth Development
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 308 Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated with Other Conditions
        • Chapter 309 Malocclusion
          • Variations in Growth Patterns
          • Crossbite
          • Open and Closed Bites
          • Dental Crowding
          • Digit Sucking
        • Chapter 310 Cleft Lip and Palate
          • Incidence and Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Postoperative Management
          • Sequelae
          • Velopharyngeal Dysfunction
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 311 Syndromes with Oral Manifestations
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 312 Dental Caries
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 313 Periodontal Diseases
          • Gingivitis
          • Aggressive Periodontitis in Children (Prepubertal Periodontitis)
          • Aggressive Periodontitis in Adolescents (Localized Juvenile Periodontitis)
          • Teething
          • Cyclosporine- or Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth
          • Acute Pericoronitis
          • Necrotizing Periodontal Disease (Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis)
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 314 Dental Trauma
          • Injuries to Teeth
          • Injuries to Periodontal Structures
          • Prevention
          • Additional Considerations
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 315 Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues
          • Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
          • Aphthous Ulcers
          • Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
          • Recurrent Herpes Labialis
          • Bohn Nodules
          • Dental Lamina Cysts
          • Fordyce Granules
          • Parulis
          • Cheilitis
          • Ankyloglossia
          • Geographic Tongue
          • Fissured Tongue
        • Chapter 316 Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws
          • Parotitis
          • Ranula
          • Mucocele
          • Congenital Lip Pits
          • Eruption Cyst
          • Xerostomia
          • Salivary Gland Tumors
          • Histiocytic Disorders
          • Tumors of the Jaw
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 317 Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment
      • Section 3 The Esophagus
        • Chapter 318 Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus
          • Anatomy
          • Function
          • Bibliography
          • Common Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnostic Aids
        • Chapter 319 Congenital Anomalies
          • Presentation
          • Diagnosis
          • Management
          • Outcome
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 320 Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus
          • Extrinsic
          • Intrinsic
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 321 Dysmotility
          • Upper Esophageal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Dysmotility (Striated Muscle)
          • Lower Esophageal and Lower Esophageal Sphincter Dysfunction (Smooth Muscle)
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 322 Hiatal Hernia
        • Chapter 323 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
          • Epidemiology and Natural History
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Management
          • Bibliography
          • Esophageal: Esophagitis And Sequelae—Stricture, Barrett Esophagus, Adenocarcinoma
          • Nutritional
          • Extraesophageal: Respiratory (“Atypical”) Presentations
          • Apnea and Stridor
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 324 Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Non–Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Esophagitis
          • Eosinophilic Esophagitis
          • Infective Esophagitis
          • “Pill” Esophagitis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 325 Esophageal Perforation
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 326 Esophageal Varices
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 327 Ingestions
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Stomach and Intestines
        • Chapter 328 Normal Development, Structure, and Function
          • Development
          • Digestion and Absorption
        • Chapter 329 Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 330 Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 331 Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants of the Omphalomesenteric Duct
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 332 Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 333 Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 334 Foreign Bodies and Bezoars
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 335 Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Primary Ulcers
          • Secondary Ulcers
          • “Stress” Ulceration
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 336 Inflammatory Bowel Disease
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 337 Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 338 Disorders of Malabsorption
          • Clinical Approach
          • Investigations for Carbohydrate Malabsorption
          • Investigations for Fat Malabsorption
          • Investigations for Protein-Losing Enteropathy
          • Investigations for Exocrine Pancreatic Function (Fig. 338-2)
          • Investigations for Intestinal Mucosal Disorders
          • Imaging Procedures
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Genetics and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Presentation and Associated Disorders
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity
          • Bibliography
          • Congenital Intestinal Mucosal Defects
          • Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency
          • Carbohydrate-Deficient Glycoprotein Syndrome and Enterocyte Heparan Sulfate Deficiency
          • Syndromic Diarrhea
          • Autoimmune Enteropathy
          • Bile Acid Malabsorption
          • Intestinal Lymphangiectasia
          • Abetalipoproteinemia
          • Homozygous Hypobetalipoproteinemia
          • Chylomicron Retention Disease (Anderson Disease)
          • Wolman Disease
          • DGAT1 Mutation
          • Bibliography
          • Postinfectious Diarrhea
          • Bacterial Overgrowth
          • Tropical Sprue
          • Whipple Disease
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Carbohydrate Malabsorption
          • Lactase Deficiency
          • Fructose Malabsorption
          • Sucrase–Isomaltase Deficiency
          • Glucose–Galactose Malabsorption
          • Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
          • Enterokinase (Enteropeptidase) Deficiency
          • Trypsinogen Deficiency
          • Disorders of Carbohydrate Absorption
          • Disorders of Amino Acid and Peptide Absorption
          • Disorders of Fat Transport
          • Disorders of Vitamin Absorption
          • Disorders of Electrolyte and Mineral Absorption
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 339 Intestinal Transplantation in Children with Intestinal Failure
          • Indications for Intestinal Transplant
          • Transplantation Operation
          • Postoperative Management
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 340 Acute Gastroenteritis in Children
          • Etiology of Diarrhea
          • Pathogenesis of Infectious Diarrhea
          • Risk Factors for Gastroenteritis
          • Clinical Manifestation of Diarrhea
          • Complications
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 341 Chronic Diarrhea
          • Pathophysiology
          • Etiology
          • Genetic and Molecular Basis of the Protracted Diarrhea Syndrome
          • Evaluation of Patients
          • Investigations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 342 Functional Abdominal Pain (Nonorganic Chronic Abdominal Pain)
          • Pathophysiology
          • Evaluation and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 343 Acute Appendicitis
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Features
          • Physical Examination
          • Diagnostic Studies
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Diagnostic Approach
          • Treatment
          • Incidental Appendicoliths
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 344 Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum
          • Embryology
          • Associated Anomalies
          • Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Approach to the Patient
          • Operative Repair
          • Outcome
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 345 Tumors of the Digestive Tract
          • Hamartomatous Tumors
          • Adenomatous Tumors
          • Other Gastrointestinal Tumors
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 346 Inguinal Hernias
          • Embryology and Pathogenesis
          • Genetics
          • Pathology
          • Incidence
          • Clinical Presentation
          • Evaluation of Acute Inguinal–Scrotal Swelling
          • Management
          • Direct Inguinal Hernia
          • Femoral Hernia
          • Complications
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 Exocrine Pancreas
        • Chapter 347 Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 348 Pancreatic Function Tests
          • Indirect Testing
          • Direct Testing
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 349 Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas
          • Disorders Associated with Pancreatic Insufficiency
          • Cystic Fibrosis
          • Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
          • Pearson Syndrome
          • Johanson-Blizzard Syndrome
          • Isolated Enzyme Deficiencies
          • Other Syndromes Associated with Pancreatic Insufficiency
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 350 Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 351 Pancreatitis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 352 Pseudocyst of the Pancreas
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 353 Pancreatic Tumors
          • Bibliography
      • Section 6 The Liver and Biliary System
        • Chapter 354 Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System
          • Hepatic Ultrastructure
          • Metabolic Functions of the Liver
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 355 Manifestations of Liver Disease
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Bibliography
          • Biochemical Tests
          • Liver Biopsy
          • Hepatic Imaging Procedures
          • Diagnostic Approach to Infants with Jaundice
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 356 Cholestasis
          • Mechanisms
          • Evaluation
          • Intrahepatic Cholestasis
          • Bile Acid–Coenzyme a Ligase Deficiency
          • Disorders of Embryogenesis
          • Biliary Atresia
          • Management of Chronic Cholestasis
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 357 Metabolic Diseases of the Liver
          • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (Glucuronyl Transferase Deficiency)
          • Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type II (Partial Glucuronyl Transferase Deficiency)
          • Inherited Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia
          • Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
          • Bibliography
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Pathology
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • a1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
          • Citrin Deficiency
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 358 Viral Hepatitis
          • Issues Common to All Forms of Viral Hepatitis
          • Hepatitis A
          • Hepatitis B
          • Hepatitis C
          • Hepatitis D
          • Hepatitis E
          • Approach to Acute or Chronic Hepatitis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 359 Liver Abscess
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 360 Liver Disease Associated with Systemic Disorders
          • Bacterial Sepsis
          • Celiac Disease
          • Cardiac Disease
          • Cholestasis Associated with Total Parenteral Nutrition
          • Cystic Fibrosis
          • Bone Marrow Transplantation
          • Hemoglobinopathies
          • Histiocytic Disorders
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 361 Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Primary Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
          • Secondary Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
          • Treatment of Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 362 Autoimmune Hepatitis
          • Etiology
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 363 Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 364 Fulminant Hepatic Failure
          • Etiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 365 Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver
          • Choledochal Cysts
          • Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
          • Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Liver Disease
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 366 Diseases of the Gallbladder
          • Anomalies
          • Acute Hydrops
          • Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis
          • Biliary Dyskinesia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 367 Portal Hypertension and Varices
