Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics E-Book

Námskeið LÆK402F Barnalæknisfræði Ensk lýsing: Part of the highly regarded Nelson family of pediatric references, Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics, 8th Edition , is a concise, focused resource for medical students, pediatric residents, PAs, and nurse practitioners. Ideal for pediatric residencies, clerkships, and exams , this 8th Edition offers a readable, full-color format; high-yield, targeted chapters; and new features that make it even more user-friendly for today’s in-training professionals or practitioners. Focuses on the core knowledge you need to know , while also providing complete coverage of recent advances in pediatrics. Coverage includes normal childhood growth and development, as well as the diagnosis, management, and prevention of common pediatric diseases and disorders. Includes new Pearls for Practitioners bullets at the end of each section , providing key clinical points and treatment information. Features well written, high-yield coverage throughout , following COMSEP curriculum guidelines relevant to your pediatric clerkship or rotation. Uses a full-color format with images and numerous new tables throughout , so you can easily visualize complex information. Provides real-world insights from chapter authors who are also Clerkship Directors, helping you gain the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed both in caring for patients and in preparing for clerkship or in-service examinations. - Höfundar: Karen Marcdante, Robert M. Kliegman
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Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics E-Book

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section 1 Profession of Pediatrics
    • Chapter 1 Population and Culture
      • Care of Children in Society
      • Current Challenges
      • Landscape of Health Care for Children in the United States
      • Other Health Issues That Affect Children in the United States
      • Health Disparities in Health Care for Children
      • Changing Morbidity: Social/Emotional Aspects of Pediatric Practice
      • Culture
    • Chapter 2 Professionalism
      • Concept of Professionalism
      • Professionalism for Pediatricians
    • Chapter 3 Ethics and Legal Issues
      • Ethics in Health Care
      • Ethical Principles Related to Infants, Children, and Adolescents
      • Legal Issues
      • Ethical Issues in Practice
    • Chapter 4 Palliative Care and End-of-Life Issues
      • Palliative and End-of-Life Care
      • Bereavement
      • Cognitive Issues in Children and Adolescents: Understanding Death and Dying
      • Cultural, Religious, and Spiritual Concerns About Palliative Care and End-of-Life Decisions
      • Ethical Issues in End-of-Life Decision-Making
      • Organ Donation in Pediatrics
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 1
      • Chapter 2
      • Chapter 3
      • Chapter 4
  • Section 2 Growth and Development
    • Chapter 5 Normal Growth
      • Health Maintenance Visit
    • Chapter 6 Disorders of Growth
    • Chapter 7 Normal Development
      • Physical Development
      • Newborn Period
      • Later Infancy
      • School Age/Preadolescent
      • Adolescence
      • Developmental Milestones
      • Psychosocial Assessment
      • Modifying Psychosocial Behaviors
      • Temperament
    • Chapter 8 Disorders of Development
      • Developmental Surveillance and Screening
      • Other Issues in Assessing Development and Behavior
      • Evaluating Developmental and Behavioral Issues
    • Chapter 9 Evaluation of the Well Child
      • Screening Tests
      • Immunizations
      • Dental Care
      • Nutritional Assessment
      • Anticipatory Guidance
    • Chapter 10 Evaluation of the Child With Special Needs
      • Multifaceted Team Assessment of Complex Problems
      • Management of Developmental Problems
      • Selected Clinical Problems: the Special Needs Child
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 5
      • Chapter 6
      • Chapter 7
      • Chapter 8
      • Chapter 9
      • Chapter 10
  • Section 3 Behavioral Disorders
    • Chapter 11 Crying and Colic
      • Normal Development
      • Colic
    • Chapter 12 Temper Tantrums
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Anticipatory Guidance and Management
    • Chapter 13 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Complications
      • Anticipatory Guidance
    • Chapter 14 Control of Elimination
      • Normal Development of Elimination
      • Enuresis
      • Functional Constipation and Soiling
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 15 Normal Sleep and Pediatric Sleep Disorders
      • Adolescent Sleep
      • Sleep Disorders
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 11
      • Chapter 12
      • Chapter 13
      • Chapter 14
      • Chapter 15
  • Section 4 Psychiatric Disorders
    • Chapter 16 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
    • Chapter 17 Anxiety Disorders
    • Chapter 18 Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders
      • Bipolar and Related Disorders
    • Chapter 19 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Chapter 20 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
      • Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for PrActioners
      • Chapter 16
      • Chapter 17
      • Chapter 18
      • Chapter 19
      • Chapter 20
