International Economic Law

Höfundar: Leïla Choukroune, James J. Nedumpara
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International Economic Law

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Half-title
  • Title page
  • Copyright information
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Notes on the Text
  • Table of Cases
  • Table of Legislation
  • Introduction
    • i.1 Introduction
    • i.2 The Law of International Economic Relations
      • i.2.1 Economic Foundations
        • i.2.1.1 Mercantilism
        • i.2.1.2 Comparative Advantage
        • i.2.1.3 More Complex Models
        • i.2.1.4 The Case for and against Free Trade
      • i.2.2 Law and Legal Theory
        • i.2.2.1 Positivism
        • i.2.2.2 Realism
        • i.2.2.3 Globalisation: Between Universalism and Fragmentation
        • i.2.2.4 Critical Approaches
    • i.3 Subjects and Sources
      • i.3.1 Subjects, Actors or Participants
        • i.3.1.1 International Organisations
        • i.3.1.2 Sui Generis Entities
        • i.3.1.3 Insurgents
        • i.3.1.4 National Liberation Movements
        • i.3.1.5 Individuals
      • i.3.2 Sources
        • i.3.2.1 International Custom
        • i.3.2.2 International Treaties
        • i.3.2.3 Judicial Decisions and Scholarship
        • i.3.2.4 International Law and Domestic Law: The Case of the WTO
        • i.3.2.5 General Principles of International Law
        • i.3.2.6 Other Sources and Hierarchy
    • i.4 Conclusion
    • Further Reading
  • Part I International Trade Law
    • 1 International Trade Law: Basic Principles
      • Highlights
      • 1.1 Non-Discrimination
        • 1.1.1 Most Favoured Nation Principle
          • 1.1.1.1 The Meaning of 'Advantage'
          • 1.1.1.2 Exception to the MFN Principle: The Enabling Clause
        • 1.1.2 National Treatment
          • 1.1.2.1 Taxes
          • 1.1.2.2 Aim-and-Effects Test
          • 1.1.2.3 Aim-and-Effects Test and Likeness of Products
          • 1.1.2.4 Like Product in Article III:2, First Sentence
          • 1.1.2.5 Article III:2, First Sentence and Meaning of 'in Excess of'
          • 1.1.2.6 Directly Competitive and Substitutable Products under Article III:2, Second Sentence
          • 1.1.2.7 Internal Regulation
            • 1.1.2.7.1 Law, Regulation or Requirement
          • 1.1.2.8 Like Product in Article III:4
          • 1.1.2.9 Less Favourable Treatment
          • 1.1.2.10 Summary of Interpretation of Article III:4
          • 1.1.2.11 Government Procurement Exception
            • 1.1.2.11.1 Subsidy to Domestic Producers
          • 1.1.2.12 Relationship between Article III:4 of the GATT and the TRIMs Agreement
      • 1.2 Conclusion
      • 1.3 Summary
      • 1.4 Review Questions
      • 1.5 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 2 Tariffs, Quotas and Preferential Trade Agreements
      • Highlights
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Tariff Bindings
      • 2.3 WTO and Border Tax Adjustment
      • 2.4 Tariff Classification
      • 2.5 Quantitative Restrictions
        • 2.5.1 Interaction between GATT Article XI:1 and Article 4.2 of the Agreement on Agriculture
      • 2.6 Preferential Trade Agreements
        • 2.6.1 Preferential Trade Agreements and Fragmentation of Law
        • 2.6.2 Rules of Origin
      • 2.7 Conclusion
      • 2.8 Summary
      • 2.9 Review Questions
      • 2.10 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 3 Trade in Agriculture
      • Highlights
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Negotiating History
      • 3.3 Relationship with Other Agreements
      • 3.4 Market Access
        • 3.4.1 Tariffs
          • 3.4.1.1 Quotas and Other Border Measures in the AoA
        • 3.4.2 Tariff Rate Quotas
      • 3.5 Special Safeguard Provision
        • 3.5.1 Special Safeguard Mechanism
      • 3.6 Domestic Support
        • 3.6.1 Classification of Domestic Support Measures
          • 3.6.1.1 Green Box
          • 3.6.1.2 Blue Box
          • 3.6.1.3 Amber Box
        • 3.6.2 Market Price Support
        • 3.6.3 Due Restraint or Peace Clause
        • 3.6.4 Implementation and Surveillance of the Disciplines under the AoA
        • 3.6.5 Bali Ministerial Decision on Public Stockholding for Food Security Purposes