          • Etiology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 368 Liver Transplantation
          • Indications
          • Technical Innovations
          • Immunosuppression
          • Complications
          • Outcomes
          • Bibliography
      • Section 7 Peritoneum
        • Chapter 369 Malformations
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 370 Ascites
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 371 Peritonitis
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 372 Epigastric Hernia
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
    • Part XIX Respiratory System
      • Section 1 Development and Function
        • Chapter 373 Respiratory Pathophysiology and Regulation
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Central Respiratory Controller
          • Sensors
          • Lung Receptors
          • Effectors
          • Sleep States
          • Regulation of Respiration in Special Situations
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 374 Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease
          • History
          • Physical Examination
          • Blood Gas Analysis
          • Transillumination of the Chest
          • Radiographic Techniques
          • Pulmonary Function Testing
          • Microbiology: Examination of Lung Secretions
          • Exercise Testing
          • Sleep Studies
          • Airway Visualization and Lung Specimen–Based Diagnostic Tests
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 375 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Environmental Risk Factors
          • Genetic Risk Factors
          • Gene-and-Environment Interactions
          • Infant Groups at Increased Risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
          • Clinical Strategies
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Disorders of the Respiratory Tract
        • Chapter 376 Congenital Disorders of the Nose
          • Normal Newborn Nose
          • Physiology
          • Congenital Disorders
          • Choanal Atresia
          • Congenital Defects of the Nasal Septum
          • Pyriform Aperture Stenosis
          • Congenital Midline Nasal Masses
          • Diagnosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 377 Acquired Disorders of the Nose
          • Etiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Anatomy
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 378 Nasal Polyps
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 379 The Common Cold
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 380 Sinusitis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 381 Acute Pharyngitis
          • Infectious Etiologies
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Chronic Group a Streptococcus Carriers
          • Recurrent Pharyngitis
          • Complications and Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 382 Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal) Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess
          • Retropharyngeal and Lateral Pharyngeal Abscess
          • Peritonsillar Cellulitis and/or Abscess
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 383 Tonsils and Adenoids
          • Anatomy
          • Normal Function
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Chronic Airway Obstruction
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 384 Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms
          • Judging the Seriousness of Chronic Respiratory Complaints
          • Recurrent or Persistent Cough
          • Frequently Recurring or Persistent Stridor
          • Recurrent or Persistent Wheeze
          • Recurrent and Persistent Lung Infiltrates
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 385 Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup, Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 386 Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 387 Foreign Bodies in the Airway
          • Epidemiology and Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 388 Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 389 Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 390 Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 391 Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis
          • Definitions and General Pathophysiology
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Prognosis
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Acute Bronchitis
          • Chronic Bronchitis
          • Cigarette Smoking and Air Pollution
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications and Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 392 Emphysema and Overinflation
          • Localized Obstructive Overinflation
          • Generalized Obstructive Overinflation
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 393 a1-Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Supportive Therapy
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 394 Other Distal Airway Diseases
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology and Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 395 Congenital Disorders of the Lung
          • Etiology and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Prognosis
          • Diagnosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathology
          • Etiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Congenital Lobar Emphysema and Pulmonary Cysts
          • Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation
          • Bronchobiliary Fistula
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 396 Pulmonary Edema
          • Pathophysiology
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 397 Aspiration Syndromes
          • Gastric Contents
          • Hydrocarbon Aspiration
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 398 Chronic Recurrent Aspiration
          • Etiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 399 Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease
          • Etiology
          • Classification and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Classification and Pathogenesis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
          • Sarcoidosis
          • Berylliosis
          • Granulomatous Lung Disease in Primary Immune Deficiency
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Löffler Syndrome
          • Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia
          • Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia
          • Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (The Churg-Strauss Syndrome)
          • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
          • Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
          • Bibliography
          • Classification and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Goodpasture Disease
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 400 Community-Acquired Pneumonia
          • Epidemiology
          • Etiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 401 Bronchiectasis
          • Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 402 Pulmonary Abscess
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 403 Cystic Fibrosis
          • Genetics
          • Pathogenesis
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Assessment
          • Treatment
          • Treatment of Pulmonary Complications
          • Treatment of Intestinal Complications
          • Other Therapy
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 404 Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener Syndrome)
          • Normal Ciliary Ultrastructure and Function
          • Genetics of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
          • Clinical Manifestations of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
          • Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 405 Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood
          • Pathology
          • Treatment of Surfactant Dysfunction Disorders
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 406 Pulmonary Hemosiderosis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 407 Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 408 Atelectasis
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 409 Pulmonary Tumors
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Evaluation
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 410 Pleurisy, Pleural Effusions, and Empyema
          • Etiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 411 Pneumothorax
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 412 Pneumomedias­tinum
          • Etiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 413 Hydrothorax
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 414 Hemothorax
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 415 Chylothorax
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 416 Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 417 Skeletal Diseases Influencing Pulmonary Function
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pectus Carinatum
          • Sternal Clefts
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 418 Chronic Severe Respiratory Insufficiency
          • Pathogenesis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Genetics
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Management
          • Bibliography
          • Myelomeningocele with Arnold-Chiari Type II Malformation
          • Rapid-Onset Obesity, Hypothalamic Dysfunction, and Autonomic Dysregulation
          • Acquired Alveolar Hypoventilation
          • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
          • Spinal Cord Injury
          • Metabolic Disease
          • Hematologic Stem-Cell Transplantation
          • Mitochondrial Diseases
          • Bibliography
          • Respiratory Equipment for Home Care
          • Airway Clearance
          • Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy
          • Infections
          • Monitoring
          • Weaning Off Ventilator Support
          • Discharge Process
          • Outpatient Follow Up
          • Transition of Care
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 419 Extrapulmonary Diseases with Pulmonary Manifestations
          • Evaluation
          • Bibliography
    • Part XX The Cardiovascular System
      • Section 1 Developmental Biology of the Cardiovascular System
        • Chapter 420 Cardiac Development
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 421 The Fetal to Neonatal Circulatory Transition
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System
        • Chapter 422 History and Physical Examination
          • History
          • General Physical Examination
          • Cardiac Examination
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 423 Laboratory Evaluation
          • Developmental Changes
          • Rate and Rhythm
          • P Waves
          • QRS Complex
          • P-R and Q-T Intervals
          • ST Segment and T-Wave Abnormalities
          • Bibliography
          • M-Mode Echocardiography
          • Two-Dimensional Echocardiography
          • Doppler Echocardiography
          • Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
          • Transesophageal Echocardiography
          • Fetal Echocardiography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization
          • Thermodilution Measurement of Cardiac Output
          • Angiocardiography
          • Interventional Cardiac Catheterization
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 Congenital Heart Disease
        • Chapter 424 Epidemiology and Genetic Basis of Congenital Heart Disease
          • Prevalence
          • Etiology
          • Genetic Counseling
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 425 Evaluation and Screening of the Infant or Child with Congenital Heart Disease
          • Acyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions
          • Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 426 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Treatment
          • Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Low Birthweight Infants
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 427 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Postcoarctectomy Syndrome
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 428 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 429 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
          • Cardiac Disease Leading to Cyanosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
        • Chapter 430 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Associated Anomalies
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 431 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Treatment
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 432 Other Congenital Heart and Vascular Malformations
          • Right Aortic Arch
          • Vascular Rings
          • Bibliography
          • Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery
          • Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery
          • Ectopic Origin of the Coronary Artery From the Aorta with Aberrant Proximal Course
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 433 Pulmonary Hypertension
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Pathophysiology
          • Pathology and Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 434 General Principles of Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease
          • Long-Term Management
          • Bibliography
          • Long-Term Medical Considerations
          • Specific Lesions
          • Pregnancy and Congenital Heart Disease
          • Contraception
          • Adolescent Transition
