EBOOK: Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature

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EBOOK: Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature

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Rafbók til leigu í 180 daga. Útgáfa: 3

Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover
  • Halftitle
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Brief table of contents
  • Detailed table of contents
  • Preface
  • About the authors
  • Acknowledgements
  • Guided tour
  • Connect
  • Create
  • Study Skills/OUP
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Personality Psychology
    • Personality Defined
      • Personality Is the Set of Psychological Traits …
      • And Mechanisms …
      • Within the Individual …
      • That Are Organized and Relatively Enduring …
      • And that Influence …
      • His or Her Interactions with …
      • And Adaptations to …
      • The Environment
    • Three Levels of Personality Analysis
      • Human Nature
      • Individual and Group Differences
      • Individual Uniqueness
    • Then and Now
      • Grand Theories of Personality
      • Contemporary Research in Personality
    • Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature
      • Dispositional Domain
      • Biological Domain
      • Intrapsychic Domain
      • Cognitive-Experiential Domain
      • Social and Cultural Domain
      • Adjustment Domain
    • The Role of Personality Theory
    • Standards for Evaluating Personality Theories
    • Is There a Grand Ultimate and True Theory of Personality?
    • Key Terms
  • Chapter 2: Ppersonality Assessment, Measurement and Research Design
    • Sources of Personality Data
      • Self-report Data (S-Data)
      • Observer-report Data (O-Data)
      • Test Data (T-Data)
      • Life-outcome Data (L-Data)
      • Issues in Personality Assessment
    • Evaluation of Personality Measures
      • Reliability
      • Response Sets
      • Application
      • Validity
      • Generalizability
    • Development of Measurement Instruments
      • Scale Development
      • Scale Diagnostics
    • Research Designs in Personality
      • Quantitative Research
      • Qualitative Research
      • When to Use Experimental, Correlational and Case Study Designs
    • Summary and Evaluation
    • Key Terms
  • Part 1: The Dispositional Domain
    • Chapter 3: Traits and Trait Taxonomies
      • What Is a Trait? Two Basic Formulations
        • Traits as Internal Causal Properties
        • Traits as Purely Descriptive Summaries
        • Personality Coherence
        • Traits versus States
        • Persons, Behaviours and Situations
      • The Act Frequency Formulation of Traits – An Illustration of the Descriptive Summary Formulation
        • Act Frequency Research Programme
        • Evaluation of the Act Frequency Formulation
      • Identification of the Most Important Traits
        • Lexical Approach
        • Statistical Approach
        • Theoretical Approach
        • Evaluating the Approaches for Identifying Important Traits
      • Taxonomies of Personality
        • Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model of Personality
        • Cattell’s Taxonomy: The 16 Personality Factor System
        • Circumplex Taxonomies of Personality
        • Five-factor Model
        • From Big Five to Big Six? The HEXACO Model
        • Alternative Approaches to the Big Five
        • It Takes Two? The Big Two Metatraits
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 4: Measurement Issues in Trait Psychology
      • Theoretical Issues
        • Meaningful Differences between Individuals
        • Consistency over Time
        • Consistency across Situations
        • Person–Situation Interaction
        • The Importance of Situations
      • Measurement Issues
        • Carelessness
        • Defensiveness
        • Faking on Questionnaires
        • Beware of Barnum Statements in Personality Test Interpretations
      • Personality and Selection
        • Personnel Selection – Choosing the Right Person for the Job
        • Selection in Business Settings – The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator
        • Selection in Business Settings – The Hogan Personality Inventory
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 5: Personality Dispositions Over Time: Stability and Change
      • Conceptual Issues: Personality Development, Stability and Change
        • What Is Personality Development?
        • Rank Order Stability
        • Mean Level Stability
        • Personality Change
      • Personality Stability over Time
        • Stability of Temperament during Infancy
        • Stability during Childhood
        • Rank Order Stability in Adulthood
        • Mean Level Stability in Adulthood
      • Personality Change
        • Changes in Self-esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood
        • Sensation Seeking
        • Independence, Traditional Roles and Employability
        • Personality Changes across Cohorts: Assertiveness and Narcissism
        • Predicting Personality Change
        • Between Stability and Change: Personality Fluctuation
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
  • Part 2: The Biological Domain
    • Chapter 6: Genetics and Personality
      • The Human Genome
      • Controversy about Genes and Personality
      • Goals of Behavioural Genetics
      • What Is Heritability?