  • Section 5 Psychosocial Issues
    • Chapter 21 Failure to Thrive
      • Etiology
      • Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Psychosocial Short Stature
    • Chapter 22 Child Abuse and Neglect
      • Neglect
      • Physical Abuse
      • Sexual Abuse
      • Management
    • Chapter 23 Homosexuality and Gender Identity
      • Development of Sexuality
      • Homosexuality
      • Development of Gender Identity
      • Gender Dysphoria
    • Chapter 24 Family Structure and Function
      • Family Functions
      • Family Structure
      • Family Dysfunction: Physical Needs
      • Family Dysfunction: Emotional Support, Education, and Socialization
    • Chapter 25 Violence
      • Intimate Partner Violence and Children
      • Youth Violence
      • Assault and Bullying
      • Dating Violence and Date Rape
      • Violence and Technology
      • Trauma Informed Care
    • Chapter 26 Divorce, Separation, and Bereavement
      • Divorce
      • Separations From Parents
      • Death of a Parent or Family Member and Bereavement
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 21
      • Chapter 22
      • Chapter 23
      • Chapter 24
      • Chapter 25
      • Chapter 26
  • Section 6 Pediatric Nutrition and Nutritional Disorders
    • Chapter 27 Diet of the Normal Infant
      • Breast Feeding
      • Formula Feeding
      • Complementary Foods
    • Chapter 28 Diet of the Normal Child and Adolescent
      • Nutrition Issues for Toddlers and Older Children
      • Milk
      • Juices
      • General Recommendations
      • Salt Intake
      • Iron Intake
      • Nutrition Issues for Adolescents
    • Chapter 29 Obesity
      • Definitions
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Assessment
      • Prevention
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 30 Pediatric Undernutrition
      • Failure to Thrive
      • Marasmus
      • Kwashiorkor
      • Mixed Marasmus-Kwashiorkor
      • Treatment of Malnutrition
      • Complications of Malnutrition
    • Chapter 31 Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies
      • Water-Soluble Vitamins
      • Fat-Soluble Vitamins
      • Minerals
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 27
      • Chapter 28
      • Chapter 29
      • Chapter 30
      • Chapter 31
  • Section 7 Fluids and Electrolytes
    • Chapter 32 Maintenance Fluid Therapy
      • Body Composition
      • Regulation of Intravascular Volume and Osmolality
      • Maintenance Fluids
    • Chapter 33 Dehydration and Replacement Therapy
      • Replacement Therapy
      • Dehydration
      • Monitoring and Adjusting Therapy
    • Chapter 34 Parenteral Nutrition
      • Indications
      • Access for Parenteral Nutrition
      • Composition of Parenteral Nutrition
      • Complications
    • Chapter 35 Sodium Disorders
      • Hyponatremia
      • Hypernatremia
    • Chapter 36 Potassium Disorders
      • Hypokalemia
      • Hyperkalemia
    • Chapter 37 Acid-Base Disorders
      • Clinical Assessment of Acid-Base Disorders
      • Metabolic Acidosis
      • Metabolic Alkalosis
      • Respiratory Acid-Base Disturbances
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 32
      • Chapter 33
      • Chapter 34
      • Chapter 35
      • Chapter 36
      • Chapter 37
  • Section 8 Acutely Ill or Injured Child
    • Chapter 38 Assessment and Resuscitation
      • Initial Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Common Manifestations
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation
      • Resuscitation
      • Cardiopulmonary Arrest
    • Chapter 39 Respiratory Failure
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 40 Shock
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Hypovolemic Shock
      • Distributive Shock
      • Cardiogenic Shock
      • Obstructive Shock
      • Dissociative Shock
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 41 Injury Prevention
      • Epidemiology and Etiology
      • Education for Preventing Injuries
    • Chapter 42 Major Trauma
      • Assessment and Resuscitation
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 43 Drowning
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 44 Burns
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 45 Poisoning
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Complications
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 46 Sedation and Analgesia
      • Assessment
      • Pain and Analgesia
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 38
      • Chapter 39
      • Chapter 40
      • Chapter 41
      • Chapter 42
      • Chapter 43
      • Chapter 44
      • Chapter 45
      • Chapter 46
  • Section 9 Human Genetics and Dysmorphology
    • Chapter 47 Patterns of Inheritance
      • Types of Genetic Disorders
      • Introduction to Genetics and Genomics
      • Other Types of Genetic Disorders
      • Teratogenic Agents
    • Chapter 48 Genetic Assessment
      • Preconception and Prenatal Counseling
      • General Approach to Patients
    • Chapter 49 Chromosomal Disorders
      • Abnormalities in Number (Aneuploidy)
      • Syndromes Involving Chromosomal Deletions
      • Syndromes Involving Chromosome Duplication
    • Chapter 50 Approach to the Dysmorphic Child
      • Definitions
      • History and Physical Examination
      • Laboratory Evaluation
      • Diagnosis
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 47
      • Chapter 48
