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Brukner & Khan's Revised Clinical Sports Medicine: Injuries

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Frontmatter
    • Clinical Sports Medicine
    • Dedication
    • Title Page
    • Copyright and More Information
    • Foreword to the first edition
    • Foreword to the fifth edition
    • Brief contents
    • Contents
    • Preface
    • About the authors
    • Editors
    • Co-authors
    • Other contributors
    • Acknowledgments
    • Guided tour of your book
  • Part A: Fundamental principles
    • Introduction
    • Chapter 1: Sport and exercise medicine: the team approach
      • Introduction
      • The SEM team
        • Multiskilling, roles, responsibilities and communication
        • The sport and exercise medicine model
      • The challenges of management
        • Diagnosis
        • Treatment
        • Meeting individual needs
      • The coach, the athlete and the clinician
      • ‘Love thy sport’ (and physical activity!)
      • References
    • Chapter 2: Integrating evidence into shared decision making with patients
      • Introduction
      • What is evidence-based practice?
      • Why is the evidence-based practice concept controversial?
      • Challenges to EBP
      • Implementing EBP
        • Accessing research
        • Retrieving articles
        • Published appraisals
        • Interpreting research about treatment effects
        • Risk of bias
        • Research about other types of clinical questions
      • References
    • Chapter 3: Sports injuries: acute
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology and initial management
      • Bone
        • Fracture
        • Periosteal contusion
      • Hyaline cartilage
        • Chondral and osteochondral injuries
      • Fibrocartilage
        • Acute tear
        • Herniation of nucleus pulposus from intervertebral disc
      • Joint
        • Dislocation/subluxation
      • Ligament
        • Sprain/tear
      • Muscle
        • Strain/tear
        • Contusion
        • Myositis ossificans
        • Acute compartment syndrome
        • Cramp
      • Tendon
        • Tear/rupture
      • Fascia
        • Tear/rupture
      • Bursa
        • Traumatic bursitis
      • Nerve
        • Neuropraxia
      • Fat Pad
        • Bruise/contusion
      • Skin
      • References
    • Chapter 4: Sports injuries: overuse
      • Introduction
      • Bone stress injury
        • Pathophysiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk factors
          • Factors modifying the load applied to a bone
          • Factors influencing the ability of the bone to resist load without damage accumulation
        • Diagnosis
          • History
          • Examination
          • Imaging
        • Classification of bone stress injuries
        • Management
          • Phase 1. Initial management
          • Phase 2. Return to running
          • Healing of bone stress injuries
        • Osteitis and periostitis
        • Apophysitis
      • Articular cartilage
      • Joint
      • Ligament
      • Muscle
        • Myofascial pain: trigger points or just sore spots of unknown origin?
          • The trigger point model
        • Chronic compartment syndrome
        • Exercise-induced muscle soreness
          • Signs and symptoms
          • Management
          • Prevention of exercise-induced muscle soreness and delayed onset muscle soreness
      • Tendon
        • Tendon overuse injury (tendinopathy)
          • A contemporary model of a continuum of tendon pathology
          • Other terms associated with overuse tendon injuries
        • Principles of rehabilitating lower limb tendinopathy
          • Before starting
          • Decide the start and end of the program
          • Stages of rehabilitation
        • Enthesopathy
      • Bursa
      • Nerve
      • Skin
        • Blisters
        • Skin infections
          • Dermatitis
          • Skin cancers
      • But it’s not that simple
        • Pain: where is it coming from?
        • Masquerades
        • The kinetic chain
      • References
    • Chapter 5: Pain: why and how does it hurt?
      • Introduction
      • What is pain?
      • What is nociception? Clue—nociception is NOT pain!
