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Chemistry: The Central Science in SI Units

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Useful Conversion Factors and Relationships
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Brief Contents
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • 1. Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement
    • 1.1. The Study of Chemistry
      • The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
      • Why Study Chemistry?
    • 1.2. Classifications of Matter
      • States of Matter
      • Pure Substances
      • Elements
      • Compounds
      • Mixtures
    • 1.3. Properties of Matter
      • Physical and Chemical Changes
      • Separation of Mixtures
    • 1.4. The Nature of Energy
      • Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
    • 1.5. Units of Measurement
      • SI Units
      • Length and Mass
      • Temperature
      • Derived SI Units
      • Volume
      • Density
      • Units of Energy
    • 1.6. Uncertainty in Measurement
      • Precision and Accuracy
      • Significant Figures
      • Significant Figures in Calculations
    • 1.7. Dimensional Analysis
      • Conversion Factors
      • Using Two or More Conversion Factors
      • Conversions Involving Volume
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Chemistry and the Chemical Industry
    • A Closer Look: The Scientific Method
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Chemistry in the News
    • Strategies for Success: Estimating Answers
    • Strategies for Success: The Importance of Practice
    • Strategies for Success: The Features of This Book
  • 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
    • 2.1. The Atomic Theory of Matter
    • 2.2. The Discovery of Atomic Structure
      • Cathode Rays and Electrons
      • Radioactivity
      • The Nuclear Model of the Atom
    • 2.3. The Modern View of Atomic Structure
      • Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes
    • 2.4. Atomic Weights
      • The Atomic Mass Scale
      • Atomic Weight
    • 2.5. The Periodic Table
    • 2.6. Molecules and Molecular Compounds
      • Molecules and Chemical Formulas
      • Molecular and Empirical Formulas
      • Picturing Molecules
    • 2.7. Ions and Ionic Compounds
      • Predicting Ionic Charges
      • Ionic Compounds
    • 2.8. Naming Inorganic Compounds
      • Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
      • Names and Formulas of Acids
      • Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds
    • 2.9. Some Simple Organic Compounds
      • Alkanes
      • Some Derivatives of Alkanes
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • A Closer Look: Basic Forces
    • A Closer Look: The Mass Spectrometer
    • A Closer Look: What Are Coins Made Of?
    • Chemistry and Life: Elements Required by Living Organisms
    • Strategies for Success: How to Take a Test
  • 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry
    • 3.1. Chemical Equations
      • Balancing Equations
      • A Step-by-Step Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation
      • Indicating the States of Reactants and Products
    • 3.2. Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity
      • Combination and Decomposition Reactions
      • Combustion Reactions
    • 3.3. Formula Weights
      • Formula and Molecular Weights
      • Percentage Composition from Chemical Formulas
    • 3.4. Avogadro’s Number and the Mole
      • Molar Mass
      • Interconverting Masses and Moles
      • Interconverting Masses and Numbers of Particles
    • 3.5. Empirical Formulas from Analyses
      • Molecular Formulas from Empirical Formulas
      • Combustion Analysis
    • 3.6. Quantitative Information from Balanced Equations
    • 3.7. Limiting Reactants
      • Theoretical and Percent Yields
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Strategies for Success: Problem Solving
    • Chemistry and Life: Glucose Monitoring
    • Strategies for Success: Design an Experiment
  • 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution
    • 4.1. General Properties of Aqueous Solutions
      • Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
      • How Compounds Dissolve in Water
      • Strong and Weak Electrolytes
    • 4.2. Precipitation Reactions
      • Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds
      • Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions
      • Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions
    • 4.3. Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions
      • Acids
      • Bases
      • Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
      • Identifying Strong and Weak Electrolytes
      • Neutralization Reactions and Salts
      • Neutralization Reactions with Gas Formation