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Cardiac Arrhythmias
        • Chapter 435 Disturbances of Rate and Rhythm of the Heart
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 436 Sudden Death
          • Mechanism of Sudden Death
          • Congenital Heart Disease
          • Cardiomyopathy
          • Cardiac Arrhythmia
          • Miscellaneous Causes
          • Evaluation and Therapy for Resuscitated Patients
          • Medication for Attention-Deficit Disorder
          • Prevention of Sudden Death
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 Acquired Heart Disease
        • Chapter 437 Infective Endocarditis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 438 Rheumatic Heart Disease
          • Patterns of Valvular Disease
          • Bibliography
      • Section 6 Diseases of the Myocardium and Pericardium
        • Chapter 439 Diseases of the Myocardium
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Prognosis and Management
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Management
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Management
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 440 Diseases of the Pericardium
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 441 Tumors of the Heart
          • Bibliography
      • Section 7 Cardiac Therapeutics
        • Chapter 442 Heart Failure
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Electrophysiologic Approaches to Heart Failure Management
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 443 Pediatric Heart and Heart-Lung Transplantation
          • Indications
          • Recipient and Donor Selection
          • Perioperative Management
          • Diagnosis and Management of Acute Graft Rejection
          • Complications of Immunosuppression
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
      • Section 8 Diseases of the Peripheral Vascular System
        • Chapter 444 Diseases of the Blood Vessels (Aneurysms and Fistulas)
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 445 Systemic Hypertension
          • Prevalence of Hypertension in Children
          • Definition of Hypertension
          • Measurement of BP in Children
          • Etiology and Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prevention
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
    • Part XXI Diseases of the Blood
      • Section 1 The Spleen
        • Chapter 446 Development of the Hematopoietic System
          • Hematopoiesis in the Human Embryo and Fetus
          • Fetal Granulocytopoiesis
          • Fetal Thrombopoiesis
          • Fetal Erythropoiesis
          • Red Cell Life Span of the Fetus and Neonate
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 447 The Anemias
          • History and Physical Examination
          • Laboratory Studies
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Anemias of Inadequate Production
        • Chapter 448 Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia (Diamond-Blackfan Anemia)
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 449 Pearson Syndrome
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 450 Acquired Pure Red Blood Cell Anemia
          • Transient Erythroblastopenia of Childhood
          • Red Cell Aplasia Associated with Parvovirus B19 Infection
          • Chronic Hemolysis
          • Immunodeficiency
          • Miscarriage and Hydrops Fetalis
          • Other Red Cell Aplasias in Children
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 451 Anemia of Chronic Disease and Renal Disease
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 452 Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias
          • Type I Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia
          • Type II Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia
          • Type III Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 453 Physiologic Anemia of Infancy
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 454 Megaloblastic Anemias
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Metabolism
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 455 Iron-Deficiency Anemia
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Prevention
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 456 Other Microcytic Anemias
          • Infantile Poikilocytosis and Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis
          • Copper Deficiency
          • Defects of Iron Metabolism
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 Hemolytic Anemias
        • Chapter 457 Definitions and Classification of Hemolytic Anemias
        • Chapter 458 Hereditary Spherocytosis
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 459 Hereditary Elliptocytosis
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 460 Hereditary Stomatocytosis
          • Hydrocytosis
          • Xerocytosis
          • Intermediate Syndromes
          • Other Disorders Associated with Stomatocytosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 461 Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Acanthocytosis
          • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
          • Acanthocytosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 462 Hemoglobinopathies
          • Hemoglobin Disorders
          • Pathophysiology
          • Diagnosis and Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia (Hb SS)
          • Therapeutic Considerations
          • Other Sickle Cell Syndromes
          • Anticipatory Guidance
          • Bibliography
          • Hemoglobin C
          • Hemoglobin E
          • Hemoglobin D
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Homozygous ß-Thalassemia (Thalassemia Major, Cooley Anemia)
          • Other ß-Thalassemia Syndromes
          • a-Thalassemia Syndromes
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 463 Enzymatic Defects
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Deficiencies of Enzymes of the Hexose Monophosphate Pathway
          • Episodic or Induced Hemolytic Anemia
          • Chronic Hemolytic Anemias Associated with Deficiency of G6PD or Related Factors
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 464 Hemolytic Anemias Resulting from Extracellular Factors—Immune Hemolytic Anemias
          • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias
          • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias Associated with “Warm” Antibodies
          • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias Associated with “Cold” Antibodies
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 465 Hemolytic Anemias Secondary to Other Extracellular Factors
          • Fragmentation Hemolysis
          • Thermal Injury
          • Renal Disease
          • Liver Disease
          • Toxins and Venoms
          • Wilson Disease
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Polycythemia (Erythrocytosis)
        • Chapter 466 Polycythemia
          • Clonal (Primary) Polycythemia (Polycythemia Rubra Vera)
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 467 Non-Clonal Polycythemia
          • Pathogenesis
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 The Pancytopenias
        • Chapter 468 The Inherited Pancytopenias
          • Fanconi Anemia
          • Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
          • Dyskeratosis Congenita
          • Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia
          • Other Inherited Syndromes
          • Unclassified Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 469 The Acquired Pancytopenias
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations, Laboratory Findings, and Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prognosis
          • Pancytopenia Caused by Marrow Replacement
          • Bibliography
      • Section 6 Blood Component Transfusions
        • Chapter 470 Red Blood Cell Transfusions and Erythropoietin Therapy
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 471 Platelet Transfusions
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 472 Neutrophil (Granulocyte) Transfusions
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 473 Plasma Transfusions
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 474 Risks of Blood Transfusions
          • Bibliography
      • Section 7 Hemorrhagic and Thrombotic Diseases
        • Chapter 475 Hemostasis
          • The Process
          • Pathology
          • History
          • Physical Examination
          • Laboratory Tests
          • Developmental Hemostasis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 476 Hereditary Clotting Factor Deficiencies (Bleeding Disorders)
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Genetics and Classification
          • Treatment
          • Prophylaxis
          • Supportive Care
          • Chronic Complications
          • Comprehensive Care
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 477 Von Willebrand Disease
          • Pathophysiology
          • Classification
          • Laboratory Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 478 Hereditary Predisposition to Thrombosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 479 Thrombotic Disorders in Children
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Testing
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Unfractionated Heparin
          • Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin
          • Warfarin
          • Direct Thrombin or Factor Xa Inhibitors
          • Thrombolytic Therapy
          • Thromboprophylaxis
          • Antiplatelet Therapy
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 480 Postneonatal Vitamin K Deficiency
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 481 Liver Disease
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 482 Acquired Inhibitors of Coagulation
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 483 Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 484 Platelet and Blood Vessel Disorders
          • Thrombocytopenia
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Outcome
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Diagnosis/Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Chronic Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Other Hereditary Disorders of Platelet Function
          • Treatment of Patients with Platelet Dysfunction
          • Bibliography
          • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
          • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
          • Other Acquired Disorders
          • Bibliography
      • Section 8 The Spleen
        • Chapter 485 Anatomy and Function of the Spleen
          • Anatomy
          • Function
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 486 Splenomegaly
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 487 Hyposplenism, Splenic Trauma, and Splenectomy
          • Hyposplenism
          • Splenic Trauma
          • Splenectomy
          • Bibliography
      • Section 9 The Lymphatic System
        • Chapter 488 Anatomy and Function of the Lymphatic System
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 489 Abnormalities of Lymphatic Vessels
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 490 Lymphadenopathy
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
    • Part XXII Cancer and Benign Tumors
      • Chapter 491 Epidemiology of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer
        • Influencing the Incidence of Cancer
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 492 Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer
        • Genes Involved in Oncogenesis
        • Syndromes Predisposing to Cancer
        • Other Factors Associated with Oncogenesis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 493 Principles of Diagnosis
        • Signs and Symptoms
        • Physical Examination
        • Age-Related Manifestations
        • Early Detection
        • Ensuring the Diagnosis
        • Staging
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 494 Principles of Treatment
        • Diagnosis and Staging
        • A Multimodal, Multidisciplinary Approach
        • Discussing the Treatment Plan with the Patient and Family
        • Treatments
        • Acute Toxic Effects and Supportive Care
        • Late Adverse Effects
        • Palliative Care
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 495 The Leukemias
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Cellular Classification
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Supportive Care
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Cellular Classification
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Prognosis and Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 496 Lymphoma
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Relapse
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 497 Brain Tumors in Childhood
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Specific Tumors
        • Complications and Long-Term Management
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 498 Neuroblastoma
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 499 Neoplasms of the Kidney
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology: Genetics and Molecular Biology
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Recurrent Disease
        • Prognosis
        • Late Effects
        • Mesoblastic Nephroma
        • Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney
        • Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney
        • Renal Cell Carcinoma
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 500 Soft Tissue Sarcomas
        • Rhabdomyosarcoma
        • Other Soft Tissue Sarcomas