        • Sensitisation of primary nociceptors (‘peripheral sensitisation’)
        • Sensitisation of spinal nociceptors (‘central sensitisation’)
      • The brain decides
      • The brain corrects the spinal cord
      • The brain is different in those with persistent pain
      • Treating someone in pain: a complex system requires a comprehensive approach
      • References
    • Chapter 6: Pain: the clinical aspects
      • Introduction
      • Input-dominated pain
        • Pain and musculoskeletal tissues
        • Less well characterised input-dominated pain—referred pain
          • Radicular pain
          • Somatic pain
        • Neuropathic pain
      • Centrally dominated pain
        • Central sensitisation
      • Motor adaptation to pain
        • Treatment options for patients with pain
          • Education
          • Manual therapy
          • Medications
          • Exercise/progressive loading
          • Graded motor imagery/explain pain/cognitive therapy/sensory discrimination training
        • Language
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 7: Beware: conditions that masquerade as sports injuries
      • Introduction
      • How to recognise a condition masquerading as a sports injury
        • Conditions masquerading as sports injuries
          • Bone and soft tissue tumours
          • Rheumatological conditions
          • Muscle disorders
          • Endocrine disorders
          • Vascular disorders
          • Genetic disorders
          • Granulomatous diseases
          • Infection
          • Pain syndromes
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 8: Introduction to clinical biomechanics
      • Introduction
      • ‘Ideal’ lower limb biomechanics—the basics
        • Lower limb joint motion
        • Ideal neutral stance position
      • ‘Ideal’ biomechanics with movement—running
        • Loading (heel strike to foot flat)
        • Midstance (foot flat to heel off)
        • Propulsion (heel off to toe off)
        • Initial swing
        • Terminal swing
        • Angle and base of gait
        • Landing point relative to centre of mass
        • Influence of gait velocity
        • Comparing heel and forefoot strike patterns
        • Influence of fatigue on running biomechanics
      • Lower limb biomechanical assessment in the clinical setting
        • Structural (‘static’) biomechanical assessment
          • Foot
          • Ankle dorsiflexion
          • Assessment of tibiofemoral alignment at the knee
          • Leg length assessment
          • Summary of static assessment
        • Functional lower limb tests
          • Single-leg stance with progressions
          • Single-leg heel raise (with a focus on tibialis posterior function)
          • Single-leg squat to assess knee, hip and trunk muscle function
          • Landing—specific considerations
        • Dynamic movement assessment (e.g. running biomechanics)
        • Sport-specific assessment
        • Summary of the lower limb biomechanical assessment
      • Clinical assessment of footwear—the Footwear Assessment Tool
      • Conditions related to suboptimal lower limb biomechanics
      • Management of lower limb biomechanical abnormalities
        • Biofeedback and movement pattern retraining
        • Foot orthoses
          • Types of foot orthoses
          • Mechanism of action—an unfinished story
          • Orthoses are effective—high quality evidence is accumulating
          • Three contemporary approaches for fitting an orthosis
          • Footwear as a therapy rather than as a cause of injury!
        • Taping
      • Upper limb biomechanics
        • The biomechanics of throwing
          • Wind-up
          • Cocking
          • Acceleration
          • Deceleration/follow-through
        • The kinetic chain
        • Normal biomechanics of the scapula in throwing
          • The scapula provides a stable socket for the humerus
          • The scapula must retract and protract along the thoracic wall
          • The scapula rotates to elevate the acromion
          • The scapula provides a base for muscle attachment
          • The scapula provides a key link in the kinetic chain
        • Abnormal scapular biomechanics and physiology
        • Clinical significance of scapular biomechanics in shoulder injuries
        • Changes in throwing arm with repeated throwing
        • Common biomechanical abnormalities specific to throwing
      • References
    • Chapter 9: Biomechanical aspects of injury in specific sports
      • Introduction
      • Cycling
        • Relationship between risk factors and loading
        • Knee pain
          • Three biomechanical factors to assess in patellofemoral pain
          • Iliotibial band syndrome
        • Low back pain
      • Cricket fast bowling
        • Age and risk of bowling injury
        • Bowling workload and injury
        • Fast bowling technique and injury
      • Golf
        • Wrist pain
          • The leading wrist
          • The trailing wrist
        • Shoulder pain
        • Hip pain
        • Low back pain
      • Rowing
        • Low back pain
        • Chest wall pain
          • Risk factors for rib stress fracture
          • Clinical features
          • Management
        • Wrist and forearm pain
        • Knee pain
      • Swimming
        • Swimming biomechanics
          • Freestyle technique
        • Shoulder pain
          • Management of shoulder pain in swimmers
        • Medial knee pain
      • Tennis
        • Lateral elbow pain
        • Shoulder injuries
      • References
    • Chapter 10: Training programming and prescription
      • Introduction
      • Principles of training
        • Periodisation
        • Overload
        • Specificity
        • Individualisation
      • Conditioning training
        • Endurance training
          • Endurance training methods
        • Speed training
          • Speed training methods
        • Agility training
          • Agility training methods
        • Resistance training
          • Types of resistance exercises
          • Classification of resistance exercises
          • Qualities of resistance training
        • Flexibility training
          • Types of stretching
          • Flexibility in the rehabilitation process
      • Training load management for performance enhancement
      • References
    • Chapter 11: Core stability
      • Introduction
      • Rationale for motor control training for lumbopelvic dysfunction
      • Motor control training to optimise core stability— key principles and common misconceptions
        • Optimal motor control requires a balance between movement and stiffness
        • Optimal lumbopelvic control involves three main neural strategies
        • Optimal motor control requires a whole system, not a single muscle
        • Motor control training involves rehabilitation of whole system
        • Motor control training involves a motor learning approach
        • Interplay between motor control and biology of pain
        • Implications of the role of trunk muscles in respiration and bladder and bowel function
        • Is motor control training effective for everyone or is it more effective when targeted to specific individuals?