      • 3.7 Export Subsidies
      • 3.8 Conclusion
      • 3.9 Summary
      • 3.10 Review Questions
      • 3.11 Exercises
        • Exercise 1
        • Exercise 2
      • Further Reading
    • 4 Technical Barriers to Trade and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
      • Highlights
      • 4.1 TBT Agreement
        • 4.1.1 Scope of the Agreement
        • 4.1.2 Technical Regulation
          • 4.1.2.1 Process and Production Method
        • 4.1.3 Standards
        • 4.1.4 International Standards and Harmonisation
          • 4.1.4.1 Meaning of 'Consensus' in International Standard Setting
          • 4.1.4.2 'Ineffective or Inappropriate Means' for the Fulfilment of 'Legitimate Objectives'
        • 4.1.5 Substantive Obligations in the TBT Agreement
          • 4.1.5.1 Non-Discrimination Obligation
          • 4.1.5.2 'Treatment no Less Favourable'
        • 4.1.6 Obligation to Explore Less Trade-Restrictive Measures
        • 4.1.7 Conformity Assessment Procedures
        • 4.1.8 Transparency Obligations
        • 4.1.9 TBT Committee
        • 4.1.10 Conclusion
      • 4.2 Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement
        • 4.2.1 Introduction
        • 4.2.2 Scope of the SPS Agreement
        • 4.2.3 Substantive Obligations in the SPS Agreement
          • 4.2.3.1 Basic Rights and Obligations
          • 4.2.3.2 Harmonisation
          • 4.2.3.3 International Standard-Setting Bodies
        • 4.2.4 Risk Assessment
          • 4.2.4.1 Types of Risk Assessment
        • 4.2.5 Consistency
        • 4.2.6 Appropriate Level of Protection
          • 4.2.6.1 'No More Trade-Restrictive than Required'
        • 4.2.7 Provisional Measures
        • 4.2.8 Regionalisation
        • 4.2.9 Equivalence
        • 4.2.10 Transparency Obligations in the SPS Agreement
        • 4.2.11 SPS Committee
        • 4.2.12 Conclusion
      • 4.3 Summary
      • 4.4 Review Questions
      • 4.5 Exercises
        • Exercise 1
        • Exercise 2
      • Further Reading
    • 5 Anti-Dumping
      • Highlights
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Rationale for Anti-Dumping
      • 5.3 Determination of Dumping
        • 5.3.1 Normal Value
          • 5.3.1.1 Sales in the Ordinary Course of Trade (OCT Test)
          • 5.3.1.2 Alternative Methods to Calculate Normal Value
            • Particular Market Situation
            • Insufficient or Low Volume of Sales
            • Third-Country Price Method
          • 5.3.1.3 Constructed Normal Value
            • Calculation of Cost of Production
            • S,G&A and Profits in Constructed Normal Value
        • 5.3.2 Export Price
        • 5.3.3 Fair Price Comparison
          • 5.3.3.1 Comparison between Normal Value and Export Price
          • 5.3.3.2 Concept of Zeroing
          • 5.3.3.3 Zeroing and Targeted Dumping
        • 5.3.4 Like Product in Anti-Dumping Investigations
      • 5.4 Determination of Injury
        • 5.4.1 Investigation of Injury
          • 5.4.1.1 Injury to Domestic Industry
          • 5.4.1.2 Injury Examination
            • Price Suppression
            • Price Depression
            • Injury and Cumulation
          • 5.4.1.3 Determination of Injury
          • 5.4.1.4 Threat of Injury
        • 5.4.2 Determination of Causation
        • 5.4.3 Non-Attribution
      • 5.5 Administration of Anti-Dumping Proceedings
        • 5.5.1 Industry Standing and Interested Parties
        • 5.5.2 Due Process Rights
          • 5.5.2.1 Public Notices and Reasoned Determinations
          • 5.5.2.2 Confidentiality and Disclosure of Essential Facts
          • 5.5.2.3 Best Information Available or Facts Available
        • 5.5.3 Anti-Dumping Measures
        • 5.5.4 Price Undertakings
        • 5.5.5 Duration of Anti-Dumping Measures
        • 5.5.6 Anti-Dumping and Developing Countries
        • 5.5.7 Special Standard of Review in the Anti-Dumping Agreement
        • 5.5.8 Judicial Review
      • 5.6 Conclusion
      • 5.7 Summary
      • 5.8 Review Questions
      • 5.9 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 6 Subsidies, Countervailing Measures and Safeguards
      • Highlights
      • 6.1 Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
        • 6.1.1 Introduction
        • 6.1.2 How Do Subsidies Affect International Trade?