        • Misconceptions about Heritability
        • Nature–Nurture Debate Clarified
      • Quantitative Genetic Methods
        • Selective Breeding – Studies of Humans’ Best Friend
        • Family Studies
        • Twin Studies
        • Adoption Studies
      • Major Findings from Quantitative Genetic Research
        • Personality Traits
        • Attitudes and Preferences
        • Drinking and Smoking
        • Marriage
      • Molecular Genetic Methods and Results
      • Shared versus Non-shared Environmental Influences: A Riddle
      • Genes and the Environment
        • Genotype–Environment Interaction
        • Genotype–Environment Correlation
        • Environmental Modulation of Gene Expression
      • Behavioural Genetics, Science, Politics and Values
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 7: Physiological Approaches to Personality
      • A Physiological Approach to Personality
      • Physiological Measures Commonly Used in Personality Research
        • Electrodermal Activity (Skin Conductance)
        • Cardiovascular Activity
        • Brain Activity
        • Other Measures
      • Physiologically based Theories of Personality
        • Extraversion–Introversion
        • Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment
        • Sensation Seeking
        • Neurotransmitters and Personality
        • Morningness–Eveningness
        • Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 8: Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality
      • Evolution and Natural Selection
        • Natural Selection
        • Sexual Selection
        • Genes and Inclusive Fitness
        • Products of the Evolutionary Process
      • Evolutionary Psychology
        • Premises of Evolutionary Psychology
        • Empirical Testing of Evolutionary Hypotheses
      • Human Nature
        • Need to Belong
        • Helping and Altruism
        • Universal Emotions
      • Sex Differences
        • Sex Differences in Desire for Sexual Variety
        • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences
      • Individual Differences
        • Environmental Triggers of Individual Differences
        • Heritable Individual Differences Contingent on other Traits
        • Frequency-dependent Strategic Individual Differences
      • The Big Five, Motivation and Evolutionarily Relevant Adaptive Problems
      • Limitations of Evolutionary Psychology
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
  • Part 3: The Intrapsychic Domain
    • Chapter 9: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Personality
      • Sigmund Freud: A Brief Biography
      • Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory
        • Basic Instincts: Sex and Aggression
        • Unconscious Motivation: Sometimes We Don’t Know Why We Do What We Do
        • Psychic Determinism: Nothing Happens by Chance
      • Structure of Personality
        • Id, Ego and Superego
        • Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego
      • Dynamics of Personality
        • Types of Anxiety
        • Defence Mechanisms
      • Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
      • Personality and Psychoanalysis
        • Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious
        • The Process of Psychoanalysis
      • Why Is Psychoanalysis Important?
      • Psychoanalytic Research
      • Evaluation of Psychoanalysis and Freud’s Contributions
      • Beyond Classical Psychoanalysis
        • Contemporary Views on the Unconscious
        • Ego Psychology
        • Object Relations Theory
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 10: Motives and Personality
      • Basic Concepts
        • Need
        • Press
        • Apperception and the TAT
      • Self-Determination Theory
        • Autonomy, competence and relatedness
      • The Big Three Motives: Achievement, Power and Intimacy
        • Need for Achievement
        • Need for Power
        • Need for Intimacy
      • Humanistic Tradition: The Motive to Self-actualize
        • Maslow’s Contributions
        • Rogers’ Contributions
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
  • Part 4: The Cognitive/Experiential Domain
    • Chapter 11: Cognitive Topics in Personality
      • Personality Revealed through Perception
        • Field Dependence
        • Pain Tolerance and Sensation Reducing/Augmenting
      • Personality Revealed through Interpretation
        • Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory
        • Locus of Control
        • Beck’s Schema Theory and the S-REF Model
      • Personality Revealed through Goals
        • Personal Projects Analysis
        • Social Cognition
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 12: Intelligence
      • Why Does Intelligence Matter?