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 501 Neoplasms of Bone
        • Osteosarcoma
        • Ewing Sarcoma
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 502 Retinoblastoma
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 503 Gonadal and Germ Cell Neoplasms
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 504 Neoplasms of the Liver
        • Hepatoblastoma
        • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 505 Benign Vascular Tumors
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 506 Rare Tumors
        • Benign Thyroid Tumors
        • Malignant Thyroid Tumors
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 507 Histiocytosis Syndromes of Childhood
        • Classification and Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXIII Nephrology
      • Section 1 Glomerular Disease
        • Chapter 508 Introduction to Glomerular Diseases
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Pathogenesis
          • Pathology
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Conditions Particularly Associated with Hematuria
        • Chapter 509 Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Hematuria
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 510 Isolated Glomerular Diseases with Recurrent Gross Hematuria
          • Pathology and Pathologic Diagnosis
          • Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Genetics
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 511 Glomerulonephritis Associated with Infections
          • Etiology and Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 512 Membranous Nephropathy
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 513 Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 514 Glomerulonephritis Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
          • Pathogenesis and Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 515 Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis
          • Pathogenesis and Pathology
          • Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 516 Rapidly Progressive (Crescentic) Glomerulonephritis
          • Classification
          • Pathology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 517 Goodpasture Disease
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 518 Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
          • Etiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
          • Prognosis and Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 519 Upper Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria
          • Bibliography
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 520 Hematologic Diseases Causing Hematuria
          • Etiology
          • Pathology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 521 Anatomic Abnormalities Associated with Hematuria
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Presentation
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 522 Lower Urinary Tract Causes of Hematuria
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 Conditions Particularly Associated with Proteinuria
        • Chapter 523 Introduction to the Child with Proteinuria
          • Normal Physiology
          • Pathophysiology of Proteinuria
          • Measurement of Urine Protein
          • Clinical Considerations
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 524 Transient Proteinuria
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 525 Orthostatic (Postural) Proteinuria
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 526 Fixed Proteinuria
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 527 Nephrotic Syndrome
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Consequences of Nephrotic Syndrome
          • Bibliography
          • Pathology
          • Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Tubular Disorders
        • Chapter 528 Tubular Function
          • Sodium
          • Potassium
          • Calcium
          • Phosphate
          • Magnesium
          • Acidification and Concentrating Mechanisms
          • Developmental Considerations
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 529 Renal Tubular Acidosis
          • Normal Urinary Acidification
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations of Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Fanconi Syndrome
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnostic Approach to Renal Tubular Acidosis
          • Treatment and Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 530 Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 531 Bartter and Gitelman Syndromes and Other Inherited Tubular Transport Abnormalities
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment and Prognosis
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 532 Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
          • Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
          • Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease
        • Chapter 533 Toxic Nephropathy
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 534 Cortical Necrosis
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory and Radiologic Findings
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 535 Renal Failure
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 536 Renal Transplantation
          • Incidence and Etiology
          • Indications
          • Characteristics of Donors and Recipients
          • Evaluation and Preparing for Transplantation
          • Immunosuppression
          • Fluid Management in Infants and Small Children
          • Renal Biopsy
          • Rejection
          • Graft Survival
          • Complications with Immunosuppression Infections
          • Long-Term Outcome
          • Bibliography
    • Part XXIV Urologic Disorders in Infants and Children
      • Chapter 537 Congenital Anomalies and Dysgenesis of the Kidneys
        • Embryonic Development
        • Renal Agenesis
        • Renal Dysgenesis: Dysplasia, Hypoplasia, and Cystic Anomalies
        • Anomalies in Shape and Position
        • Associated Physical Findings
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 538 Urinary Tract Infections
        • Prevalence and Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations and Classification
        • Pathogenesis and Pathology
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Imaging Studies in Children with a Febrile UTI
        • Prophylaxis of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 539 Vesicoureteral Reflux
        • Classification
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Natural History
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 540 Obstruction of the Urinary Tract
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Specific Types of Urinary Tract Obstruction and Their Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 541 Anomalies of the Bladder
        • Bladder Exstrophy
        • Other Exstrophy Anomalies
        • Bladder Diverticula
        • Urachal Anomalies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 542 Neuropathic Bladder
        • Neural Tube Defects
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Renal Damage
        • Urinary Incontinence
        • Associated Disorders
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 543 Enuresis and Voiding Dysfunction
        • Normal Voiding and Toilet Training
        • Diurnal Incontinence
        • Overactive Bladder (Diurnal Urge Syndrome)
        • Nonneurogenic Neurogenic Bladder (Hinman Syndrome)
        • Infrequent Voiding (Underactive Bladder)
        • Vaginal Voiding
        • Other Causes of Incontinence in Girls
        • Voiding Disorders without Incontinence
        • Nocturnal Enuresis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 544 Anomalies of the Penis and Urethra
        • Hypospadias
        • Chordee Without Hypospadias
        • Phimosis and Paraphimosis
        • Circumcision
        • Penile Torsion
        • Inconspicuous Penis
        • Micropenis
        • Priapism
        • Other Penile Anomalies
        • Meatal Stenosis
        • Other Male Urethral Anomalies
        • Urethral Prolapse (Female)
        • Other Female Urethral Lesions
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 545 Disorders and Anomalies of the Scrotal Contents
        • Undescended Testis (Cryptorchidism)
        • Scrotal Swelling
        • Testicular (Spermatic Cord) Torsion
        • Torsion of the Appendix Testis
        • Epididymitis
        • Varicocele
        • Spermatocele
        • Hydrocele
        • Inguinal Hernia
        • Testicular Tumor
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 546 Trauma to the Genitourinary Tract
        • Etiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 547 Urinary Lithiasis
        • Stone Formation
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Metabolic Evaluation
        • Pathogenesis of Specific Renal Calculi
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXV Gynecologic Problems of Childhood
      • Chapter 548 History and Physical Examination
        • History
        • Gynecologic Examination
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 549 Vulvovaginitis
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment and Prevention
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 550 Bleeding
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 551 Breast Concerns
        • Breast Development
        • Breast Examination
        • Breast Self-Examination
        • Abnormal Development
        • Infections
        • Trauma and Inflammation
        • Nipple Discharge
        • Mastalgia
        • Breast Masses
        • Cosmetic Surgery
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 552 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism
        • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
        • Hirsutism
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 553 Neoplasms and Adolescent Screening for Human Papillomavirus
        • Gynecologic Malignancies
        • Impact of Cancer Therapy on Fertility
        • Ovaries
        • Uterus
        • Vagina
        • Vulva
        • Cervix
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 554 Vulvovaginal and Müllerian Anomalies
        • Embryology
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Uterine Anomalies
        • Septate Uterus
        • Vaginal Anomalies
        • Cervical Anomalies
        • Vulvar and Other Anomalies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 555 Gynecologic Care for Girls with Special Needs
        • Abuse
        • Pelvic Examination
        • Menstruation
        • Contraception
        • Bibliography
        • Classifications
        • Management
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXVI The Endocrine System
      • Section 1 Disorders of The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
        • Chapter 556 Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary
          • Anatomy
          • Embryology
          • Vascular Supply
          • Anterior Pituitary Cell Types
          • Posterior Pituitary Cell Types
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 557 Hypopituitarism
          • Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
          • Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Insensitivity
          • Growth Hormone Insensitivity
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Radiologic Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Complications and Adverse Effects of GH Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 558 Diabetes Insipidus
          • Physiology of Water Balance
          • Approach to the Patient with Polyuria, Polydipsia, and Hypernatremia
          • Causes of Hypernatremia
          • Treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus
          • Treatment of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 559 Other Abnormalities of Arginine Vasopressin Metabolism and Action
          • Causes of Hyponatremia
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 560 Hyperpituitarism, Tall Stature, and Overgrowth Syndromes
          • Hyperpituitarism
          • Tall Stature
          • Sotos Syndrome (Cerebral Gigantism)
          • Excess Growth Hormone Secretion and Pituitary Gigantism
          • Hypersecretion of Other Pituitary Hormones
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 561 Physiology of Puberty
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 562 Disorders of Pubertal Development
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Treatment
          • Hepatic Tumors
          • Intracranial Tumors
          • Tumors in Other Locations
          • Peripheral Precocious Puberty
          • Extragonadal Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Premature Thelarche
          • Premature Pubarche (Adrenarche)
          • Premature Menarche
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Disorders of The Thyroid Gland
        • Chapter 563 Thyroid Development and Physiology
          • Thyroid Physiology
          • Thyroid Regulation
          • Bibliography
          • Serum Thyroid Hormones
          • Fetal and Newborn Thyroid
          • Serum Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
          • In Vivo Radionuclide Studies
          • Thyroid Ultrasonographic Studies
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 564 Defects of Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 565 Hypothyroidism
          • Congenital Hypothyroidism
          • Acquired Hypothyroidism
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 566 Thyroiditis
          • Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis (Hashimoto Thyroiditis, Autoimmune Thyroiditis)