        • 6.1.3 Historical Perspective
        • 6.1.4 Article VI of the GATT 1994
          • 6.1.4.1 Relationship between Article VI of the GATT and the SCM Agreement
        • 6.1.5 The Concept of 'Subsidy'
          • 6.1.5.1 Direct Transfer of Funds
          • 6.1.5.2 Potential Transfer of Funds
          • 6.1.5.3 Revenue Foregone that Is Otherwise Due
          • 6.1.5.4 Revenue Foregone and Defence under Footnote 1 of the SCM Agreement
          • 6.1.5.5 Government Provision of Goods and Services and Purchase of Goods Other than General Infrastr
          • 6.1.5.6 Payment to Funding Mechanisms/Entrustments or Direction of a Private Body
          • 6.1.5.7 Income or Price Support
        • 6.1.6 Who Should Provide a Subsidy? The Relevance of 'Public Body'
          • 6.1.6.1 Whether Government Ownership Is Relevant for Government Control
        • 6.1.7 Determination of Benefit
          • 6.1.7.1 Calculating the Benefit
          • 6.1.7.2 Pass-Through and Privatisation Issues
        • 6.1.8 Specificity
        • 6.1.9 Treatment of Subsidies under the SCM Agreement
          • 6.1.9.1 Prohibited Subsidies
          • 6.1.9.2 Actionable Subsidies
          • 6.1.9.3 Injury
          • 6.1.9.4 Serious Prejudice
          • 6.1.9.5 Non-Actionable Subsidies
        • 6.1.10 Countervailing Duty Measures
          • 6.1.10.1 Threat of Injury
          • 6.1.10.2 Causal Nexus between Subsidy and Injury
          • 6.1.10.3 Imposition of CVDs: How to Calculate the Benefit
        • 6.1.11 Double Remedies
      • 6.2 Emergency Actions and Safeguard Measures
        • 6.2.1 Historical Background
        • 6.2.2 Conditions for the Application of Safeguard Measures
          • 6.2.2.1 Increased Imports
          • 6.2.2.2 Serious Injury or Threat Thereof
          • 6.2.2.3 Causal Link between Increased Imports and Serious Injury
        • 6.2.3 Nature of Safeguard Measures
      • 6.3 Conclusion
      • 6.4 Summary
      • 6.5 Review Questions
      • 6.6 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 7 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
      • Highlights
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 TRIPS and its Negotiating History
      • 7.3 Framework of the TRIPS Agreement
      • 7.4 Principles of Non-Discrimination
        • 7.4.1 National Treatment Obligation under TRIPS
        • 7.4.2 Most Favoured Nation Treatment Obligation under TRIPS
      • 7.5 Substantial Provisions of TRIPS
        • 7.5.1 Copyrights
        • 7.5.2 Trademark
          • 7.5.2.1 Article 6 quinquies of the Paris Convention (1967)
          • 7.5.2.2 Articles 16.1 and 16.3.3 of TRIPS
          • 7.5.2.3 Article 20 of TRIPS
        • 7.5.3 Geographical Indications
        • 7.5.4 Patents
          • 7.5.4.1 Term of Patent Protection
      • 7.6 TRIPS Agreement and Public Health
      • 7.7 Intellectual Property Rights in New Trade Agreements
      • 7.8 Conclusion
      • 7.9 Summary
      • 7.10 Review Questions
      • 7.11 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 8 Trade in Services
      • Highlights
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 General Agreement on Trade in Services
        • 8.2.1 Brief Overview of the GATS
          • 8.2.1.1 Negotiating History
          • 8.2.1.2 Structure of the GATS
          • 8.2.1.3 Scope and Applicability
            • Affecting
            • Trade in Services
        • 8.2.2 Non-Discrimination Obligations
          • 8.2.2.1 Most Favoured Nation Treatment
        • 8.2.3 National Treatment
          • 8.2.3.1 The 'Likeness' Test