      • Defining Intelligence
      • Implicit Theories of Intelligence
      • Approaches and History of Intelligence
        • Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence
        • Cognitive-Experiential Approaches to Intelligence
        • Biological Approaches to Intelligence
      • Intelligence Tests
        • The Stanford–Binet Test and the Wechsler Scales
        • General Intelligence Tests: Raven’s Progressive Matrices
        • Modern Intelligence Tests
        • Other Approaches to Intelligence Tests
      • Genetics, Environment and Race Issues in Intelligence
        • Genetics
        • Environment
        • Race
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 13: Emotion and Personality
      • Basic Aspects of Emotions
      • Issues in Emotion Research
        • Emotional States versus Emotional Traits
        • Categorical versus Dimensional Approachto Emotion
      • Content versus Style of Emotional Life
        • Content of Emotional Life
        • Style of Emotional Life
        • Interaction of Content and Style in Emotional Life
        • Personality and Well-being
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 14: Approaches to the Self
      • Descriptive Component of the Self: Self-concept
        • Development of the Self-concept
        • Self-schemata: Possible Selves, Ought Selves and Bodily Selves
      • Evaluative Component of the Self: Self-esteem
        • Evaluation of Oneself
        • Research on Self-esteem
      • Social Component of the Self: Social Identity
        • The Nature of Identity
        • Identity Crises
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
  • Part 5: The Social and Cultural Domain
    • Chapter 15: Personality and Social Interaction
      • Selection
        • Personality Characteristics Desired in a Long-term Romantic Partner
        • Assortative Mating for Personality: The Search for the Similar
        • Do People Get the Mates They Want? And Are They Happy?
        • Personality and the Selective Break-up of Couples
        • Shyness and the Selection of Social Situations
        • Other Personality Traits and the Selectionof Situations
      • Evocation
        • Aggression and the Evocation of Hostility
        • Evocation of Anger and Upset in Partners
        • Evocation through Expectancy Confirmation
        • Evocation in the Digital Era; Personality Expressed Using Facebook and Other Social Media
      • Manipulation: Social Influence Tactics
        • A Taxonomy of Eleven Tactics of Manipulation
        • Sex Differences in Tactics of Manipulation
        • Personality Predictors of Tactics of Manipulation
      • Panning Back: An Overview of Personality and Social Interaction
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 16: Sex, Gender and Personality
      • The Science and Politics of Studying Sex and Gender
        • History of the Study of Sex Differences
        • Calculation of Effect Size: How Large Are the Sex Differences?
        • Minimalists and Maximalists
      • Theories of Sex Differences
        • Socialization and Social Roles
        • Hormonal Theories
        • Evolutionary Psychology Theory
        • An Integrated Theoretical Perspective
      • Sex Differences in Personality
        • Temperament in Children
        • Five-factor Model
        • Basic Emotions: Frequency and Intensity
        • Other Dimensions of Personality
      • Masculinity, Femininity, Androgyny and Sex Roles
        • The Search for Androgyny
        • Gender Stereotypes
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 17: Culture and Personality
      • Cultural Violations: An Illustration
      • What Is Cultural Personality Psychology?
      • Three Major Approaches to Culture
        • Evoked Culture
        • Transmitted Culture
        • Cultural Universals
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
  • Part 6: The Adjustment Domain
    • Chapter 18: Stress, Coping, Adjustment and Health
      • Models of the Personality–Illness Connection
      • The Concept of Stress
        • Stress Response
        • Major Life Events
        • Daily Hassles
        • Varieties of Stress
        • Primary and Secondary Appraisal
      • Coping Strategies and Styles
        • Attributional Style
        • Optimism and Physical Well-being
        • Management of Emotions
        • Disclosure
      • Personality and health
        • Personality change due to illness
        • Neurotic cascade
        • Health and Longevity
        • Personality Treatment
        • The Healthy Personality
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 19: Disorders of Personality
      • The Building Blocks of Personality Disorders
      • The Concept of Disorder
        • What Is Abnormal?
        • What Is a Personality Disorder?
      • Specific Personality Disorders
        • The Eccentric Cluster: Ways of Being Different
        • The Dramatic or Emotional Cluster: Ways of Being Unpredictable, Violent or Emotional
        • The Anxious Cluster: Ways of Being Nervous, Fearful or Distressed
      • Prevalence of Personality Disorders
        • Gender Differences in Personality Disorders
      • DSM-5: Hybrid Model of Personality Disorders
        • Dimensions and Categories
      • Causes of Personality Disorders
      • Summary and Evaluation
      • Key Terms
    • Chapter 20: Summary and Future Directions
      • Current Status of the Field
      • Domains of Knowledge: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
        • Dispositional Domain
        • Biological Domain
        • Intrapsychic Domain
        • Cognitive/Experiential Domain
        • Social and Cultural Domain
        • Adjustment Domain
      • Integration: Personality in the Twenty-first Century
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Name Index
  • Subject Index

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