    • 4.4. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
      • Oxidation and Reduction
      • Oxidation Numbers
      • Oxidation of Metals by Acids and Salts
      • The Activity Series
    • 4.5. Concentrations of Solutions
      • Molarity
      • Expressing the Concentration of an Electrolyte
      • Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume
      • Dilution
    • 4.6. Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis
      • Titrations
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Antacids
    • Strategies for Success: Analyzing Chemical Reactions
  • 5. Thermochemistry
    • 5.1. The Nature of Chemical Energy
    • 5.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics
      • System and Surroundings
      • Internal Energy
      • Relating E to Heat and Work
      • Endothermic and Exothermic Processes
      • State Functions
    • 5.3. Enthalpy
      • Pressure–Volume Work
      • Enthalpy Change
    • 5.4. Enthalpies of Reaction
    • 5.5. Calorimetry
      • Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
      • Constant-Pressure Calorimetry
      • Bomb Calorimetry (Constant-Volume Calorimetry)
    • 5.6. Hess’s Law
    • 5.7. Enthalpies of Formation
      • Using Enthalpies of Formation to Calculate Enthalpies of Reaction
    • 5.8. Bond Enthalpies
      • Bond Enthalpies and the Enthalpies of Reactions
    • 5.9. Foods and Fuels
      • Foods
      • Fuels
      • Other Energy Sources
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Energy, Enthalpy, and P-V Work
    • A Closer Look: Using Enthalpy as a Guide
    • Chemistry and Life: The Regulation of Body Temperature
    • Chemistry Put to Work: The Scientific and Political Challenges of Biofuels
  • 6. Electronic Structure of Atoms
    • 6.1. The Wave Nature of Light
    • 6.2. Quantized Energy and Photons
      • Hot Objects and the Quantization of Energy
      • The Photoelectric Effect and Photons
    • 6.3. Line Spectra and the Bohr Model
      • Line Spectra
      • Bohr’s Model
      • The Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom
      • Limitations of the Bohr Model
    • 6.4. The Wave Behavior of Matter
      • The Uncertainty Principle
    • 6.5. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
      • Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
    • 6.6. Representations of Orbitals
      • The s Orbitals
      • The p Orbitals
      • The d and f Orbitals
    • 6.7. Many-Electron Atoms
      • Orbitals and Their Energies
      • Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle
    • 6.8. Electron Configurations
      • Hund’s Rule
      • Condensed Electron Configurations
      • Transition Metals
      • The Lanthanides and Actinides
    • 6.9. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
      • Anomalous Electron Configurations
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Measurement and the Uncertainty Principle
    • A Closer Look: Thought Experiments and Schrödinger’s Cat
    • A Closer Look: Probability Density and Radial Probability Functions
    • Chemistry and Life: Nuclear Spin and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • 7. Periodic Properties of the Elements
    • 7.1. Development of the Periodic Table
    • 7.2. Effective Nuclear Charge
    • 7.3. Sizes of Atoms and Ions
      • Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii
      • Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii
    • 7.4. Ionization Energy
      • Variations in Successive Ionization Energies
      • Periodic Trends in First Ionization Energies
      • Electron Configurations of Ions
    • 7.5. Electron Affinity
      • Periodic Trends in Electron Affinity
    • 7.6. Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
      • Metals
      • Nonmetals
      • Metalloids
    • 7.7. Trends for Group 1A and Group 2A Metals
      • Group 1A: The Alkali Metals
      • Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals
    • 7.8. Trends for Selected Nonmetals
      • Hydrogen
      • Group 6A: The Oxygen Group
      • Group 7A: The Halogens
      • Group 8A: The Noble Gases
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Effective Nuclear Charge
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Ionic Size and Lithium-Ion Batteries
    • Chemistry and Life: The Improbable Development of Lithium Drugs
  • 8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding
    • 8.1. Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
      • The Octet Rule
    • 8.2. Ionic Bonding
      • Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation
      • Electron Configurations of Ions of the s- and p-Block Elements
      • Transition Metal Ions
    • 8.3. Covalent Bonding
      • Lewis Structures
      • Multiple Bonds
    • 8.4. Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