      • 8.3 Market Access
        • 8.3.1 Scope of Market Access in the GATS
          • 8.3.1.1 Conditions Prohibited
      • 8.4 Other Provisions and Concerns under the GATS
        • 8.4.1 Article V: Economic Integration Agreements
        • 8.4.2 Article VI: Domestic Regulation
        • 8.4.3 Article VII: Recognition
        • 8.4.4 Payments and Transfers
        • 8.4.5 Article XIX: Negotiation of Specific Commitments
      • 8.5 Specific Obligations and Scheduling
      • 8.6 Conclusion
      • 8.7 Summary
      • 8.8 Review Questions
      • 8.9 Exercises
        • Exercise 1
        • Exercise 2
      • Further Reading
    • 9 Trade Exceptions
      • Highlights
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 General Exceptions
        • 9.2.1 Main Features
        • 9.2.2 First-Tier Examination: the 'Necessity' Test
          • 9.2.2.1 Necessity and the GATT 1994, Article XX
          • 9.2.2.2 Necessity Test under the GATS Article XIV
          • 9.2.2.3 Brazil - Retreaded Tyres and the Necessity Test: A Turning Point?
        • 9.2.3 The 'Relating to' Test
        • 9.2.4 The Role of Effective Domestic Restrictions
        • 9.2.5 The Criterion of 'Essential'
        • 9.2.6 'Products in General or Local Short Supply'
        • 9.2.7 Second Tier of Analysis under Article XX: Interpretation of the Chapeau
        • 9.2.8 Arbitrary or Unjustifiable Discrimination
        • 9.2.9 Disguised Restriction
        • 9.2.10 Conclusion
      • 9.3 Other Exceptions
        • 9.3.1 Security Exceptions
        • 9.3.2 Security Exceptions in other WTO Cases
      • 9.4 Economic Emergency and Regional Trade Agreements Exceptions
      • 9.5 Summary
      • 9.6 Review Questions
      • 9.7 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 10 WTO Dispute Settlement
      • Highlights
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Developments from the GATT to the WTO
        • 10.2.1 History of the DSU
          • 10.2.1.1 Dispute Settlement Systems of the GATT 1947 and the WTO DSU
        • 10.2.2 WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding
          • 10.2.2.1 Structure and Scope of the DSU
          • 10.2.2.2 Purpose of the DSU
          • 10.2.2.3 DSU and Compulsory Jurisdiction
          • 10.2.2.4 Decision-Making under the DSU
      • 10.3 Stages in WTO Dispute Settlement
        • 10.3.1 Overview
        • 10.3.2 Consultations
        • 10.3.3 Panel Stage
          • 10.3.3.1 Preliminary Ruling
          • 10.3.3.2 Terms of Reference
          • 10.3.3.3 Identification of Measure
          • 10.3.3.4 Legal Basis of the Dispute
          • 10.3.3.5 Composition of a Panel and Panel Procedure
          • 10.3.3.6 Mandate of the Panel
          • 10.3.3.7 Standard of Review
          • 10.3.3.8 Rights of Third Party
          • 10.3.3.9 Adoption of Panel Reports
        • 10.3.4 Appeal Mechanism
          • 10.3.4.1 Structure/Composition of the Appellate Body
          • 10.3.4.2 Procedure for Appeal
          • 10.3.4.3 Issues of Law versus Issues of Facts
          • 10.3.4.4 Mandate of the Appellate Body
          • 10.3.4.5 Completion of Analysis
          • 10.3.4.6 Adoption of Appellate Body Reports
        • 10.3.5 Implementation of DSB Ruling
          • 10.3.5.1 Determination of Reasonable Period of Time
          • 10.3.5.2 Compliance Panel
          • 10.3.5.3 Mandate of the Panel under Article 21.5
        • 10.3.6 Compensation and Suspension of Concessions
          • 10.3.6.1 Compensation
          • 10.3.6.2 Suspension of Concessions
          • 10.3.6.3 Arbitration under DSU Article 22.6