      • Chapter 49
      • Chapter 50
  • Section 10 Metabolic Disorders
    • Chapter 51 Metabolic Assessment
      • Signs and Symptoms
      • Types of Clinical Presentation of Inborn Errors
      • Clinical Assessment and Laboratory Testing
      • Genetic Aspects of Inborn Errors
      • Identification of Inborn Errors by Neonatal Screening
      • Overview of Treatment
    • Chapter 52 Carbohydrate Disorders
      • Glycogen Storage Diseases
      • Galactosemia
    • Chapter 53 Amino Acid Disorders
      • Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism
      • Phenylketonuria
      • Tyrosinemias
      • Homocystinuria
      • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
      • Disorders of Ammonia Disposal
      • Disorders of Amino Acid Transport That Affect Specific Transport Mechanisms in the Kidney and Intestine
    • Chapter 54 Organic Acid Disorders
      • Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolism
      • Propionic Acidemia and Methylmalonic Acidemia
      • Isovaleric Acidemia
      • Glutaric Acidemia I
      • Biotinidase Deficiency and Holocarboxylase Deficiency
    • Chapter 55 Disorders of Fat Metabolism
      • Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation
      • Glutaric Aciduria Type II
      • Carnitine Deficiency
    • Chapter 56 Lysosomal and Peroxisomal Disorders
      • Peroxisomal Disorders
      • Lysosomal Storage Disorders
      • Diagnostic Testing
      • Treatment Strategies
    • Chapter 57 Mitochondrial Disorders
      • Mitochondrial Function
      • Signs and Symptoms of Genetic Disorders of Mitochondrial Function
      • Biochemical Abnormalities in Mitochondrial Function
      • Genetics of Mitochondrial Disorders
      • Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 51
      • Chapter 52
      • Chapter 53
      • Chapter 54
      • Chapter 55
      • Chapter 56
      • Chapter 57
  • Section 11 Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
    • Chapter 58 Assessment of the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn
      • Assessment of the Mother
      • Fetus and Newborn
      • Assessment of the Fetus
      • Assessment of the Newborn
      • Neurological Assessment
      • Miscellaneous Disorders
    • Chapter 59 Maternal Diseases Affecting the Newborn
      • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
      • Idiopathic (Immune) Thrombocytopenia
      • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
      • Neonatal Hyperthyroidism
      • Diabetes Mellitus
      • Other Conditions
    • Chapter 60 Diseases of the Fetus
      • Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Small for Gestational Age
      • Hydrops Fetalis
    • Chapter 61 Respiratory Diseases of the Newborn
      • Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)
      • Complications of Respiratory Distress Syndrome
      • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn
      • Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
      • Primary Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
      • Apnea of Prematurity
    • Chapter 62 Anemia and Hyperbilirubinemia
      • Anemia
      • Hyperbilirubinemia
    • Chapter 63 Necrotizing Enterocolitis
    • Chapter 64 Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy, Intracranial Hemorrhage, and Seizures
      • Neonatal Seizures
      • Intracranial Hemorrhage
      • Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
    • Chapter 65 Sepsis and Meningitis
    • Chapter 66 Congenital Infections
      • Toxoplasmosis
      • Rubella
      • Cytomegalovirus
      • Herpes Simplex Virus
      • Congenital Syphilis
      • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
      • Hepatitis B
      • Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
      • Chlamydia
      • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
      • Zika Virus
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 58
      • Chapter 59
      • Chapter 60
      • Chapter 61
      • Chapter 62
      • Chapter 63
      • Chapter 64
      • Chapter 65
      • Chapter 66
  • Section 12 Adolescent Medicine
    • Chapter 67 Overview and Assessment of Adolescents
      • Interviewing Adolescents
      • Physical Growth and Development of Adolescents
      • Psychological Growth and Development of Adolescents
    • Chapter 68 Well-Adolescent Care
      • Early Adolescence (Ages 10-14 Years)
      • Middle Adolescence (Ages 15-17 Years)
      • Late Adolescence (Ages 18-21 Years)
      • Pelvic Examination
      • Normal Variants of Puberty
    • Chapter 69 Adolescent Gynecology
      • Menstrual Disorders
      • Pregnancy
      • Contraception
      • Rape
    • Chapter 70 Eating Disorders
      • Anorexia Nervosa
      • Bulimia Nervosa
    • Chapter 71 Substance Abuse
      • Acute Overdose
      • Acute and Chronic Effects
      • Treatment
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 67
      • Chapter 68
      • Chapter 69
      • Chapter 70
      • Chapter 71
  • Section 13 Immunology
    • Chapter 72 Immunological Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Diagnostic Evaluation
    • Chapter 73 Lymphocyte Disorders
      • Etiology and Clinical Manifestations
      • Treatment
      • Prevention and Newborn Screening
    • Chapter 74 Neutrophil Disorders
      • Etiology and Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Prognosis and Prevention
    • Chapter 75 Complement System