      • Principles of the clinical application of motor control training
        • Assessment of motor control for core stability
          • Assessment of muscle activation
          • Assessment of posture or alignment
          • Assessment of movement
          • Consider subgrouping patients
        • Training of motor control for core stability
        • Training of motor control for core stability for prevention of pain and injury
        • Considerations for training of motor control for core stability in athletes
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 12: Preventing injury
      • Introduction
      • A conceptual approach to injury prevention
        • The inciting event
      • Risk management: applying prevention models to your team
        • Reviewing the literature—risk identification and assessment
        • Developing an injury surveillance program within the team
        • Season analysis—risk profiling the training and competition program
        • The periodic medical assessment—mapping current problems and intrinsic risk factors
          • 1. Identify athletes with risk factors
          • 2. Plan to follow up risk factors
          • 3. Medical and coaching staff of the team must be involved in screening and follow-up
        • Developing and initiating a targeted prevention program
      • Preventing hamstring strains
        • Injury mechanisms
        • Risk factors
        • Prevention programs
      • Preventing ankle sprains
        • Injury mechanisms
        • Risk factors
        • Prevention programs
      • Preventing acute knee injuries
        • Injury mechanisms
        • Risk factors
        • Prevention programs
      • Preventing overuse injuries
        • Stretching
        • Structured training programs
        • Technique modification
        • Nutritional strategies to prevent stress fractures
        • Modifying extrinsic risk factors
          • Shoe selection
          • Barefoot/minimalist running
          • Orthotic insoles
          • Sports equipment
      • Managing load to prevent injury
        • The relationship between load and injury
        • Monitoring the rate of load increase
        • Monitoring the acute:chronic load ratio
        • Monitoring athletes’ response to load—the traffic-light approach
      • Protective equipment
      • Appropriate surfaces
        • Natural grass versus artificial turf
      • References
    • Chapter 13: Recovery
      • Introduction
      • Assessing recovery
      • Active recovery
        • After high-intensity short-duration exercise
        • After longer-duration exercise—active recovery and metabolite clearance
        • Psychological effects of active recovery
      • Massage
        • Massage and blood flow
        • Massage, muscle tone and viscoelasticity
        • Massage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
        • Cellular and structural effects of massage
        • Psychological effects of massage
      • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
        • NMES and blood flow
        • NMES and performance
        • NMES and muscle soreness
      • Stretching
      • Sleep
      • Water immersion
      • Compression
      • Nutrition
        • Replacing fluids
        • Replacing fuel
        • Repair
      • Pulling the different threads together—practical considerations for the clinician
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 14: Clinical assessment: moving from rote to rigorous
      • Introduction
      • Why is differential diagnosis important?
      • Differential diagnosis: a three-step process
      • How to calculate an accurate diagnosis
        • Reliability
        • Sensitivity and specificity
        • Positive and negative predictive values
        • Likelihood ratio
        • Clinical utility
      • The formal diagnostic assessment
        • The role of bias in influencing diagnostic metrics
        • Challenges to making a diagnosis
      • Final thoughts and guidance
      • References
    • Chapter 15: How to make the diagnosis
      • Introduction
      • Does diagnosis mean tissue diagnosis?
      • Keys to accurate diagnosis
      • History
        • Allow enough time
        • Be a good listener
        • Know the sport
        • Discover the exact circumstances of the injury
        • Obtain an accurate description of symptoms, both at the time of injury and at the initial consultation
          • Pain
          • Swelling
          • Instability
          • Function
        • History of a previous similar injury
        • Other injuries
        • General health
        • Work and leisure activities
        • Consider why the problem has occurred
        • Training/activity history
        • Equipment
        • Technique
        • Overtraining
        • Psychological factors
        • Nutritional factors
        • Drugs: prescription and others
        • History of exercise-induced anaphylaxis
        • Determine the importance of the sport to the athlete
        • Differential diagnosis
      • Physical examination
        • Develop a routine
        • Where relevant, examine the other side
        • Consider possible causes of the injury
        • Attempt to reproduce the patient’s symptoms
        • Assess local tissues
        • Assess for referred pain
        • Assess neural mechanosensitivity
        • Examine the spine
        • Biomechanical examination
        • Functional testing
        • The examination routine
          • Inspection
          • Range of motion testing (active)
          • Range of motion testing (passive)
          • Palpation
          • Ligament testing
          • Strength testing
          • Testing neural mechanosensitivity
          • Spinal examination
          • Biomechanical examination
          • Technique
          • Equipment
        • Differential diagnosis
      • Diagnostic imaging
        • The five imaging-related habits of highly effective sports medicine clinicians
          • 1. Understand imaging results
          • 2. Only order imaging that will influence management
          • 3. Explain the imaging to the patient
          • 4. Provide relevant clinical findings on the requisition
          • 5. Develop a close working relationship with investigators
      • Specific imaging modalities
        • Conventional radiography
        • MRI: massive blessing for active patients
          • Specific features and patient benefits of MRI
          • Difference added by MRI sequences
          • Other clinical points about MRI
        • Ultrasound scan (for diagnosis)
          • The role of colour Doppler
          • The role of ultrasound tissue characterisation
        • CT scanning
        • Radioisotopic bone scan
      • References
    • Chapter 16: Patient-reported outcome measures in sports medicine
      • Introduction
      • What are proms?