          • Other Causes of Thyroiditis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 567 Goiter
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Pathogenesis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Iodide Goiter
          • Simple Goiter (Colloid Goiter)
          • Multinodular Goiter
          • Toxic Goiter (Hyperthyroidism)
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 568 Hyperthyroidism
          • Epidemiology
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 569 Carcinoma of the Thyroid
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 2A
          • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 2B
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 Disorders of The Parathyroid Gland
        • Chapter 570 Hormones and Peptides of Calcium Homeostasis and Bone Metabolism
          • Parathyroid Hormone
          • Parathyroid Hormone–Related Peptide
          • Vitamin D
          • Calcitonin
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 571 Hypoparathyroidism
          • Etiology
          • Aplasia or Hypoplasia of the Parathyroid Glands
          • X-Linked Recessive Hypoparathyroidism
          • Autosomal Recessive Hypoparathyroidism with Dysmorphic Features
          • Hypoparathyroidism, Sensorineural Deafness, and Renal Anomaly Syndrome
          • Suppression of Neonatal Parathyroid Hormone Secretion Because of Maternal Hyperparathyroidism
          • Autosomal Dominant Hypoparathyroidism
          • Hypoparathyroidism Associated with Mitochondrial Disorders
          • Surgical Hypoparathyroidism
          • Autoimmune Hypoparathyroidism
          • Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 572 Pseudohypoparathyroid­ism (Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy)
          • Type Ia
          • Type Ib
          • Acrodysostosis with Hormone Resistance
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 573 Hyperparathyroidism
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (Familial Benign Hypercalcemia)
          • Granulomatous Diseases
          • Hypercalcemia of Malignancy
          • Miscellaneous Causes of Hypercalcemia
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Disorders of The Adrenal Gland
        • Chapter 574 Physiology of the Adrenal Gland
          • Bibliography
          • Zona Glomerulosa
          • Zona Fasciculata
          • Zona Reticularis
          • Fetoplacental Unit
          • Bibliography
          • Regulation of Cortisol Secretion
          • Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion
          • Regulation of Adrenal Androgen Secretion
          • Bibliography
          • Actions of Glucocorticoids
          • Actions of Mineralocorticoids
          • Actions of the Adrenal Androgens
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 575 Adrenocortical Insufficiency
          • Inherited Etiologies
          • Acquired Etiologies
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Presentation
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance
          • Cortisone Reductase Deficiency
          • Altered End-Organ Sensitivity to Mineralocorticoids
          • Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess
          • Liddle Syndrome
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 576 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Related Disorders
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Genetics
          • Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Prenatal Diagnosis
          • Newborn Screening
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Clinical Manifestations
          • Epidemiology
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Genetic Counseling
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 577 Cushing Syndrome
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 578 Primary Aldosteronism
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 579 Adrenocortical Tumors
          • Epidemiology
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Pathologic Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 580 Pheochromocytoma
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 581 Adrenal Masses
          • Bibliography
      • Section 5 Disorders of The Gonads
        • Chapter 582 Development and Function of the Gonads
          • Genetic Control of Embryonic Gonadal Differentiation
          • Function of the Testes
          • Function of the Ovaries
          • Diagnostic Testing
          • Therapeutic Use of Sex Steroids
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 583 Hypofunction of the Testes
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Noonan Syndrome
          • Klinefelter Syndrome
          • XX Males
          • 45,X Males
          • 47,XXX Males
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 584 Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Tumors of the Testes
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 585 Gynecomastia
          • Physiologic Forms of Gynecomastia
          • Evaluation of Gynecomastia
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 586 Hypofunction of the Ovaries
          • Turner Syndrome
          • XX Gonadal Dysgenesis
          • 45,X/46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis
          • XXX, XXXX, and XXXXX Females
          • Noonan Syndrome
          • Other Ovarian Defects
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Diagnosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 587 Pseudoprecocity Resulting from Lesions of the Ovary
          • Estrogenic Lesions of the Ovary
          • Androgenic Lesions of the Ovary
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 588 Disorders of Sex Development
          • Sex Differentiation
          • Diagnostic Approach to the Patient with Atypical or Ambiguous Genitalia
          • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
          • Aromatase Deficiency
          • Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Mutation
          • Virilizing Maternal Tumors
          • Administration of Androgenic Drugs to Women during Pregnancy
          • Bibliography
          • Defects in Testicular Differentiation
          • Defects in Testicular Hormones
          • Defects in Androgen Action
          • Undetermined Causes
          • Bibliography
          • Diagnosis and Management of Disorders of Sex Development
          • Bibliography
      • Section 6 Diabetes Mellitus in Children
        • Chapter 589 Diabetes Mellitus
          • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
          • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
          • Other Specific Types of Secondary Diabetes
          • Impaired Glucose Tolerance
          • Epidemiology
          • Genetics
          • Environmental Factors
          • Pathogenesis and Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
          • Prediction and Prevention
          • Pathophysiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • New-Onset Diabetes Without Ketoacidosis
          • Cognitive Function
          • Coping Styles
          • Nonadherence
          • Anxiety and Depression
          • Fear of Self-Injecting and Self-Testing
          • Eating Disorders
          • Long-Term Complications: Relation to Glycemic Control
          • Diabetic Neuropathy
          • Prognosis
          • Pancreas and Islet Transplantation and Regeneration
          • Natural History
          • Epidemiology
          • Genetics
          • Epigenetics and Fetal Programming
          • Environmental and Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors
          • Clinical Features
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Prevention
          • Genetic Defects of ß-Cell Function
          • Diabetes Mellitus of the Newborn
          • Genetic Defects of Insulin Action
          • Cystic Fibrosis–Related Diabetes
          • Autoimmune Diseases
          • Endocrinopathies
          • Drugs
          • Genetic Syndromes Associated with Diabetes Mellitus
          • Bibliography
    • Part XXVII The Nervous System
      • Chapter 590 Neurologic Evaluation
        • History
        • Neurologic Examination
        • General Examination
        • Special Diagnostic Procedures
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 591 Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System
        • Etiology
        • Prevention
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Lissencephaly
        • Schizencephaly
        • Neuronal Heterotopias
        • Polymicrogyrias
        • Focal Cortical Dysplasias
        • Porencephaly
        • Bibliography
        • Holoprosencephaly
        • Bibliography
        • Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders
        • Brainstem and Cerebellar Disorders
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Physiology
        • Pathophysiology and Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Megalencephaly
        • Hydranencephaly
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Development and Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 592 Deformational Plagiocephaly
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Examination and Differentiating between Deformational Plagiocephaly and Craniosynostosis
        • Treatment
        • Outcomes
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 593 Seizures in Childhood
        • Evaluation of the First Seizure
        • Genetic Factors
        • Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • History and Examination
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Long-Term Approach to the Patient and Additional Testing
        • Bibliography
        • Focal Seizures without Impairment of Consciousness
        • Focal Seizures with Impairment of Consciousness
        • Secondary Generalized Seizures
        • Benign Epilepsy Syndromes with Focal Seizures
        • Severe Epilepsy Syndromes with Focal Seizures
        • Absence Seizures
        • Generalized Motor Seizure
        • Benign Generalized Epilepsies
        • Severe Generalized Epilepsies
        • Bibliography
        • Deciding on Long-Term Therapy
        • Counseling
        • Mechanisms of Action of Antiepileptic Drugs
        • Choice of Drug According to Seizure Type and Epilepsy Syndrome
        • Choice of Drug: Other Considerations
        • Initiating and Monitoring Therapy
        • Side Effects
        • Approach to Epilepsy Surgery
        • Discontinuation of Therapy
        • Bibliography
        • Pathophysiology
        • Types of Neonatal Seizures
        • Etiology
        • Diagnosis
        • Prognosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Mechanisms
        • Therapy
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 594 Conditions That Mimic Seizures
        • Syncope and Other Generalized Paroxysms
        • Movement Disorders and Other Abnormal Movements and Postures
        • Oculomotor Abnormalities and Visual Hallucinations
        • Sleep Disorders
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 595 Headaches
        • Epidemiology
        • Classification and Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 596 Neurocutaneous Syndromes
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Genetic Counseling
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Skin Lesions
        • Other Organ Involvement
        • Management
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
        • Management
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 597 Movement Disorders
        • Inherited Primary Dystonias
        • Drug-Induced Dystonias
        • Cerebral Palsy
        • Metabolic Disorders
        • Other Disorders
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 598 Encephalopathies
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Strokelike Episodes
        • Myoclonus Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fibers
        • Neuropathy, Ataxia, and Retinitis Pigmentosa Syndrome
        • Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
        • Kearns-Sayre Syndrome
        • Reversible Infantile Cytochrome C Oxidase Deficiency Myopathy
        • Leigh Disease (Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyopathy)
        • Reye Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Hiv Encephalopathy
        • Lead Encephalopathy
        • Burn Encephalopathy
        • Hypertensive Encephalopathy
        • Radiation Encephalopathy
        • Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy
        • Cystic Leukoencephalopathy
        • Bibliography
        • Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
        • Limbic Encephalitis
        • Hashimoto Encephalopathy
        • Opsoclonus–Myoclonus and Other Brainstem–Cerebellar Encephalitides
        • Bickerstaff Encephalitis
        • Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids
        • Autoimmune Encephalopathies Associated with Epilepsy and Status Epilepticus
        • Other Suspected Autoimmune Encephalitides
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 599 Neurodegenerative Disorders of Childhood
        • Gangliosidoses
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
        • Alexander Disease
        • Canavan Spongy Degeneration
        • Other Leukodystrophies
        • Menkes Disease
        • Rett Syndrome
        • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
        • Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 600 Demyelinating Disorders of the Central Nervous System
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Complications
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Complications