      • Electronegativity
      • Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
      • Dipole Moments
      • Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonding
    • 8.5. Drawing Lewis Structures
      • Formal Charge and Alternative Lewis Structures
    • 8.6. Resonance Structures
      • Resonance in Benzene
    • 8.7. Exceptions to the Octet Rule
      • Odd Number of Electrons
      • Less Than an Octet of Valence Electrons
      • More Than an Octet of Valence Electrons
    • 8.8. Strengths and Lengths of Covalent Bonds
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Calculation of Lattice Energies: The Born–Haber Cycle
    • A Closer Look: Oxidation Numbers, Formal Charges, and Actual Partial Charges
  • 9. Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
    • 9.1. Molecular Shapes
    • 9.2. The VSEPR Model
      • Applying the VSEPR Model to Determine Molecular Shapes
      • Effect of Nonbonding Electrons and Multiple Bonds on Bond Angles
      • Molecules with Expanded Valence Shells
      • Shapes of Larger Molecules
    • 9.3. Molecular Shape and Molecular Polarity
    • 9.4. Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap
    • 9.5. Hybrid Orbitals
      • sp Hybrid Orbitals
      • sp2 and sp3 Hybrid Orbitals
      • Hypervalent Molecules
      • Hybrid Orbital Summary
    • 9.6. Multiple Bonds
      • Resonance Structures, Delocalization, and p Bonding
      • General Conclusions about s and p Bonding
    • 9.7. Molecular Orbitals
      • Molecular Orbitals of the Hydrogen Molecule
      • Bond Order
    • 9.8. Bonding in Period 2 Diatomic Molecules
      • Molecular Orbitals for Li2 and Be2
      • Molecular Orbitals from 2p Atomic Orbitals
      • Electron Configurations for B2 through Ne2
      • Electron Configurations and Molecular Properties
      • Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry and Life: The Chemistry of Vision
    • A Closer Look: Phases in Atomic and Molecular Orbitals
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Orbitals and Energy
  • 10. Gases
    • 10.1. Characteristics of Gases
    • 10.2. Pressure
      • Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer
    • 10.3. The Gas Laws
      • The Pressure–Volume Relationship: Boyle’s Law
      • The Temperature–Volume Relationship: Charles’s Law
      • The Quantity–Volume Relationship: Avogadro’s Law
    • 10.4. The Ideal-Gas Equation
      • Relating the Ideal-Gas Equation and the Gas Laws
    • 10.5. Further Applications of the Ideal-Gas Equation
      • Gas Densities and Molar Mass
      • Volumes of Gases in Chemical Reactions
    • 10.6. Gas Mixtures and Partial Pressures
      • Partial Pressures and Mole Fractions
    • 10.7. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
      • Distributions of Molecular Speed
      • Application of Kinetic-Molecular Theory to the Gas Laws
    • 10.8. Molecular Effusion and Diffusion
      • Graham’s Law of Effusion
      • Diffusion and Mean Free Path
    • 10.9. Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior
      • The van der Waals Equation
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Strategies for Success: Calculations Involving Many Variables
    • A Closer Look: The Ideal-Gas Equation
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Gas Separations
  • 11. Liquids and Intermolecular Forces
    • 11.1. A Molecular Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
    • 11.2. Intermolecular Forces
      • Dispersion Forces
      • Dipole–Dipole Interactions
      • Hydrogen Bonding
      • Ion–Dipole Forces
      • Comparing Intermolecular Forces
    • 11.3. Select Properties of Liquids
      • Viscosity
      • Surface Tension
      • Capillary Action
    • 11.4. Phase Changes
      • Energy Changes Accompany Phase Changes
      • Heating Curves
      • Critical Temperature and Pressure
    • 11.5. Vapor Pressure
      • Volatility, Vapor Pressure, and Temperature
      • Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
    • 11.6. Phase Diagrams
      • The Phase Diagrams of H2O and CO2
    • 11.7. Liquid Crystals
      • Types of Liquid Crystals
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Ionic Liquids
    • A Closer Look: The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
  • 12. Solids and Modern Materials
    • 12.1. Classification of Solids
    • 12.2. Structures of Solids
      • Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
      • Unit Cells and Crystal Lattices
      • Filling the Unit Cell
    • 12.3. Metallic Solids
      • The Structures of Metallic Solids
      • Close Packing
      • Alloys
    • 12.4. Metallic Bonding
      • Electron-Sea Model
      • Molecular Orbital Model
    • 12.5. Ionic Solids
      • Structures of Ionic Solids