      • Why is it important to use appropriate proms in sports medicine?
      • Considerations for what constitutes a ‘good’ prom for use in sports medicine
        • Is the PROM easy to use in a sports medicine setting?
        • Does the PROM evaluate dimensions that are relevant for the patient?
        • Do all items within a PROM measure the same construct?
        • Can the PROM be trusted to detect true change in the patient and be free from error?
        • Is the PROM sensitive enough to detect real change in the patient’s condition?
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 17: Treatment of sports injuries
      • Introduction
      • Therapeutic exercise
        • Stimulation of repair and remodelling: mechanotherapy
          • Muscle
          • Tendon
          • Articular cartilage
          • Bone
        • Altering biomechanics: motor-control training
        • Exercise-induced hypoalgesia
          • Exercise type and dose to maximise hypoalgesia
      • Acute injury management
        • Protection
        • Optimal loading
        • Ice
        • Compression
        • Elevation
        • Do no HARM!
      • Manual treatments
        • Joint techniques: mobilisation and manipulation
          • Safety of manipulation techniques
        • Soft tissue therapy
          • Treatment position
          • Digital ischaemic pressure
          • Sustained myofascial tension
          • Friction
          • Depth of treatment
          • Combination treatment
          • Lubricants
          • Vacuum cupping
          • Self-treatment
        • Dry needling
          • Risks of adverse events during dry needling
        • Neurodynamic techniques
      • Taping
        • Proposed mechanisms of taping
        • Evidence of efficacy
          • Patellofemoral pain
          • Ankle sprains
          • Other conditions
        • Practical considerations
      • Electrophysical agents
        • Therapeutic ultrasound
          • Ultrasound as a stimulator of bone repair
        • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
        • Neuromuscular stimulators
        • Interferential stimulation
        • Laser
        • Electromagnetic therapy
        • Extracorporeal shockwave therapy
      • Therapeutic medication in musculoskeletal injury
        • Analgesics
          • Paracetamol
          • Codeine
          • Emergency analgesia
        • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
          • NSAID use in sport
          • NSAID use in the treatment of musculoskeletal injury
          • Adverse effects of NSAIDs
        • Medications for neuropathic pain and central sensitisation
          • Tricyclic antidepressants
          • Serotonin reuptake inhibitors
          • Gabapentin and pregabalin
          • Local anaesthetic patches
          • Counterirritants
        • Local anaesthetic injections
          • Local anaesthetic in competition
          • Local anaesthetic in routine musculoskeletal injections
        • Traumeel
        • Actovegin
        • Sclerosant
        • Prolotherapy
        • Mechanical and high-volume injections
        • Hyaluronic acid
          • Hyaluronic acid in tendons
        • Corticosteroids
          • Other adverse effects of corticosteroids
          • Choice of corticosteroid
        • Other medications
          • Sleep medication
          • Quinolone antibiotics
          • Glyceryl trinitrate patches
          • Bisphosphonates
      • Nutraceuticals in injury management
        • Glucosamine, chondroitin and omega-3 fatty acids
        • Vitamin D
        • Green tea/polyphenols
      • Autologous blood, blood products and cell therapy
        • Autologous blood injections
        • Platelet-rich plasma
        • Cell therapy
      • Surgery
        • Arthroscopic surgery
        • Open surgery
      • References
    • Chapter 18: Principles of sports injury rehabilitation
      • Introduction
      • General principles
        • An essential element—effective planning
      • Goal setting and targeted interventions
      • Phases of rehabilitation
        • Phase 1: Acute
        • Phase 2: Restore activities of daily living
        • Phase 3: Returning to sports activities
        • Phase 4: Prevention of re-injury
      • When rehabilitation does not go according to plan
      • References
    • Chapter 19: Return to play
      • Introduction
      • Strategic assessment of risk and risk tolerance framework for RTP decision making
        • Step 1—Tissue health
        • Step 2—Tissue stresses
        • Step 3—Risk tolerance modifiers
        • Return-to-play decision making—beyond risk for injury
      • Applying the stARRT framework
        • Assessing across outcomes and probabilities
        • Additional perspectives
      • Who should be the decision Maker?
        • Clinicians
        • Athletes
        • The coach
        • Family, friends, agents
        • Management
        • A multidisciplinary approach
      • Summary
      • References
  • Part B: Regional problems
    • Introduction
    • Chapter 20: Sports concussion
      • Introduction
      • Definition
      • Prevention of concussion
      • The initial impact: applied pathophysiology
      • Management of the concussed athlete
        • On-field management
        • Confirming the diagnosis
          • Does amnesia associate with injury severity?
          • Does an acutely concussed athlete need to go to hospital or have urgent neuroimaging?