      • Etiology
      • Laboratory Studies
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 76 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
      • Complications
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 72
      • Chapter 73
      • Chapter 74
      • Chapter 75
      • Chapter 76
  • Section 14 Allergy
    • Chapter 77 Allergy Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation
      • Diagnostic Imaging
    • Chapter 78 Asthma
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 79 Allergic Rhinitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis and Prevention
    • Chapter 80 Atopic Dermatitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 81 Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 82 Serum Sickness
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment and Prevention
    • Chapter 83 Insect Allergies
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 84 Adverse Reactions to Foods
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis and Prevention
    • Chapter 85 Adverse Reactions to Drugs
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 77
      • Chapter 78
      • Chapter 79
      • Chapter 80
      • Chapter 81
      • Chapter 82
      • Chapter 83
      • Chapter 84
      • Chapter 85
  • Section 15 Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood
    • Chapter 86 Rheumatic Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Common Manifestations
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation
      • Laboratory Testing
      • Diagnostic Imaging
    • Chapter 87 Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 88 Kawasaki Disease
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 89 Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Presentation
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 90 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 91 Juvenile Dermatomyositis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 92 Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes
      • Growing Pains
      • Benign Hypermobility
      • Myofascial Pain Syndromes and Fibromyalgia
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 86
      • Chapter 87
      • Chapter 88
      • Chapter 89
      • Chapter 90
      • Chapter 91
      • Chapter 92
  • Section 16 Infectious Diseases
    • Chapter 93 Infectious Disease Assessment
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Screening Tests
      • Diagnostic Imaging
    • Chapter 94 Immunization and Prophylaxis
      • Immunization
      • Prophylaxis
    • Chapter 95 Antiinfective Therapy
    • Chapter 96 Fever Without a Focus
      • Fever in Infants Younger Than 3 Months of Age
      • Fever in Children 3 Months to 3 Years of Age
      • Fever of Unknown Origin
    • Chapter 97 Infections Characterized by Fever and Rash
      • Measles (Rubeola)
      • Rubella (German or 3-Day Measles)
      • Roseola Infantum (Exanthem Subitum)
      • Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease)
      • Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection (Chickenpox and Zoster)
    • Chapter 98 Cutaneous Infections
      • Superficial Bacterial Infections
      • Superficial Fungal Infections
      • Superficial Viral Infections
    • Chapter 99 Lymphadenopathy
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 100 Meningitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 101 Encephalitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 102 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 103 Pharyngitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory Evaluation
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 104 Sinusitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 105 Otitis Media
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 106 Otitis Externa
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 107 Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 108 Pertussis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 109 Bronchiolitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 110 Pneumonia
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 111 Infective Endocarditis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory Studies and Imaging
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 112 Acute Gastroenteritis
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 113 Viral Hepatitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 114 Urinary Tract Infection
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 115 Vulvovaginitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 116 Sexually Transmitted Infections
      • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
      • Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
      • Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
      • Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
      • Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
      • Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
      • Genital Warts (Human Papillomaviruses)
      • Pubic Lice (Phthirus pubis)
    • Chapter 117 Osteomyelitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 118 Infectious Arthritis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 119 Ocular Infections
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 120 Infection in the Immunocompromised Person
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory Tests and Imaging