    • 12.6. Molecular Solids
    • 12.7. Covalent-Network Solids
      • Semiconductors
      • Semiconductor Doping
    • 12.8. Polymers
      • Making Polymers
      • Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers
    • 12.9. Nanomaterials
      • Semiconductors on the Nanoscale
      • Metals on the Nanoscale
      • Carbon on the Nanoscale
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: X-ray Diffraction
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Alloys of Gold
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Solid-State Lighting
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Modern Materials in the Automobile
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials
  • 13. Properties of Solutions
    • 13.1. The Solution Process
      • The Natural Tendency toward Mixing
      • The Effect of Intermolecular Forces on Solution Formation
      • Energetics of Solution Formation
      • Solution Formation and Chemical Reactions
    • 13.2. Saturated Solutions and Solubility
    • 13.3. Factors Affecting Solubility
      • Solute–Solvent Interactions
      • Pressure Effects
      • Temperature Effects
    • 13.4. Expressing Solution Concentration
      • Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb
      • Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
      • Converting Concentration Units
    • 13.5. Colligative Properties
      • Vapor–Pressure Lowering
      • Boiling-Point Elevation
      • Freezing-Point Depression
      • Osmosis
      • Determination of Molar Mass from Colligative Properties
    • 13.6. Colloids
      • Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
      • Colloidal Motion in Liquids
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry and Life: Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins
    • Chemistry and Life: Blood Gases and Deep-Sea Diving
    • A Closer Look: Ideal Solutions with Two or More Volatile Components
    • A Closer Look: The van’t Hoff Factor
    • Chemistry and Life: Sickle-Cell Anemia
  • 14. Chemical Kinetics
    • 14.1. Factors That Affect Reaction Rates
    • 14.2. Reaction Rates
      • Change of Rate with Time
      • Instantaneous Rate
      • Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry
    • 14.3. Concentration and Rate Laws
      • Reaction Orders: The Exponents in the Rate Law
      • Magnitudes and Units of Rate Constants
      • Using Initial Rates to Determine Rate Laws
    • 14.4. The Change of Concentration with Time
      • First-Order Reactions
      • Second-Order Reactions
      • Zero-Order Reactions
      • Half-Life
    • 14.5. Temperature and Rate
      • The Collision Model
      • The Orientation Factor
      • Activation Energy
      • The Arrhenius Equation
      • Determining the Activation Energy
    • 14.6. Reaction Mechanisms
      • Elementary Reactions
      • Multistep Mechanisms
      • Rate Laws for Elementary Reactions
      • The Rate-Determining Step for a Multistep Mechanism
      • Mechanisms with a Slow Initial Step
      • Mechanisms with a Fast Initial Step
    • 14.7. Catalysis
      • Homogeneous Catalysis
      • Heterogeneous Catalysis
      • Enzymes
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Reaction Rates: Beer’s Law
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Methyl Bromide in the Atmosphere
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Catalytic Converters
    • Chemistry and Life: Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogenase
  • 15. Chemical Equilibrium
    • 15.1. The Concept of Equilibrium
    • 15.2. The Equilibrium Constant
      • Evaluating Kc
      • Equilibrium Constants in Terms of Pressure,Kp
      • Equilibrium Constants and Units
    • 15.3. Understanding and Working with Equilibrium Constants
      • The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants
      • The Direction of the Chemical Equation and K
      • Relating Chemical Equation Stoichiometry and Equilibrium Constants
    • 15.4. Heterogeneous Equilibria
    • 15.5. Calculating Equilibrium Constants
    • 15.6. Applications of Equilibrium Constants
      • Predicting the Direction of Reaction
      • Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations
    • 15.7. Le Châtelier’s Principle
      • Change in Reactant or Product Concentration
      • Effects of Volume and Pressure Changes
      • Effect of Temperature Changes
      • The Effect of Catalysts
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry Put to Work: The Haber Process
    • A Closer Look: Temperature Changes and Le Châtelier’s Principle
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Controlling Nitric Oxide Emissions
  • 16. Acid–Base Equilibria
    • 16.1. Arrhenius Acids and Bases
    • 16.2. Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases
      • The H+ Ion in Water