          • How should acute concussion be graded?
        • Determining when the player can return safely to competition
          • Return to play on the day of injury
          • Return to play during the subsequent week(s)
        • The risk of premature return to play and concussion sequelae
          • Risk of further injury
          • Second impact syndrome
          • Concussive convulsions
          • Prolongation of symptoms
          • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
          • Mental health issues
      • The ‘difficult’ concussion
        • Clinical assessment
          • Role of investigations
        • Treatment
      • Children and concussion in sport
      • References
    • Chapter 21: Headache
      • Introduction
      • Headache in sport
      • Clinical approach to the patient with headache
        • History
        • Clinical measurement of headache
        • Examination
      • Primary headache
        • Migraine
          • Clinical features
          • Precipitating factors in migraine
          • Treatment
        • Primary exercise headache
      • Secondary headache
        • Cervicogenic headache
          • Mechanism
          • Clinical features
        • Post-traumatic headache
        • Post-traumatic migraine
        • External compression headache
        • High-altitude headache
        • Hypercapnia headache
      • References
    • Chapter 22: Face, eyes and teeth
      • Introduction
      • Functional anatomy
      • Clinical assessment
      • Lacerations and contusions
        • Immediate management of lacerations
        • Management of larger lacerations
        • Additional considerations
      • Nose
        • Epistaxis (nosebleed)
        • Nasal fractures
        • Septal haematoma
      • Ear
        • Auricular haematoma
        • Perforated eardrum
        • Otitis externa
      • Eyes
        • Assessment of the injured eye
          • History
          • Examination
        • Corneal injuries: abrasions and foreign body
        • Subconjunctival haemorrhage
        • Eyelid injuries
        • Hyphaema
        • Lens dislocation
        • Vitreous haemorrhage
        • Retinal haemorrhage
        • Retinal detachment
        • Prevention of eye injuries
      • Teeth
        • Nature of injuries
        • Emergency management
        • Dental management and follow-up
        • Prevention
      • Fractures of facial bones
        • Orbital fracture with and without globe trauma
        • Fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex
        • Maxillary fractures
        • Mandibular fractures
          • Undisplaced fractures
          • Displaced mandibular fractures
        • Temporomandibular injuries
          • Chronic temporomandibular pain
      • Prevention of facial injuries
      • References
    • Chapter 23: Neck pain
      • Introduction
      • Anatomical considerations
      • Clinical perspective
        • History
          • Symptoms and their behaviour
          • Psychological features
          • Social/sport factors
        • Patient-reported outcome measures
        • Imaging
        • Physical examination
          • Postural analysis
          • Active movement tests
          • Quantitative sensory testing
          • Passive tests
          • Tests of the nervous system
          • Tests of muscle function
          • Tests of cervical sensorimotor function
          • Additional tests
        • Performance-based outcome measures
      • Management of mechanical neck pain
        • Sport and functional modifications
        • Education
        • Pain management
        • Manual therapy
          • Range of motion exercises to accompany manual therapy
        • Neural tissue mobilisation
        • Training motor function
          • Stage 1. Motor control
          • Stage 2. Resistance training
        • Training sensorimotor control
        • Maintenance program
      • Neck pain conditions
        • Cervicogenic headache
        • Acute wry neck
        • Cervical nerve injury
          • Cervical radiculopathy
          • Brachial plexus injuries (‘stingers/burners’)
          • Acceleration/deceleration injury (‘whiplash’)
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 24: Shoulder pain
      • Introduction
      • Functional anatomy and biomechanics
        • Static stabilisers
        • Dynamic stabilisers
        • The role of the scapula in normal shoulder function
      • Causes of shoulder pain—overview
        • Acute versus overuse shoulder pain
        • Impingement
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
          • Active movements
          • Passive examination
          • Resistance examination
        • Special tests—diagnostic testing and symptom modification tests
          • Impingement tests
          • Rotator cuff tests
          • Scapular involvement tests
          • Instability tests
          • Biceps pathology and SLAP lesion tests
          • Clinical evaluation of GIRD
          • Shoulder symptom modification procedure
          • Additional shoulder tests
        • Screening of the kinetic chain
        • Key outcome measures
      • Investigations
        • Radiography
        • Arthrography
        • Ultrasound
        • Magnetic resonance imaging
        • Diagnostic arthroscopy
      • General treatment and rehabilitation guidelines for the most common shoulder injuries in athletes
      • Rotator cuff injuries
        • Rotator cuff tendinopathy
          • Clinical features
          • Treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy
        • Rotator cuff tears
      • Shoulder instability
        • Traumatic shoulder instability—TUBS
          • Management of anterior dislocation
          • Recurrent dislocation and Bankart repair
          • Posterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint
        • Acquired sport-specific instability—AIOS
        • Atraumatic multidirectional instability—AMBRI
        • Rehabilitation guidelines for shoulder instability—overview
          • Open versus closed chain shoulder exercises
          • Local neuromuscular control of stabilising muscles
          • Progression in closed chain exercise program—practice
          • Progression in open chain program—practice
      • Biceps-related pathology and slap lesions
        • Pathomechanics of biceps-related shoulder pain
        • Clinical features
          • Treatment of SLAP lesions