        • 10.3.7 Sequencing
      • 10.4 Alternative Remedies under the DSU
        • 10.4.1 Mutually Agreed Solutions
        • 10.4.2 Good Offices, Conciliation or Mediation
        • 10.4.3 Arbitration under Article 25
      • 10.5 Other Issues
        • 10.5.1 Good Faith
        • 10.5.2 Amicus Curiae Briefs
        • 10.5.3 Business Confidential Information, Confidentiality and Transparency
          • 10.5.3.1 Confidentiality
          • 10.5.3.2 Transparency
        • 10.5.4 Special Treatment for Developing Countries
        • 10.5.5 Nullification and Impairment
        • 10.5.6 Non-Violation Claims
      • 10.6 Crisis in the Appellate Body
        • 10.6.1 Stalemate Relating to Appointments to the Appellate Body
      • 10.7 Conclusion
      • 10.8 Summary
      • 10.9 Review Questions
      • 10.10 Exercise
      • Further Reading
  • Part II International Investment Law
    • 11 International Investment Law in the Making
      • Highlights
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 FDI Today
        • 11.2.1 Mapping Exercise
          • 11.2.1.1 FDI Global and Regional Trends
        • 11.2.2 FDI Actors
        • 11.2.3 The Nature and Specificity of FDI
          • 11.2.3.1 Conflicting Economic Theories
          • 11.2.3.2 Admission
          • 11.2.3.3 Performance Requirements
      • 11.3 Brief History of International Investment Law
        • 11.3.1 Commerce and Investment
          • 11.3.1.1 Treaties of Friendship and Navigation
        • 11.3.2 The Colonial Period
        • 11.3.3 The Postcolonial Period
          • 11.3.3.1 The NIEO
        • 11.3.4 The Liberal Approach
        • 11.3.5 Resistance and Changes: Looking Ahead
      • 11.4 Conclusion
      • 11.5 Summary
      • 11.6 Review Questions
      • 11.7 Exercises
        • Exercise 1: Your Country's FDI - A Mapping Exercise
        • Exercise 2: In Search of a 2023 Multilateral Investment Treaty
          • Phase 1: Preparatory Work
          • Phase 2: Negotiation Work
      • Further Reading
    • 12 International Investment Law: Foundations and Sources
      • Highlights
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 The Three Laws of FDI
        • 12.2.1 National Law
        • 12.2.2 Contractual Law
          • 12.2.2.1 Negotiation
          • 12.2.2.2 Types of Contracts
            • Wholly Owned FDIs
            • International Joint Ventures
            • Public-Private Partnerships
            • International Loans
          • 12.2.2.3 Stabilisation and Umbrella Clauses
            • Stabilisation Clauses
            • Umbrella Clauses
        • 12.2.3 International Law
          • 12.2.3.1 State Responsibility
          • 12.2.3.2 Diplomatic Protection
      • 12.3 The International Law of Foreign Investment
        • 12.3.1 Sources of International Investment Law
        • 12.3.2 Bilateral Investment Treaties
        • 12.3.3 International Investment Agreements
      • 12.4 Conclusion
      • 12.5 Summary
      • 12.6 Review Questions
      • 12.7 Exercise
        • The Hopeland Contract Negotiation and Drafting
      • Further Reading
    • 13 International Investment Agreements: Scope, Definitions and Standards
      • Highlights
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Scope and Definitions
        • 13.2.1 Scope
          • 13.2.1.1 Framing
          • 13.2.1.2 Reservations and Exceptions
        • 13.2.2 Definitions
          • 13.2.2.1 Investment
            • The Concept of Investment: A Broad Approach
            • Asset- or Enterprise-Based Definition
            • Objective Criteria or Conceptual Approach?