      • Proton-Transfer Reactions
      • Conjugate Acid–Base Pairs
      • Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
    • 16.3. The Autoionization of Water
      • The Ion Product of Water
    • 16.4. The pH Scale
      • pOH and Other “p” Scales
      • Measuring pH
    • 16.5. Strong Acids and Bases
      • Strong Acids
      • Strong Bases
    • 16.6. Weak Acids
      • Calculating Ka from pH
      • Percent Ionization
      • Using Ka to Calculate pH
      • Polyprotic Acids
    • 16.7. Weak Bases
      • Types of Weak Bases
    • 16.8. Relationship Between Ka and Kb
    • 16.9. Acid–Base Properties of Salt Solutions
      • An Anion’s Ability to React with Water
      • A Cation’s Ability to React with Water
      • Combined Effect of Cation and Anion in Solution
    • 16.10. Acid–Base Behavior and Chemical Structure
      • Factors That Affect Acid Strength
      • Binary Acids
      • Oxyacids
      • Carboxylic Acids
    • 16.11. Lewis Acids and Bases
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Polyprotic Acids
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Amines and Amine Hydrochlorides
    • Chemistry and Life: The Amphiprotic Behavior of Amino Acids
  • 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria
    • 17.1. The Common-Ion Effect
    • 17.2. Buffers
      • Composition and Action of Buffers
      • Calculating the pH of a Buffer
      • Buffer Capacity and pH Range
      • Addition of Strong Acids or Bases to Buffers
    • 17.3. Acid–Base Titrations
      • Strong Acid–Strong Base Titrations
      • Weak Acid–Strong Base Titrations
      • Titrating with an Acid–Base Indicator
      • Titrations of Polyprotic Acids
    • 17.4. Solubility Equilibria
      • The Solubility-Product Constant, Ksp
      • Solubility and Ksp
    • 17.5. Factors That Affect Solubility
      • The Common-Ion Effect
      • Solubility and pH
      • Formation of Complex Ions
      • Amphoterism
    • 17.6. Precipitation and Separation of Ions
      • Selective Precipitation of Ions
    • 17.7. Qualitative Analysis for Metallic Elements
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry and Life: Blood as a Buffered Solution
    • A Closer Look: Limitations of Solubility Products
    • Chemistry and Life: Tooth Decay and Fluoridation
    • A Closer Look: Lead Contamination in Drinking Water
  • 18. Chemistry of the Environment
    • 18.1. Earth’s Atmosphere
      • Composition of the Atmosphere
      • Photochemical Reactions in the Atmosphere
      • Ozone in the Stratosphere
    • 18.2. Human Activities and Earth’s Atmosphere
      • The Ozone Layer and Its Depletion
      • Sulfur Compounds and Acid Rain
      • Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog
      • Greenhouse Gases: Water Vapor, Carbon Dioxide, and Climate
    • 18.3. Earth’s Water
      • The Global Water Cycle
      • Salt Water: Earth’s Oceans and Seas
      • Freshwater and Groundwater
    • 18.4. Human Activities and Water Quality
      • Dissolved Oxygen and Water Quality
      • Water Purification: Desalination
      • Water Purification: Municipal Treatment
    • 18.5. Green Chemistry
      • Supercritical Solvents
      • Greener Reagents and Processes
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Other Greenhouse Gases
    • A Closer Look: The Ogallala Aquifer—A Shrinking Resource
    • A Closer Look: Fracking and Water Quality
    • Chemistry and Life: Ocean Acidification
  • 19. Chemical Thermodynamics
    • 19.1. Spontaneous Processes
      • Seeking a Criterion for Spontaneity
      • Reversible and Irreversible Processes
    • 19.2. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      • The Relationship between Entropy and Heat
      • S for Phase Changes
      • The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • 19.3. The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
      • Expansion of a Gas at the Molecular Level
      • Boltzmann’s Equation and Microstates
      • Molecular Motions and Energy
      • Making Qualitative Predictions about S
      • The Third Law of Thermodynamics
    • 19.4. Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
      • Temperature Variation of Entropy
      • Standard Molar Entropies
      • Calculating the Standard Entropy Change for a Reaction
      • Entropy Changes in the Surroundings
    • 19.5. Gibbs Free Energy
      • Standard Free Energy of Formation
    • 19.6. Free Energy and Temperature
    • 19.7. Free Energy and the Equilibrium Constant
      • Free Energy under Nonstandard Conditions
      • Relationship between G ° and K
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: The Entropy Change When a Gas Expands Isothermally
    • Chemistry and Life: Entropy and Human Society
    • A Closer Look: What’s “Free” About Free Energy?