      • Pathological glenohumeral internal rotation deficit
        • Pathomechanics of GIRD
        • Treatment of GIRD
      • Scapular dyskinesis
        • Rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis—a scapular rehabilitation algorithm
          • Rehabilitation of flexibility deficits
          • Rehabilitation of muscle performance deficits
      • Fractures of the clavicle
        • Special note—immature skeleton
      • Acromioclavicular joint injuries
        • Acute acromioclavicular joint injuries
        • Chronic acromioclavicular joint pain
      • Less common causes of shoulder pain
        • Other muscle tears around the shoulder
          • Rupture of the long head of the biceps
          • Pectoralis major tears
          • Subscapularis muscle tears
        • Adhesive capsulitis—‘frozen shoulder’
        • Neurovascular injuries
          • Suprascapular nerve entrapment
          • Long thoracic nerve injury
          • Axillary nerve injury
          • Thoracic outlet syndrome
          • Axillary vein thrombosis (‘effort’ thrombosis)
        • Less common fractures around the shoulder
        • Snapping scapula
      • Special considerations for the overhead athlete
        • Kinetic chain integration
        • The thrower’s program
        • Return to play following shoulder injury
      • References
    • Chapter 25: Elbow and arm pain
      • Introduction
      • Anatomy
        • Ligaments
        • Muscles
      • Lateral elbow pain
        • History
        • Examination
        • Investigations
        • Lateral elbow tendinopathy
          • Clinically relevant pathology
          • Clinical features
          • Treatment
          • Exercises for strengthening and coordination
          • Electrotherapeutic modalities
          • Manual therapy
          • Bracing and taping
          • Iontophoresis
          • Corticosteroid injection
          • Nitric oxide donor therapy
          • Botulinum toxin
          • Autologous blood, platelet-rich plasma and autologous cell injections
          • Correct predisposing factors
          • Surgery
          • Graduated return to activity
        • Other causes of lateral elbow pain
      • Medial elbow pain
        • Flexor/pronator tendinopathy
        • Medial collateral ligament sprain
          • Ulnar nerve entrapment/neuritis
      • Posterior elbow pain
        • Olecranon bursitis
        • Triceps tendinopathy
        • Posterior impingement
      • Acute elbow injuries
        • Fractures
          • Supracondylar fractures
          • Olecranon fractures
          • Radial head fracture
          • Coronoid fractures
        • Posterior dislocation
          • Instability post-dislocation
        • Acute rupture of the medial collateral ligament
        • Tendon ruptures
        • Hyperextension injuries
      • Forearm pain
        • Fracture of the radius and ulna
        • Stress fractures
        • Entrapment of the posterior interosseous nerve (radial tunnel syndrome)
        • Pronator teres syndrome (median nerve entrapment)
        • Forearm compartment pressure syndrome
      • Upper arm pain
        • Myofascial pain
        • Stress reaction of the humerus
      • References
    • Chapter 26: Wrist pain
      • Introduction
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
          • Special imaging studies
      • Radial column presentations
        • Fracture of the distal radius
        • Fracture of the scaphoid
          • Traditional treatment of stable and unstable scaphoid fractures
          • Complications of scaphoid fracture
          • Contemporary management of scaphoid non-union
          • Post-immobilisation wrist rehabilitation
        • Fracture of the trapezium
        • Radial epiphyseal injury (gymnast’s wrist)
        • De Quervain’s tenosynovitis
        • Intersection syndrome
        • Radial sensory nerve compression
      • Central column presentations
        • Ganglions
        • Dislocation of the carpal bones
          • Anterior dislocation of the lunate
          • Perilunar dislocation of the lunate
        • Scapholunate dissociation
        • Kienböck’s disease
        • Impingement syndromes
      • Ulnar column presentations
        • Ulnar styloid fracture
        • Fracture of the hook of hamate
        • Triquetral fracture
        • Lunotriquetral dissociation
        • Triangular fibrocartilage complex tear
        • Distal radio-ulnar joint instability
        • Extensor carpi ulnaris tendon injuries
        • Other tendinopathies around the wrist
      • Causes of wrist numbness and hand pain
        • Carpal tunnel syndrome
        • Ulnar nerve compression
      • Surgery for wrist conditions
      • Wrist rehabilitation
        • Wrist splinting
        • Post-immobilisation wrist rehabilitation
      • References
    • Chapter 27: Hand and finger injuries
      • Introduction
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Principles of treatment
        • Oedema control
        • Exercises
        • Taping and splinting
      • Metacarpal fractures
        • Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal
        • Fractures of the other metacarpals
      • Fractures of phalanges
        • Proximal phalanx fractures
        • Middle phalanx fractures
        • Distal phalanx fractures
      • Dislocations of the carpo-metacarpal joints
      • Dislocations of the finger joints
        • Dislocations of the PIP joint
        • Dislocations of the DIP joint
      • Ligament and tendon injuries
        • Sprain of the ulnar collateral ligament of the first MCP joint
        • Sprain of the radial collateral ligament of the first MCP joint
        • Capsular sprain of the first MCP joint
        • PIP joint sprains
        • Mallet finger
        • Chronic swan neck deformity
        • Boutonnière deformity
        • Avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon (‘jersey finger’)
        • Lacerations and infections of the hand
      • Overuse conditions of the hand and fingers
      • Surgical referrals following hand and finger injury
        • Exercises for the hand
      • References
    • Chapter 28: Thoracic and chest pain
      • Introduction
        • Assessment
          • History
          • Physical examination
          • Investigations
        • Thoracic intervertebral joint disorders
        • Costovertebral and costotransverse joint disorders
        • Scheuermann’s disease