            • The Legality of Investment
          • 13.2.2.2 Investor
      • 13.3 Standards of Treatment and Protection
        • 13.3.1 National Treatment
        • 13.3.2 Most Favoured Nation Treatment
        • 13.3.3 Minimum Standard and Fair and Equitable Treatment
        • 13.3.4 Full Protection and Security
        • 13.3.5 Taking of Foreign Property
          • 13.3.5.1 Direct Expropriation
          • 13.3.5.2 Indirect Expropriation
          • 13.3.5.3 Legitimate Expectation
          • 13.3.5.4 Compensation
      • 13.4 Conclusion
      • 13.5 Summary
      • 13.6 Review Questions
      • 13.7 Exercise
      • Further Reading
    • 14 Settlement of International Investment Disputes
      • Highlights
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 From Negotiation to Litigation
        • 14.2.1 Engaging State Responsibility
          • 14.2.1.1 Negotiation
          • 14.2.1.2 Domestic Resolution
            • Pursuit and Exhaustion of Local Remedies
            • Fork in the Road
          • 14.2.1.3 International Tribunals
            • Permanent Court of International Justice
            • International Court of Justice
            • World Trade Organization
            • Iran-US Claims Tribunal
      • 14.3 Contract-Based Arbitration
      • 14.4 Treaty-Based Arbitration
        • 14.4.1 State-to-State
        • 14.4.2 Investor-State
      • 14.5 Investor-State Dispute Settlement
        • 14.5.1 The ICSID
          • 14.5.1.1 History and Structure
          • 14.5.1.2 Dispute Proceedings
            • Jurisdiction
            • Applicable Law and Precedent
            • Claims and Counterclaims
            • Award, Annulment, Enforcement
      • 14.6 Other Fora
      • 14.7 ISDS: The Way Forward
        • 14.7.1 Controversies and Challenges
          • 14.7.1.1 Transparency and Ethics
          • 14.7.1.2 Amicus Curiae Briefs
          • 14.7.1.3 Access to Arbitration
            • Third-Party Funding
            • Legal Aid
          • 14.7.1.4 Proportionality, Reasonableness and Right to Regulate
          • 14.7.1.5 Damages
      • 14.8 Reform Proposals
        • 14.8.1 The EU and a Multilateral Investment Court
        • 14.8.2 Other Initiatives
      • 14.9 Conclusion
      • 14.10 Summary
      • 14.11 Review Questions
      • 14.12 Exercise
      • Further Reading
  • Part III Finance, Development and Aid
    • 15 International Monetary Law and Finance
      • Highlights
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 The Bretton Woods System
        • 15.2.1 Standards, Exchange Rates and Balance of Payments
          • 15.2.1.1 The Gold Standard
          • 15.2.1.2 Convertibility and Exchange Rates
          • 15.2.1.3 Balance of Payments
        • 15.2.2 A Short History
        • 15.2.3 The IMF: An International Organisation
        • 15.2.4 Resources and Drawing Rights
        • 15.2.5 The IMF: An Evolving Organisation
          • 15.2.5.1 Surveillance
          • 15.2.5.2 Assistance: Lending and Conditionality
          • 15.2.5.3 Capacity Development
      • 15.3 The International Monetary System in Crisis
        • 15.3.1 A Long Series of Regional Crises
          • 15.3.1.1 The Latin American Crisis
          • 15.3.1.2 The South East Asian Crisis
          • 15.3.1.3 The Russian Transition
          • 15.3.1.4 The Argentine Crisis
        • 15.3.2 Reforming the IMF?
      • 15.4 The European Monetary System
      • 15.5 When Public and Private International Law Meet: Private Activity Regulation
      • 15.6 Conclusion
      • 15.7 Summary
      • 15.8 Review Questions
      • 15.9 Exercises
        • Exercise 1
        • Exercise 2
      • Further Reading
    • 16 International Development and Aid
      • Highlights
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Development and Aid in Perspective
        • 16.2.1 What Is Development?
          • 16.2.1.1 Fuelling Growth or Ending Poverty?
            • Poverty Facts and Figures
          • 16.2.1.2 Humane and Sustainable Development
          • 16.2.1.3 Just Development
          • 16.2.1.4 Development as a Right
        • 16.2.2 What Is Foreign Aid?