    • Chemistry and Life: Driving Nonspontaneous Reactions: Coupling Reactions
  • 20. Electrochemistry
    • 20.1. Oxidation States and Oxidation– Reduction Reactions
    • 20.2. Balancing Redox Equations
      • Half-Reactions
      • Balancing Equations by the Method of Half-Reactions
      • Balancing Equations for Reactions Occurring in Basic Solution
    • 20.3. Voltaic Cells
    • 20.4. Cell Potentials under Standard Conditions
      • Standard Reduction Potentials
      • Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
    • 20.5. Free Energy and Redox Reactions
      • Emf, Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant
    • 20.6. Cell Potentials under Nonstandard Conditions
      • The Nernst Equation
      • Concentration Cells
    • 20.7. Batteries and Fuel Cells
      • Lead–Acid Battery
      • Alkaline Battery
      • Nickel–Cadmium and Nickel–Metal Hydride Batteries
      • Lithium-Ion Batteries
      • Hydrogen Fuel Cells
    • 20.8. Corrosion
      • Corrosion of Iron (Rusting)
      • Preventing Corrosion of Iron
    • 20.9. Electrolysis
      • Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Electrical Work
    • Chemistry and Life: Heartbeats and Electrocardiography
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Batteries for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Electrometallurgy of Aluminum
  • 21. Nuclear Chemistry
    • 21.1. Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations
      • Nuclear Equations
      • Types of Radioactive Decay
    • 21.2. Patterns of Nuclear Stability
      • Neutron-to-Proton Ratio
      • Radioactive Decay Chains
      • Further Observations
    • 21.3. Nuclear Transmutations
      • Accelerating Charged Particles
      • Reactions Involving Neutrons
      • Transuranium Elements
    • 21.4. Rates of Radioactive Decay
      • Radiometric Dating
      • Calculations Based on Half-Life
    • 21.5. Detection of Radioactivity
      • Radiotracers
    • 21.6. Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
      • Nuclear Binding Energies
    • 21.7. Nuclear Power: Fission
      • Nuclear Reactors
      • Nuclear Waste
    • 21.8. Nuclear Power: Fusion
    • 21.9. Radiation in the Environment and Living Systems
      • Radiation Doses
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Key Equations
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry and Life: Medical Applications of Radiotracers
    • A Closer Look: The Dawning of the Nuclear Age
    • A Closer Look: Nuclear Synthesis of the Elements
    • Chemistry and Life: Radiation Therapy
  • 22. Chemistry of the Nonmetals
    • 22.1. Periodic Trends and Chemical Reactions
      • Chemical Reactions
    • 22.2. Hydrogen
      • Isotopes of Hydrogen
      • Properties of Hydrogen
      • Production of Hydrogen
      • Uses of Hydrogen
      • Binary Hydrogen Compounds
    • 22.3. Group 18: The Noble Gases
      • Noble-Gas Compounds
    • 22.4. Group 17: The Halogens
      • Properties and Production of the Halogens
      • Uses of the Halogens
      • The Hydrogen Halides
      • Interhalogen Compounds
      • Oxyacids and Oxyanions
    • 22.5. Oxygen
      • Properties of Oxygen
      • Production of Oxygen
      • Uses of Oxygen
      • Ozone
      • Oxides
      • Peroxides and Superoxides
    • 22.6. The Other Group 16 Elements: S, Se, Te, and Po
      • Occurrence and Production of S, Se, and Te
      • Properties and Uses of Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
      • Sulfides
      • Oxides, Oxyacids, and Oxyanions of Sulfur
    • 22.7. Nitrogen
      • Properties of Nitrogen
      • Production and Uses of Nitrogen
      • Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen
      • Oxides and Oxyacids of Nitrogen
    • 22.8. The Other Group 15 Elements: P, As, Sb, and Bi
      • Occurrence, Isolation, and Properties of Phosphorus
      • Phosphorus Halides
      • Oxy Compounds of Phosphorus
    • 22.9. Carbon
      • Elemental Forms of Carbon
      • Oxides of Carbon
      • Carbonic Acid and Carbonates
      • Carbides
    • 22.10. The Other Group 14 Elements: Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb
      • General Characteristics of the Group