        • Thoracic intervertebral disc prolapse
        • T4 syndrome
        • Postural imbalance of the neck, shoulder and upper thoracic spine
      • Chest pain
        • Clinical assessment
          • History
          • Examination
          • Investigations
        • Rib trauma
        • Referred pain from the thoracic spine
        • Sternoclavicular joint problems
        • Costochondritis
        • Stress fracture of the ribs
        • Side strain
          • Clinical features
          • Pathology and epidemiology
          • Management
        • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 29: Low back pain
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
        • The multidimensional nature of low back pain
      • Triage
        • Serious pathology
        • Specific pathoanatomical diagnoses
        • Low back pain without a pathoanatomical diagnosis
      • Factors contributing to low back pain
        • Physical factors
          • Extrinsic factors
          • Intrinsic factors
        • Lifestyle factors
        • Psychosocial factors
          • Cognitive factors
          • Emotional factors
          • Social stressors
        • Neurophysiological factors
          • Proportionate pain responses to mechanical loading
          • Disproportionate pain responses to mechanical loading
        • Individual considerations
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Investigations
      • Management of specific LBP disorders
        • Stress fracture of the pars interarticularis/lumbar spondylolysis
          • Terminology
          • Clinical presentation
          • Imaging
          • Pathogenesis
          • Management of lumbar spondylolysis
          • Summary
        • Spondylolisthesis
          • Clinical features
          • Treatment
        • Acute radiculopathy +/- nerve root compression
          • Clinical features
          • Treatment
        • Vertebral endplate oedema (Modic type 1 changes)
          • Treatment
      • Management of non-specific LBP disorders
        • Clinical approach
          • Effective patient education
          • Pain relief
          • Functional restoration
          • Addressing lifestyle aspects
          • Multidisciplinary care
        • Acute severe low back pain
          • Clinical features
          • Management
        • Subacute low back pain
        • Recurrent/persistent low back pain: a clinical sub-grouping approach
          • Low-complexity profile
          • Medium-complexity profile
          • High-complexity profile
      • Rehabilitation following low back pain
        • Sporting technique
        • Optimal motor control
        • Flexibility
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 30: Buttock pain
      • Introduction
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
          • Sensitivity and specificity of tests for buttock pain
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Myofascial buttock pain
        • Examination
        • Treatment of myofascial buttock pain
      • Referred pain from the lumbar spine
        • Examination
        • Treatment
      • Proximal hamstring tendinopathy
        • Functional anatomy
        • Examination
        • Treatment
          • Initial treatment
          • Intermediate stage treatment
          • Final stage of treatment
      • Sacroiliac joint dysfunction
        • Functional anatomy
        • Clinical features
        • Treatment
      • Less common causes of buttock pain
        • Piriformis syndrome
        • Ischiofemoral impingement
          • Treatment
        • Posterior thigh compartment syndrome
        • Proximal hamstring tendon rupture
          • Treatment
        • Avulsion fracture of ischial tuberosity
      • Conditions not to be missed
        • Spondyloarthropathies
        • Stress fracture of the sacrum
      • References
    • Chapter 31: Hip pain
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Functional anatomy and biomechanics
        • Morphology
        • Acetabular labrum
        • Ligaments of the hip
        • Chondral surfaces
        • Muscle function
          • Short hip stabilising muscles
          • Clinical biomechanics
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Predisposing factors for hip pain
        • Local factors
        • Remote factors
          • Proximal factors
          • Distal factors
        • Systemic factors
      • Femoroacetabular impingement
        • Types of FAI—cam and pincer impingement
        • Prevalence of FAI
        • Aetiology
        • Association with pain and pathology
          • Osteoarthritis
      • Labral tears
        • Pathology
      • Ligamentum teres tears
      • Synovitis
      • Chondropathy
      • Hip instability
      • Treatment of hip impairments
        • Principles of rehabilitation of the injured hip
        • Nine principles of rehabilitation for hip pain patients
          • 1. Restore hip range of motion
          • 2. Restore hip muscle strength
          • 3. Improve balance and proprioception
          • 4. Improve hip control in functional task performance
          • 5. Improve trunk muscle strength
          • 6. Optimise gait biomechanics
          • 7. Optimise functional task performance
          • 8. Address adverse loading
          • 9. Address other remote factors that may be altering the function of the kinetic chain
        • Surgical management of the injured hip
          • Rehabilitation following hip arthroscopy
      • Lateral hip pain
        • Greater trochanteric pain
          • Relevant anatomy
          • Role of compression in pathology
        • Iliac crest pain
        • Examination of the patient with lateral hip pain
        • Treatment of the patient with lateral hip pain
          • Managing pain
          • Managing load: First line treatment
      • References
    • Chapter 32: Groin pain
      • Introduction
      • Anatomy
        • Pubic symphysis
        • Hip adductors
        • Hip flexors
        • Inguinal region
        • Summary of anatomy
      • Epidemiology
        • Incidence—soccer
        • Incidence—elite sports other than soccer
        • Prevalence
        • Distribution of acute injuries
      • Risk factors
      • Terminology and definitions
        • Classification
          • Acute groin injuries
          • Longstanding groin pain
      • Clinical overview
        • History
          • Pain pattern
          • Where is the pain located?