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Neuroimaging
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 601 Pediatric Stroke
        • Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Migraine
        • Seizure
        • Infection
        • Demyelination
        • Hypoglycemia
        • Global Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy
        • Hypertensive Encephalopathy
        • Inborn Errors of Metabolism
        • Vestibulopathy/Ataxia
        • Channelopathies
        • Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood
      • Chapter 602 Central Nervous System Vasculitis
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 603 Central Nervous System Infections
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology and Pathophysiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Duration of Antibiotic Therapy
        • Complications
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis and Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 604 Brain Abscess
        • Pathology
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 605 Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension/Pseudotumor Cerebri
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 606 Spinal Cord Disorders
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Outcome
        • Bibliography
        • Diastematomyelia: Split-Cord Malformation
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Outcome
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Clearing the Cervical Spine in Children
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Diagnostic Evaluation
        • Treatment
    • Part XXVIII Neuromuscular Disorders
      • Chapter 607 Evaluation and Investigation
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 608 Developmental Disorders of Muscle
        • Bibliography
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Genetics
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Genetics
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Genetics
        • Treatment and Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 609 Muscular Dystrophies
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Genetic Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Genetics
        • Diagnosis and Investigations
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Genetics
        • Other Myotonic Syndromes
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 610 Endocrine and Toxic Myopathies
        • Thyroid Myopathies
        • Steroid-Induced Myopathy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 611 Metabolic Myopathies
        • Treatment
        • Other Muscle Channelopathies
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Investigations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 612 Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and of Motor Neurons
        • Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis
        • Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes
        • Rare Other Causes of Myasthenia
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Genetics
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 613 Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 614 Toxic Neuropathies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 615 Autonomic Neuropathies
        • Pathology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis
        • Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 616 Guillain-Barré Syndrome
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 617 Bell Palsy
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Imaging the Facial Nerve and Its Bony Canal
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Facial Palsy at Birth
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXIX Disorders of the Eye
      • Chapter 618 Growth and Development
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 619 Examination of the Eye
        • Visual Acuity
        • Visual Field Assessment
        • Color Vision Testing
        • Pupillary Examination
        • Ocular Motility
        • Binocular Vision
        • External Examination
        • Biomicroscopy (Slit-Lamp Examination)
        • Fundus Examination (Ophthalmoscopy)
        • Refraction
        • Tonometry
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 620 Abnormalities of Refraction and Accommodation
        • Hyperopia
        • Myopia
        • Astigmatism
        • Anisometropia
        • Accommodation
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 621 Disorders of Vision
        • Amblyopia
        • Diplopia
        • Suppression
        • Amaurosis
        • Nyctalopia
        • Psychogenic Disturbances
        • Dyslexia
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 622 Abnormalities of Pupil and Iris
        • Aniridia
        • Coloboma of the Iris
        • Microcoria
        • Congenital Mydriasis
        • Dyscoria and Corectopia
        • Anisocoria
        • Dilated Fixed Pupil
        • Tonic Pupil
        • Marcus Gunn Pupil
        • Horner Syndrome
        • Paradoxical Pupil Reaction
        • Persistent Pupillary Membrane
        • Heterochromia
        • Other Iris Lesions
        • Leukocoria
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 623 Disorders of Eye Movement and Alignment
        • Strabismus
        • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia
        • Nystagmus
        • Other Abnormal Eye Movements
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 624 Abnormalities of the Lids
        • Ptosis
        • Epicanthal Folds
        • Lagophthalmos
        • Lid Retractions
        • Ectropion, Entropion, and Epiblepharon
        • Blepharospasm
        • Blepharitis
        • Hordeolum (Stye)
        • Chalazion
        • Coloboma of the Eyelid
        • Tumors of the Lid
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 625 Disorders of the Lacrimal System
        • The Tear Film
        • Dacryostenosis
        • Alacrima and “Dry Eye”
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 626 Disorders of the Conjunctiva
        • Conjunctivitis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 627 Abnormalities of the Cornea
        • Megalocornea
        • Microcornea
        • Keratoconus
        • Neonatal Corneal Opacities
        • Sclerocornea
        • Peters Anomaly
        • Corneal Dystrophies
        • Dermoids
        • Dendritic Keratitis
        • Corneal Ulcers
        • Phlyctenules
        • Interstitial Keratitis
        • Corneal Manifestations of Systemic Disease
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 628 Abnormalities of the Lens
        • Cataracts
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 629 Disorders of the Uveal Tract
        • Uveitis (Iritis, Cyclitis, Chorioretinitis)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 630 Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous
        • Retinopathy of Prematurity
        • Persistent Fetal Vasculature
        • Retinoblastoma
        • Retinitis Pigmentosa
        • Stargardt Disease (Fundus Flavimaculatus)
        • Best Vitelliform Degeneration
        • Cherry-Red Spot
        • Phakomas
        • Retinoschisis
        • Retinal Detachment
        • Coats Disease
        • Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy
        • Hypertensive Retinopathy
        • Diabetic Retinopathy
        • Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
        • Blood Disorders
        • Trauma-Related Retinopathy
        • Myelinated Nerve Fibers
        • Coloboma of the Fundus
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 631 Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve
        • Optic Nerve Aplasia
        • Optic Nerve Hypoplasia
        • Optic Nerve Coloboma
        • Morning Glory Disc Anomaly
        • Tilted Disc
        • Drusen of the Optic Nerve
        • Papilledema
        • Optic Neuritis
        • Leber Optic Neuropathy
        • Optic Atrophy
        • Optic Nerve Glioma
        • Traumatic Optic Neuropathies
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 632 Childhood Glaucoma
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis and Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 633 Orbital Abnormalities
        • Hypertelorism and Hypotelorism
        • Exophthalmos and Enophthalmos
        • Orbital Inflammation
        • Tumors of the Orbit
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 634 Orbital Infections
        • Dacryoadenitis
        • Dacryocystitis
        • Preseptal Cellulitis
        • Orbital Cellulitis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 635 Injuries to the Eye
        • Ecchymosis and Swelling of the Eyelids
        • Lacerations of the Eyelids
        • Superficial Abrasions of the Cornea
        • Foreign Body Involving the Ocular Surface
        • Hyphema
        • Open Globe
        • Optic Nerve Trauma
        • Chemical Injuries
        • Orbital Fractures
        • Penetrating Wounds of the Orbit
        • Child Abuse
        • Fireworks-Related Injuries
        • Sports-Related Ocular Injuries and Their Prevention
        • Handheld Laser Retinal Injury
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXX The Ear
      • Chapter 636 General Considerations and Evaluation
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Facial Paralysis
        • Physical Examination
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 637 Hearing Loss
        • Incidence and Prevalence
        • Types of Hearing Loss
        • Etiology
        • Effects of Hearing Impairment
        • Hearing Screening
        • Identification of Hearing Impairment
        • Clinical Audiologic Evaluation
        • Treatment
        • Genetic Counseling
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 638 Congenital Malformations
        • Pinna Malformations
        • Congenital Stenosis or Atresia of the External Auditory Canal
        • Congenital Middle-Ear Malformations
        • Congenital Inner Ear Malformations
        • Congenital Cholesteatoma
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 639 External Otitis (Otitis Externa)
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Other Diseases of the External Ear
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 640 Otitis Media
        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Examination of the Tympanic Membrane
        • Prevention
        • Immunoprophylaxis
        • Treatment
        • Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
        • Management of Otitis Media with Effusion
        • Intracranial Complications
        • Physical Sequelae
        • Possible Developmental Sequelae
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 641 The Inner Ear and Diseases of the Bony Labyrinth
        • Viruses
        • Toxoplasmosis
        • Bacterial Meningitis
        • Syphilis
        • Other Diseases of the Inner Ear
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 642 Traumatic Injuries of the Ear and Temporal Bone
        • Auricle and External Auditory Canal
        • Tympanic Membrane and Middle Ear
        • Temporal Bone Fractures
        • Acoustic Trauma
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 643 Tumors of the Ear and Temporal Bone
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXXI The Skin
      • Chapter 644 Morphology of the Skin
        • Epidermis
        • Dermis
        • Subcutaneous Tissue
        • Appendageal Structures
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 645 Evaluation of the Patient
        • History and Physical Examination
        • Biopsy of Skin
        • Wood Lamp
        • Potassium Hydroxide Preparation
        • Tzanck Smear
        • Immunofluorescence Studies
        • Connective Tissue Diseases
        • Vasculitides
        • Gastrointestinal Diseases
        • Cutaneous Manifestations of Malignancy
        • Cutaneous Reactions in the Setting of Immunosuppression
        • Bibliography
        • Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS Syndrome)
        • Serum Sickness–Like Reaction
        • Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 646 Principles of Therapy
        • Wet Dressings
        • Bath Oils, Colloids, Soaps
        • Lubricants
        • Shampoos
        • Shake Lotions
        • Powders
        • Pastes
        • Keratolytic Agents
        • Tar Compounds
        • Antifungal Agents
        • Topical Antibiotics
        • Topical Corticosteroids
        • Topical Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents
        • Sunscreens
        • Laser Therapy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 647 Diseases of the Neonate
        • Sebaceous Hyperplasia
        • Milia
        • Sucking Blisters
        • Cutis Marmorata
        • Harlequin Color Change
        • Nevus Simplex (Salmon Patch)
        • Dermal Melanocytosis (Mongolian Spots)
        • Erythema Toxicum
        • Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis
        • Infantile Acropustulosis
        • Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 648 Cutaneous Defects
        • Skin Dimples
        • Redundant Skin
        • Amniotic Constriction Bands
        • Preauricular Sinuses and Pits
        • Accessory Tragi
        • Branchial Cleft and Thyroglossal Cysts and Sinuses
        • Supernumerary Nipples
        • Aplasia Cutis Congenita (Congenital Absence of Skin)
        • Focal Facial Dermal Dysplasias
        • Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (Goltz Syndrome)
        • Dyskeratosis Congenita (Zinsser-Engman-Cole Syndrome)
        • Cutis Verticis Gyrata
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 649 Ectodermal Dysplasias
        • Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia
        • Hidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (Clouston Syndrome)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 650 Vascular Disorders
        • Vascular Malformations
        • Klippel-Trenaunay and Parkes-Weber Syndromes
        • Arteriovenous Malformation
        • Lymphatic Malformations
        • Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis
        • Nevus Anemicus
        • Vascular Tumors
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 651 Cutaneous Nevi
        • Acquired Melanocytic Nevus
        • Atypical Melanocytic Nevus
        • Congenital Melanocytic Nevus
        • Melanoma
        • Halo Nevus
        • Spitz Nevus (Spindle and Epithelioid Cell Nevus)
        • Zosteriform Lentiginous Nevus (Agminated Lentigines)
        • Nevus Spilus (Speckled Lentiginous Nevus)
        • Nevus of Ota and Nevus of Ito
        • Blue Nevi
        • Nevus Depigmentosus (Achromic Nevus)
        • Epidermal Nevi
        • Nevus Comedonicus
        • Connective Tissue Nevus
        • Smooth Muscle Hamartoma
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 652 Hyperpigmented Lesions
        • Disorders of Pigment
        • Ephelides (Freckles)
        • Lentigines
        • Café-Au-Lait Spots
        • Incontinentia Pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger Disease)
        • Postinflammatory Pigmentary Changes
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 653 Hypopigmented Lesions
        • Albinism
        • Melanoblast Migration Abnormalities
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 654 Vesiculobullous Disorders
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Bibliography
        • Epidemiology and Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Epidermolysis Bullosa
        • Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex
        • Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa
        • Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa
        • Kindler Syndrome
        • Bibliography
        • Pemphigus Vulgaris
        • Pemphigus Foliaceus
        • Bullous Pemphigoid
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Pathology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Pathology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 655 Eczematous Disorders
        • Irritant Contact Dermatitis
        • Diaper Dermatitis
        • Allergic Contact Dermatitis
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 656 Photosensitivity
        • Acute SUNBURN Reaction
        • Photosensitive Reactions
        • Porphyrias
        • Colloid Milium
        • Hydroa Vacciniforme
        • Solar Urticaria
        • Polymorphous Light Eruption
        • Actinic Prurigo
        • Cockayne Syndrome
        • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
        • Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome
        • Bloom Syndrome
        • Hartnup Disease
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 657 Diseases of the Epidermis
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Pathology
        • Treatment
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Pathology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Histology
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Histology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Histology
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Histology
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Histology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Histology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Histology
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 658 Disorders of Keratinization
        • Disorders of Cornification
        • Collodion Baby
        • Common Ichthyoses
        • Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyoses (ARCI)
        • Keratinopathic Ichthyoses
        • Other Nonsyndromic Ichthyoses
        • Syndromic Ichthyoses
        • Other Syndromes with Ichthyosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 659 Diseases of the Dermis
        • Keloid
        • Striae Cutis Distensae (Stretch Marks)
        • Corticosteroid-Induced Atrophy
        • Granuloma Annulare
        • Necrobiosis Lipoidica
        • Lichen Sclerosus
        • Morphea
        • Scleredema (Scleredema Adultorum, Scleredema of Buschke)
        • Lipoid Proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe Disease, Hyalinosis Cutis Et Mucosae)
        • Macular Atrophy (Anetoderma)
        • Cutis Laxa (Dermatomegaly, Generalized Elastolysis)
        • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
        • Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum
        • Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa
        • Reactive Perforating Collagenosis
        • Xanthomas
        • Fabry Disease
        • Mucopolysaccharidoses
        • Mastocytosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 660 Diseases of Subcutaneous Tissue
        • Corticosteroid-Induced Atrophy
        • Erythema Nodosum
        • Post-Steroid Panniculitis
        • Lupus Erythematosus Profundus (Lupus Erythematosus Panniculitis)
        • a1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
        • Pancreatic Panniculitis
        • Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis
        • Sclerema Neonatorum
        • Cold Panniculitis
        • Chilblains (Pernio)
        • Factitial Panniculitis
        • Bibliography
        • Partial Lipodystrophy
        • Generalized Lipodystrophy
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 661 Disorders of the Sweat Glands
        • Anhidrosis
        • Hyperhidrosis
        • Miliaria
        • Bromhidrosis
        • Hidradenitis Suppurativa
        • Fox-Fordyce Disease
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 662 Disorders of Hair
        • Hypertrichosis
        • Hypotrichosis and Alopecia
        • Traumatic Alopecia (Traction Alopecia, Hair Pulling, Trichotillomania)
        • Alopecia Areata
        • Acquired Diffuse Hair Loss
        • Congenital Diffuse Hair Loss
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 663 Disorders of the Nails
        • Abnormalities in Nail Shape or Size
        • Changes in Nail Color
        • Nail Separation
        • Nail Changes Associated with Skin Disease
        • Trachyonychia (20-Nail Dystrophy)
        • Nail Infection
        • Paronychial Inflammation
        • Paronychial Tumors
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 664 Disorders of the Mucous Membranes
        • Angular Cheilitis
        • Aphthous Stomatitis (Canker Sores)
        • Fordyce Spots
        • Epstein Pearls (Gingival Cysts of the Newborn)
        • Mucocele
        • Fissured Tongue
        • Geographic Tongue (Benign Migratory Glossitis)
        • Black Hairy Tongue
        • Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
        • Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (Vincent Stomatitis, Fusospirochetal Gingivitis, Trench Mouth)
        • Noma
        • Cowden Syndrome (Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 665 Cutaneous Bacterial Infections
        • Etiology/Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Complications
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Cellulitis
        • Necrotizing Fasciitis
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Histology
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Blastomycosis-Like Pyoderma (Pyoderma Vegetans)
        • Blistering Distal Dactylitis
        • Perianal Infectious Dermatitis
        • Erysipelas
        • Folliculitis
        • Furuncles and Abscesses
        • Pitted Keratolysis
        • Erythrasma
        • Erysipeloid
        • Tuberculosis of the Skin
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 666 Cutaneous Fungal Infections
        • Tinea Versicolor
        • Dermatophytoses
        • Candidal Infections (Candidosis, Candidiasis, and Moniliasis)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 667 Cutaneous Viral Infections
        • Wart (Verruca)
        • Molluscum Contagiosum
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 668 Arthropod Bites and Infestations
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology and Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Norwegian Scabies
        • Canine Scabies
        • Other Types of Scabies
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 669 Acne
        • Acne Vulgaris
        • Drug-Induced Acne
        • Halogen Acne
        • Chloracne
        • Neonatal Acne
        • Infantile Acne
        • Tropical Acne
        • Acne Conglobata
        • Acne Fulminans (Acute Febrile Ulcerative Acne)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 670 Tumors of the Skin
        • Epidermal Inclusion Cyst (Epidermoid Cyst)
        • Milium
        • Fibrofolliculomas
        • Pilar Cyst (Trichilemmal Cyst)
        • Pilomatricoma
        • Trichoepithelioma
        • Eruptive Vellus Hair Cysts
        • Steatocystoma Multiplex
        • Syringoma
        • Infantile Digital Fibroma
        • Dermatofibroma (Histiocytoma)
        • Juvenile Xanthogranuloma
        • Lipoma
        • Basal Cell Carcinoma
        • Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, Gorlin Syndrome)
        • Mucosal Neuroma Syndrome (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type IIB)
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 671 Nutritional Dermatoses
        • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
        • Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency
        • Kwashiorkor
        • Cystic Fibrosis
        • Pellagra
        • Scurvy (Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid Deficiency)
        • Vitamin a Deficiency
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXXII Bone and Joint Disorders
      • Section 1 Orthopedic Problems
        • Chapter 672 Growth and Development
          • In Utero Positioning
          • Growth and Development
          • Centers of Ossification
          • Gait/Functional Maturation
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 673 Evaluation of the Child
          • History
          • Physical Examination
          • Limping
          • Back Pain
          • Neurologic Evaluation
          • Radiographic Assessment
          • Laboratory Studies
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 674 The Foot and Toes
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Juvenile Hallux Valgus (Bunion)
          • Curly Toes
          • Overlapping Fifth Toe
          • Polydactyly
          • Syndactyly
          • Hammer Toe
          • Mallet Toe
          • Claw Toe
          • Annular Bands
          • Macrodactyly
          • Subungual Exostosis
          • Ingrown Toenail
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 675 Torsional and Angular Deformities
          • Bibliography
          • Foot Progression Angle
          • Femoral Anteversion
          • Tibial Rotation
          • Foot Shape and Position
          • Bibliography
          • Internal Femoral Torsion
          • Internal Tibial Torsion
          • External Femoral Torsion
          • External Tibial Torsion
          • Metatarsus Adductus
          • Bibliography
          • Genu Varum
          • Tibia Vara
          • Genu Valgum (Knock-Knees)
          • Bibliography
          • Posteromedial Tibial Bowing
          • Anteromedial Tibial Bowing (Postaxial Hemimelia)
          • Anterolateral Tibial Bowing
          • Tibial Longitudinal Deficiency
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 676 Leg-Length Discrepancy
          • Diagnosis and Clinical Findings
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 677 The Knee
          • Normal Development of the Knee
          • Anatomy and Range of Motion
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 678 The Hip
          • Growth and Development
          • Vascular Supply
          • Classification
          • Etiology and Risk Factors
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathoanatomy
          • Clinical Findings
          • Diagnostic Testing
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Classification
          • Natural History and Prognosis
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Classification
          • Etiology and Pathogenesis
          • Epidemiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnostic Studies
          • Treatment
          • Complications
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 679 The Spine
          • Normal Spinal Curvatures
          • Definition
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Classification of Idiopathic Scoliosis
          • Clinical Presentation of Idiopathic Scoliosis
          • Physical Examination of Idiopathic Scoliosis
          • Radiographic Evaluation of Idiopathic Scoliosis
          • Natural History of Idiopathic Scoliosis
          • Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis
          • Bibliography
          • Definition
          • Etiology
          • Associated Conditions
          • Classification of Congenital Scoliosis
          • Natural History of Congenital Scoliosis
          • Treatment of Congenital Scoliosis
          • Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome
          • Bibliography
          • Neuromuscular Scoliosis
          • Syndromes and Genetic Disorders
          • Compensatory Scoliosis
          • Bibliography
          • Flexible Kyphosis (Postural Kyphosis)
          • Structural Kyphosis
          • Congenital Kyphosis
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Evaluation