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 121 Infections Associated With Medical Devices
      • Vascular Device Infections
      • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
      • Urinary Catheters
      • Peritoneal Dialysis–Associated Infections
      • Central Nervous System Shunts
    • Chapter 122 Zoonoses and Vector Borne Infections
      • Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
      • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
      • Ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis) and Anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum)
      • West Nile Virus (see Chapter 101)
    • Chapter 123 Parasitic Diseases
      • Protozoal Diseases
      • Helminthiases
    • Chapter 124 Tuberculosis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications and Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 125 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 93
      • Chapter 94
      • Chapter 95
      • Chapter 96
      • Chapter 97
      • Chapter 98
      • Chapter 99
      • Chapter 100
      • Chapter 101
      • Chapter 102
      • Chapter 103
      • Chapter 104
      • Chapter 105
      • Chapter 106
      • Chapter 107
      • Chapter 108
      • Chapter 109
      • Chapter 110
      • Chapter 111
      • Chapter 112
      • Chapter 113
      • Chapter 114
      • Chapter 115
      • Chapter 116
      • Chapter 117
      • Chapter 118
      • Chapter 119
      • Chapter 120
      • Chapter 121
      • Chapter 122
      • Chapter 123
      • Chapter 124
      • Chapter 125
  • Section 17 Digestive System
    • Chapter 126 Digestive System Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Screening Tests
      • Diagnostic Imaging
      • Common Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disorders
    • Chapter 127 Oral Cavity
      • Effects of Systemic Disease on the Oral Cavity
      • Deciduous and Primary Teeth
      • Dental Caries
      • Cleft Lip and Palate
      • Thrush
    • Chapter 128 Esophagus and Stomach
      • Gastroesophageal Reflux
      • Eosinophilic Esophagitis
      • Esophageal Atresia and Tracheoesophageal Fistula
      • Esophageal Foreign Bodies
      • Caustic Injuries and Pill Ulcers
      • Pyloric Stenosis
      • Peptic Disease
      • Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
    • Chapter 129 Intestinal Tract
      • Malrotation
      • Intestinal Atresia
      • Other Congenital Disorders
      • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
      • Celiac Disease
      • Milk and Soy Protein Intolerance (Allergic Colitis)
      • Intussusception
      • Appendicitis
    • Chapter 130 Liver Disease
      • Cholestasis
      • Viral Hepatitis
      • Fulminant Liver Failure
      • Chronic Liver Disease
      • Selected Chronic Hepatic Disorders
    • Chapter 131 Pancreatic Disease
      • Pancreatic Insufficiency
      • Acute Pancreatitis
      • Chronic Pancreatitis
    • Chapter 132 Peritonitis
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 126
      • Chapter 127
      • Chapter 128
      • Chapter 129
      • Chapter 130
      • Chapter 131
      • Chapter 132
  • Section 18 Respiratory System
    • Chapter 133 Respiratory System Assessment
      • Anatomy of the Respiratory System
      • Pulmonary Physiology
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Diagnostic Measures
      • Therapeutic Measures
    • Chapter 134 Control of Breathing
      • Apnea
      • Brief Resolved Unexplained Events
      • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    • Chapter 135 Upper Airway Obstruction
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
    • Chapter 136 Lower Airway, Parenchymal, and Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
    • Chapter 137 Cystic Fibrosis
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 138 Chest Wall and Pleura
      • Pectus Excavatum and Carinatum
      • Pneumothorax
      • Pneumomediastinum
      • Pleural Effusion
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 133
      • Chapter 134
      • Chapter 135
      • Chapter 136
      • Chapter 137
      • Chapter 138
  • Section 19 Cardiovascular System
    • Chapter 139 Cardiovascular System Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Laboratory and Imaging Tests
    • Chapter 140 Syncope
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
    • Chapter 141 Chest Pain
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
    • Chapter 142 Dysrhythmias
      • Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 143 Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Ventricular Septal Defect
      • Atrial Septal Defect
      • Patent Ductus Arteriosus
      • Endocardial Cushion Defect
      • Pulmonary Stenosis
      • Aortic Stenosis
      • Coarctation of the Aorta
    • Chapter 144 Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease
      • Tetralogy of Fallot
      • Transposition of the Great Arteries
      • Tricuspid Atresia
      • Truncus Arteriosus
      • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
      • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
      • Complications of Congenital Heart Disease
    • Chapter 145 Heart Failure
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 146 Rheumatic Fever
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Treatment and Prevention
    • Chapter 147 Cardiomyopathies
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Imaging Studies