      • Elements
      • Occurrence and Preparation of Silicon
      • Silicates
      • Glass
      • Silicones
    • 22.11. Boron
      • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
      • Learning Outcomes
      • Exercises
      • Additional Exercises
      • Integrative Exercises
      • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: The Hydrogen Economy
    • Chemistry and Life: Nitroglycerin, Nitric Oxide, and Heart Disease
    • Chemistry and Life: Arsenic in Drinking Water
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Carbon Fibers and Composites
  • 23. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
    • 23.1. The Transition Metals
      • Physical Properties
      • Electron Configurations and Oxidation States
      • Magnetism
    • 23.2. Transition-Metal Complexes
      • The Development of Coordination Chemistry: Werner’s Theory
      • The Metal–Ligand Bond
      • Charges, Coordination Numbers, and Geometries
    • 23.3. Common Ligands in Coordination Chemistry
      • Metals and Chelates in Living Systems
    • 23.4. Nomenclature and Isomerism in Coordination Chemistry
      • Isomerism
      • Structural Isomerism
      • Stereoisomerism
    • 23.5. Color and Magnetism in Coordination Chemistry
      • Color
      • Magnetism of Coordination Compounds
    • 23.6. Crystal-Field Theory
      • Electron Configurations in Octahedral Complexes
      • Tetrahedral and Square-Planar Complexes
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Exercises
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • A Closer Look: Entropy and the Chelate Effect
    • Chemistry and Life: The Battle for Iron in Living Systems
    • A Closer Look: Charge-Transfer Color
  • 24. The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry
    • 24.1. General Characteristics of Organic Molecules
      • The Structures of Organic Molecules
      • The Stability of Organic Compounds
      • Solubility and Acid–Base Properties of Organic Compounds
    • 24.2. Introduction to Hydrocarbons
      • Structures of Alkanes
      • Structural Isomers
      • Nomenclature of Alkanes
      • Cycloalkanes
      • Reactions of Alkanes
    • 24.3. Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
      • Alkenes
      • Alkynes
      • Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes
      • Aromatic Hydrocarbons
      • Stabilization of p Electrons by Delocalization
      • Substitution Reactions of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • 24.4. Organic Functional Groups
      • Alcohols
      • Ethers
      • Aldehydes and Ketones
      • Carboxylic Acids and Esters
      • Amines and Amides
    • 24.5. Chirality in Organic Chemistry
    • 24.6. Introduction to Biochemistry
    • 24.7. Proteins
      • Amino Acids
      • Polypeptides and Proteins
      • Protein Structure
    • 24.8. Carbohydrates
      • Disaccharides
      • Polysaccharides
    • 24.9. Lipids
      • Fats
      • Phospholipids
    • 24.10. Nucleic Acids
    • Chapter Summary and Key Terms
    • Learning Outcomes
    • Exercise
    • Additional Exercises
    • Integrative Exercises
    • Design an Experiment
    • Chemistry Put to Work: Gasoline
    • A Closer Look: Mechanism of Addition Reactions
    • Strategies for Success: What Now?
  • A: Mathematical Operations
  • B: Properties of Water
  • C: Thermodynamic Quantities for Selected Substances at 298.15 K (25 °C)
  • D: Aqueous Equilibrium Constants
  • E: Standard Reduction Potentials at 25 °C
  • Answers to Selected Exercises
  • Answers to Give it Some Thought
  • Answers to Go Figure
  • Answers to Selected Practice Exercises
  • Glossary
  • Photo and Art Credits
  • Index
  • Common Ions
  • Fundamental Constants
  • Periodic Table of the Elements
  • Back Cover

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Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292221328
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Chemistry: The Central Science in SI Units

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Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292221328
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