          • Medical Decision Making
          • Radiographic and Laboratory Evaluation
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Physical Exam
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 680 The Neck
          • Congenital Muscular Torticollis
          • Other Causes of Torticollis
          • Bibliography
          • Etiology and Classification
          • Clinical Presentation
          • Physical Examination
          • Radiographic Investigation
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
          • Os Odontoideum
          • Down Syndrome
          • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 681 The Upper Limb
          • Shoulder
          • Elbow
          • Wrist
          • Hand
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 682 Arthrogryposis
          • Etiology
          • Classification
          • Management of Orthopedic Problems of Arthrogryposis
          • Foot Problems
          • Knee Problems
          • Hip Problems
          • Upper-Extremity Problems
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 683 Common Fractures
          • Fracture Remodeling
          • Overgrowth
          • Progressive Deformity
          • Rapid Healing
          • Bibliography
          • Plastic Deformation
          • Buckle or Torus Fracture
          • Greenstick Fracture
          • Complete Fractures
          • Epiphyseal Fractures
          • Child Abuse
          • Bibliography
          • Phalangeal Fractures
          • Forearm Fractures
          • Distal Humeral Fractures
          • Proximal Humerus Fractures
          • Clavicular Fractures
          • Bibliography
          • Hip Fracture
          • Toddler Fracture
          • Proximal Tibia Fractures
          • Tibia and Fibula Shaft Fractures
          • Femoral Shaft Fractures
          • Triplane and Tillaux Fractures
          • Metatarsal Fractures
          • Toe Phalangeal Fractures
          • Bibliography
          • Surgical Techniques
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 684 Osteomyelitis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Radiographic Evaluation
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 685 Septic Arthritis
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Bibliography
      • Section 2 Sports Medicine
        • Chapter 686 Epidemiology and Prevention of Injuries
          • Preparticipation Sports Examination
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 687 Management of Musculoskeletal Injury
          • Initial Evaluation of the Injured Extremity
          • Transition From Immediate Management to Return to Play
          • Differential Diagnoses of Musculoskeletal Pain
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Clavicle Fractures
          • Acromioclavicular Separation
          • Anterior Dislocation
          • Rotator Cuff Injury
          • Bibliography
          • Acute Injuries
          • Bibliography
          • Spondylolysis, Spondylolisthesis, and Facet Syndrome
          • Lumbar Disk Herniation, Strain, and Contusion
          • Sacroiliitis
          • Other Causes
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Initial Treatment of Acute Knee Injuries
          • Chronic Injuries
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
          • Examination and Injury Grading Scale
          • Radiographs
          • Initial Treatment of Ankle Sprains
          • Bibliography
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 688 Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion)
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathophysiology
          • Assessment of the Injured Player
          • Management and Treatment
          • Prevention
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 689 Cervical Spinal Injuries
          • Soft-Tissue Injury
          • Spear Tackler's Spine
          • Cervical Fractures
          • Stingers (Burners)
          • Transient Quadriparesis
          • Congenital Spinal Stenosis
          • Spinal Cord Injury
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 690 Heat Injuries
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 691 Female Athletes
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 692 Performance-Enhancing Aids
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 693 Specific Sports and Associated Injuries
          • Gymnastics
          • Swimming
          • Baseball
          • Dance
          • Wrestling
          • Football
          • Ice Hockey
          • Basketball and Volleyball
          • Running
          • Soccer
          • Tennis
          • Skiing and Snowboarding
          • Cheerleading
          • Skateboarding
          • Bibliography
      • Section 3 The Skeletal Dysplasias
        • Chapter 694 General Considerations
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Molecular Genetics
          • Pathophysiology
          • Treatment
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 695 Disorders Involving Cartilage Matrix Proteins
          • Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasias
          • Kniest Dysplasia
          • Late-Onset Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia
          • Aggrecan-Related Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasias
          • Stickler Syndrome/Dysplasia (Hereditary Osteoarthroophthalmopathy)
          • Schmid Metaphyseal Dysplasia
          • Pseudoachondroplasia and Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 696 Disorders Involving Transmembrane Receptors
          • Achondroplasia Group
          • Jansen Metaphyseal Dysplasia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 697 Disorders Involving Ion Transporters
          • Diastrophic Dysplasia
          • Achondrogenesis Type 1B and Atelosteogenesis Type II
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 698 Disorders Involving Transcription Factors
          • Campomelic Dysplasia
          • Cleidocranial Dysplasia
          • Nail-Patella Syndrome
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 699 Disorders Involving Defective Bone Resorption
          • Osteopetrosis
          • Pyknodysostosis
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 700 Disorders for Which Defects Are Poorly Understood or Unknown
          • Ellis–Van Creveld Syndrome
          • Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy (see also Chapter 417.3)
          • Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndromes
          • Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia
          • Metatropic Dysplasia
          • Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia, Kozlowski Type
          • Disorders Involving Filamins
          • Juvenile Osteochondroses
          • Caffey Disease (Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis)
          • Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressive
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 701 Osteogenesis Imperfecta
          • Etiology
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Complications
          • Treatment
          • Prognosis
          • Genetic Counseling
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 702 Marfan Syndrome
          • Epidemiology
          • Pathogenesis
          • Clinical Manifestations
          • Diagnosis
          • Differential Diagnosis
          • Laboratory Findings
          • Management
          • Current Therapies
          • Emerging Therapeutic Strategies
          • Prognosis
          • Genetic Counseling
          • Bibliography
      • Section 4 Metabolic Bone Disease
        • Chapter 703 Bone Structure, Growth, and Hormonal Regulation
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 704 Primary Chondrodystrophy (Metaphyseal Dysplasia)
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 705 Hypophosphatasia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 706 Hyperphos­phatasia
          • Bibliography
        • Chapter 707 Osteoporosis
          • Bibliography
    • Part XXXIII Rehabilitation Medicine
      • Chapter 708 Principles of Rehabilitation Medicine
        • Epidemiology
        • Approach
        • Scope of Practice
        • Prevention of Muscle Weakness
        • Other Assist Devices
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 709 Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services
        • Child Characteristics
        • Family Characteristics
        • The Physical Environment
        • The Previously Healthy Child
      • Chapter 710 Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
        • Etiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Acute Rehabilitation
        • Outcomes Associated with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
        • Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Plasticity
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 711 Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Crisis Management
        • Evaluation
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Prognosis
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 712 Spasticity
        • Oral Medications
        • Surgical Management
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 713 Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy
        • Physical Examination
        • Laboratory Examination
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 714 Traumatic and Sports-Related Injuries of the Lower Extremity
      • Chapter 715 Meningomyelocele (Spina Bifida)
        • Etiology
        • Prevention
        • Prenatal Screening
        • Clinical Implications
        • Adolescence and Transition Into Adulthood
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 716 Ambulation Assistance
        • Orthoses
        • Prostheses
        • Assistive Devices
        • Wheelchairs
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 717 Health and Wellness for Children with Disabilities
        • Health Promotion Definitions and Background for Disability
        • Anticipatory Guidance, Counseling, and Preventive Care
        • Physical Activity and Exercise
        • Nutrition and Obesity
        • Emotional Health and Leisure Activities
        • Dental Care
        • Role of Healthcare Providers
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXXIV Environmental Health Hazards
      • Chapter 718 Biologic Effects of Radiation on Children
        • Basic Principles
        • Biologic Effects of Radiation
        • Decreasing Unnecessary Diagnostic Radiation in Children While Still Obtaining Diagnostic Images
        • Radiation Therapy—Acute and Late Effects
        • Whole-Body Irradiation
        • Internal Contamination
        • External Contamination
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 719 Chemical Pollutants
        • Synthetic Chemicals and Human Health
        • Children's Unique Susceptibility to Synthetic Chemicals
        • Safety Testing of Synthetic Chemicals
        • Synthetic Chemicals and Disease in Children
        • Chemical Pollutants of Major Concern
        • The Physician's Role
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 720 Heavy Metal Intoxication
        • Arsenic
        • Mercury
        • Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Intoxication
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 721 Lead Poisoning
        • Public Health History
        • Sources of Exposure
        • Metabolism
        • Clinical Effects
        • Clinical Symptoms
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 722 Nonbacterial Food Poisoning
        • Gastrointestinal: Delayed Onset
        • Renal: Delayed Onset
        • Autonomic Nervous System: Rapid Onset
        • Central Nervous System: Rapid Onset
        • Gastrointestinal: Rapid Onset
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
        • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
        • Scombroid (Pseudoallergic) Fish Poisoning
        • Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
        • Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning
        • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning
        • Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
        • Azaspiracid Poisoning
        • Bibliography
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 723 Biologic and Chemical Terrorism
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology and Pediatric-Specific Concerns
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Prevention
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 724 Animal and Human Bites
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Complications
        • Treatment
        • Prevention
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Course
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Course
        • Treatment
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 725 Envenomations
        • General Approach to the Envenomated Child
        • Snake Bites
        • Spider Bites
        • Scorpion Stings
        • Hymenoptera Stings
        • Marine Envenomation
        • Bibliography
    • Part XXXV Laboratory Medicine
      • Chapter 726 Laboratory Testing in Infants and Children
        • Accuracy and Precision of Laboratory Tests
        • Sensitivity, Accuracy, and Analytic Testing
        • Predictive Value of Laboratory Tests
        • Neonatal Screening Tests
        • Testing in Refining a Differential Diagnosis
        • Acknowledgments
        • Bibliography
      • Chapter 727 Reference Intervals for Laboratory Tests and Procedures
        • Bibliography (for Table 727-5)
  • Index

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