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 148 Pericarditis
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Imaging and Laboratory Studies
      • Treatment
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 139
      • Chapter 140
      • Chapter 141
      • Chapter 142
      • Chapter 143
      • Chapter 144
      • Chapter 145
      • Chapter 146
      • Chapter 147
      • Chapter 148
  • Section 20 Hematology
    • Chapter 149 Hematology Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination and Common Manifestations
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation
      • Developmental Hematology
    • Chapter 150 Anemia
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
    • Chapter 151 Hemostatic Disorders
      • Normal Hemostasis
      • Developmental Hemostasis
      • Hemostatic Disorders
    • Chapter 152 Blood Component Therapy
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 149
      • Chapter 150
      • Chapter 151
      • Chapter 152
  • Section 21 Oncology
    • Chapter 153 Oncology Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Common Manifestations
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation
    • Chapter 154 Principles of Cancer Treatment
      • Oncological Emergencies
      • Surgery
      • Chemotherapy
      • Radiation Therapy
      • Other Therapies
      • Adverse Effects
    • Chapter 155 Leukemia
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 156 Lymphoma
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory/Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 157 Central Nervous System Tumors
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory/Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 158 Neuroblastoma
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory/Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 159 Wilms Tumor
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory/Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Prognosis and Complications
    • Chapter 160 Sarcomas
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory/Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 153
      • Chapter 154
      • Chapter 155
      • Chapter 156
      • Chapter 157
      • Chapter 158
      • Chapter 159
      • Chapter 160
  • Section 22 Nephrology and Urology
    • Chapter 161 Nephrology and Urology Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Renal Physiology
      • Common Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Imaging Studies
    • Chapter 162 Nephrotic Syndrome and Proteinuria
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 163 Glomerulonephritis and Hematuria
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Therapy
      • Prognosis and Prevention
    • Chapter 164 Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Treatment and Prognosis
    • Chapter 165 Acute and Chronic Renal Failure
      • Acute Kidney Injury
      • Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Chapter 166 Hypertension
      • Definition
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Treatment
      • Prognosis
    • Chapter 167 Vesicoureteral Reflux
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 168 Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Urinary Tract
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Imaging
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 169 Other Urinary Tract and Genital Disorders*
      • Urinary Tract Stones
      • Voiding Dysfunction
      • Disorders of the Penis
      • Disorders and Abnormalities of the Scrotum and Its Contents
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 161
      • Chapter 162
      • Chapter 163
      • Chapter 164
      • Chapter 165
      • Chapter 166
      • Chapter 167
      • Chapter 168
      • Chapter 169
  • Section 23 Endocrinology
    • Chapter 170 Endocrinology Assessment
      • Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
      • Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis
    • Chapter 171 Diabetes Mellitus
      • Definition
      • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
      • Diabetic Ketoacidosis
      • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      • Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Youth (MODY)
    • Chapter 172 Hypoglycemia
      • Definition
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Pathophysiology
      • Energy Stores
      • Idiopathic Ketotic Hypoglycemia
      • Disrupted Metabolic Response Pathways
      • Other Metabolic Disorders
      • Medications and Intoxication
      • Diagnosis
      • Emergency Management
    • Chapter 173 Short Stature
      • Growth
      • Abnormalities of Growth
    • Chapter 174 Disorders of Puberty
      • Physiology
      • Delayed Puberty
      • Sexual Precocity
      • Variations in Pubertal Development
    • Chapter 175 Thyroid Disease
      • Thyroid Physiology and Development
      • Thyroid Disorders
      • Nodules/Tumors of the Thyroid
    • Chapter 176 Disorders of Parathyroid Bone and Mineral Endocrinology
      • Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D
      • Hypocalcemia
      • Rickets
    • Chapter 177 Disorders of Sexual Development
      • Normal Sexual Development
      • Abnormal Sexual Development
      • Approach to the Infant With Genital Ambiguity
    • Chapter 178 Adrenal Gland Dysfunction
      • Physiology
      • Adrenal Insufficiency