        • 16.2.3 Critical and Conceptual Legal Approaches
      • 16.3 International Institutions for Development and Aid
        • 16.3.1 World Bank Group: Five Members with a Broad Mandate
          • 16.3.1.1 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
          • 16.3.1.2 International Development Association
          • 16.3.1.3 International Finance Corporation
          • 16.3.1.4 Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and the ICSID
        • 16.3.2 Other Multilateral Institutions for Development
          • 16.3.2.1 World Trade Organization
            • WTO Principles
          • 16.3.2.2 Other Multilateral Institutions
        • 16.3.3 National Actors
        • 16.3.4 Private Actors
      • 16.4 Conclusion
      • 16.5 Summary
      • 16.6 Review Questions
      • 16.7 Exercise
      • Further Reading
  • Part IV International Economic Law at a Crossroads: Contemporary Illustrations of Multidisciplinary
    • Mini Chapter 1 International Economic Law and Human Rights
      • A Negative Approach
      • Property: IEL Ambiguities Reflected
      • Rights and Rights Holders
        • The Right to Water and Sanitation
        • The Right to Food
        • The Right to Health
        • Gender
        • Development as a Right
      • From a Negative Perspective to a Holistic Approach
    • Mini Chapter 2 New Architecture of Trade Agreements
      • Plurilateral Approaches
      • Exclusion List or Negative List
      • Positive List versus Negative List in Services
        • Standstill Clause
        • Ratchet Clause
        • Hybrid List Approach
      • Side Letters
      • Conclusion
    • Mini Chapter 3 Digital Trade
      • Digital Trade and the WTO
      • Negotiations on Disciplines of E-Commerce
      • E-Commerce Moratorium
      • E-Commerce Chapter under FTAs
      • Conclusion
    • Mini Chapter 4 Economic Sanctions
      • Sanctions in International Law
        • Collective Sanctions
        • Unilateral Sanctions
      • Legality, Legitimacy and Effectiveness
        • Legality and Legitimacy
        • Effectiveness
    • Mini Chapter 5 International Taxation
      • Introduction
      • Base Erosion and Profit Shifting
    • Mini Chapter 6 The Blue Economy
      • The UNCLOS
      • Fisheries Subsidies
        • Fisheries Management
        • Approaches to Prohibition of Fisheries Subsidies
        • Transparency
        • Scope of Dispute Settlement
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UM RAFBÆKUR Á HEIMKAUP.IS

Bókahillan þín er þitt svæði og þar eru bækurnar þínar geymdar. Þú kemst í bókahilluna þína hvar og hvenær sem er í tölvu eða snjalltæki. Einfalt og þægilegt!

Rafbók til eignar
Rafbók til eignar þarf að hlaða niður á þau tæki sem þú vilt nota innan eins árs frá því bókin er keypt.

Þú kemst í bækurnar hvar sem er
Þú getur nálgast allar raf(skóla)bækurnar þínar á einu augabragði, hvar og hvenær sem er í bókahillunni þinni. Engin taska, enginn kyndill og ekkert vesen (hvað þá yfirvigt).

Auðvelt að fletta og leita
Þú getur flakkað milli síðna og kafla eins og þér hentar best og farið beint í ákveðna kafla úr efnisyfirlitinu. Í leitinni finnur þú orð, kafla eða síður í einum smelli.

Glósur og yfirstrikanir
Þú getur auðkennt textabrot með mismunandi litum og skrifað glósur að vild í rafbókina. Þú getur jafnvel séð glósur og yfirstrikanir hjá bekkjarsystkinum og kennara ef þeir leyfa það. Allt á einum stað.

Hvað viltu sjá? / Þú ræður hvernig síðan lítur út
Þú lagar síðuna að þínum þörfum. Stækkaðu eða minnkaðu myndir og texta með multi-level zoom til að sjá síðuna eins og þér hentar best í þínu námi.



Fleiri góðir kostir
- Þú getur prentað síður úr bókinni (innan þeirra marka sem útgefandinn setur)
- Möguleiki á tengingu við annað stafrænt og gagnvirkt efni, svo sem myndbönd eða spurningar úr efninu
- Auðvelt að afrita og líma efni/texta fyrir t.d. heimaverkefni eða ritgerðir
- Styður tækni sem hjálpar nemendum með sjón- eða heyrnarskerðingu
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