      • 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency
      • Other Enzyme Defects
      • Addison Disease
      • Cushing Syndrome
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 170
      • Chapter 171
      • Chapter 172
      • Chapter 173
      • Chapter 174
      • Chapter 175
      • Chapter 176
      • Chapter 177
      • Chapter 178
  • Section 24 Neurology
    • Chapter 179 Neurology Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Neurological Examination of a Neonate
      • Neurological Examination of a Child
      • Cranial Nerve Evaluation
      • Motor Examination
      • Sensory Examination
      • Special Diagnostic Procedures
    • Chapter 180 Headache and Migraine
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Diagnostic Studies
      • Treatment
    • Chapter 181 Seizures
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Focal Seizures
      • Generalized Seizures
      • Epilepsy Syndromes
      • Status Epilepticus
      • Laboratory and Diagnostic Evaluation
      • Long-Term Therapy
    • Chapter 182 Weakness and Hypotonia
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Disease of the Upper Motor Neuron
      • Diseases of the Lower Motor Neuron
      • Neonatal and Infantile Hypotonia
      • Stroke in Childhood
    • Chapter 183 Ataxia and Movement Disorders
      • Ataxia
      • Movement Disorders
    • Chapter 184 Altered Mental Status
      • Disorders of Consciousness
      • Increased Intracranial Pressure
      • Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Chapter 185 Neurodegenerative Disorders
      • Hereditary and Metabolic Degenerative Diseases
      • Acquired Illnesses Mimicking Degenerative Diseases
    • Chapter 186 Neurocutaneous Disorders
      • Neurofibromatosis Type 1
      • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
      • Sturge-Weber Syndrome
    • Chapter 187 Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System
      • Congenital Anomalies of the Spinal Cord
      • Congenital Malformations of the Brain
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 179
      • Chapter 180
      • Chapter 181
      • Chapter 182
      • Chapter 183
      • Chapter 184
      • Chapter 185
      • Chapter 186
      • Chapter 187
  • Section 25 Dermatology
    • Chapter 188 Dermatology Assessment
      • History
      • Physical Examination
      • Common Manifestations
      • Initial Diagnostic Evaluation and Tests
    • Chapter 189 Acne
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 190 Atopic Dermatitis
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 191 Contact Dermatitis
      • Etiology and Epidemiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Complications
      • Prevention
    • Chapter 192 Seborrheic Dermatitis
      • Etiology
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Laboratory and Imaging Studies
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention
      • Other Papulosquamous Dermatoses
    • Chapter 193 Pigmented Lesions
      • Dermal Melanosis
      • Café-Au-Lait Macules
      • Congenital Melanocytic Nevi
      • Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevi
      • Acquired Melanocytic Nevi
    • Chapter 194 Vascular Anomalies
      • Vascular Tumors
      • Vascular Malformations
    • Chapter 195 Erythema Multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
      • Erythema Multiforme
      • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
    • Chapter 196 Cutaneous Infestations
      • Scabies
      • Pediculoses
    • Suggested Readings
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 188
      • Chapter 189
      • Chapter 190
      • Chapter 191
      • Chapter 192
      • Chapter 193
      • Chapter 194
      • Chapter 195
      • Chapter 196
  • Section 26 Orthopedics
    • Chapter 197 Orthopedics Assessment
      • Growth and Development
      • Developmental Milestones
    • Chapter 198 Fractures
      • Pediatric Fracture Patterns
      • Management of Pediatric Fractures
      • Special Concerns
    • Chapter 199 Hip
      • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
      • Transient Monoarticular Synovitis
      • Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
      • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
    • Chapter 200 Lower Extremity and Knee
      • Torsional Variations
      • Angular Variations
      • Leg-Length Discrepancy
      • Knee
    • Chapter 201 Foot
      • Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)
      • Metatarsus Adductus
      • Calcaneovalgus Foot
      • Hypermobile Pes Planus (Flexible Flatfoot)
      • Tarsal Coalition
      • Cavus Foot
      • Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis
      • Sever Disease (Calcaneal Apophysitis)
      • Toe Deformities
    • Chapter 202 Spine
      • Spinal Deformities
      • Scoliosis
      • Kyphosis
      • Torticollis
      • Back Pain in Children
      • Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
      • Diskitis
    • Chapter 203 Upper Extremity
      • Shoulder
      • Elbow
      • Wrist and Hand
    • Chapter 204 Benign Bone Tumors and Cystic Lesions
    • Suggested Reading
    • Pearls for Practitioners
      • Chapter 197
      • Chapter 198
      • Chapter 199
      • Chapter 200
      • Chapter 201
      • Chapter 202
      • Chapter 203
  • Index

UM RAFBÆKUR Á HEIMKAUP.IS

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