        • Clinical examination
          • Assessment of severity
        • Imaging
          • Radiography
          • Magnetic resonance imaging
          • Ultrasonography
          • Computed tomography scan
          • Radioisotopic bone scan
      • Acute groin injuries
        • Diagnosis
      • Longstanding groin pain
        • Adductor-related groin pain
          • Diagnostic criteria
        • Iliopsoas-related groin pain
          • Diagnostic criteria
          • Treatment
        • Inguinal-related groin pain
          • Diagnostic criteria
          • Treatment
        • Pubic-related groin pain
          • Diagnostic criteria
          • Treatment
      • Complete adductor avulsions
      • Less common injuries
        • Obturator neuropathy
        • Other nerve entrapments
        • Stress fractures of the neck of the femur
        • Stress fracture of the inferior pubic ramus
        • Referred pain to the groin
      • Prevention of groin injuries
        • Possible prevention strategies
      • References
    • Chapter 33: Anterior thigh pain
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Functional anatomy and biomechanics
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Quadriceps contusion
        • Treatment of quadriceps contusion
        • Complications related to contusion
      • Quadriceps strain
        • Distal quadriceps muscle strain
        • Proximal rectus femoris strain
        • Complete rectus femoris tear
        • Avulsion injury
        • Prevention
      • Less common causes
        • Stress fracture of the femur
        • Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve injury (‘meralgia paraesthetica’)
        • Femoral nerve injury
        • Referred pain
      • References
    • Chapter 34: Posterior thigh pain
      • Introduction
      • Functional anatomy
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Investigations
        • Integrating the clinical assessment and investigation to make a diagnosis
      • Acute hamstring muscle strains
        • Epidemiology
        • Type I and type II acute hamstring strains-not all acute hamstring injuries are the same!
        • Type I acute hamstring strain: sprinting–related
        • Type II acute hamstring strain: stretch-related (dancers)
        • Prognosis of hamstring injuries
        • Management of hamstring injuries
      • Risk factors for acute hamstring strain
        • Intrinsic risk factors
        • Extrinsic risk factors
      • Prevention of hamstring strains
        • Eccentric hamstring strength training
        • Balance exercises/proprioception training
        • Sport-specific training
        • A promising clinical approach for the high-risk athlete
      • Referred pain to posterior thigh
        • Trigger points
        • Lumbar spine
        • Sacroiliac complex
      • Other hamstring injuries
        • Avulsion of the hamstring from the ischial tuberosity
        • Upper hamstring tendinopathy
      • Less common causes
        • Nerve entrapments
        • Ischial bursitis
        • Adductor magnus strains
        • Compartment syndrome of the posterior thigh
        • Vascular
      • References
    • Chapter 35: Acute knee injuries
      • Introduction
      • Functional anatomy
      • Clinical approach
        • ‘Does this patient have a significant knee injury?’
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Meniscal injuries
        • Clinical features
        • Treatment
        • Rehabilitation after meniscal surgery
      • Medial (tibial) collateral ligament injury
        • Treatment
      • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries
        • Anatomy of the ACL
        • Mechanism of ACL injury
        • Clinical features
        • Surgical or conservative treatment of the torn ACL?
        • Surgical treatment
        • Combined injuries
        • Rehabilitation after ACL injury
        • Problems encountered during ACL rehabilitation
        • Outcomes after ACL treatment
        • Partial ACL tear
        • Prevention of ACL injuries
        • ACL rupture in children with open physes
      • Posterior cruciate ligament injuries
        • Clinical features
        • Treatment
      • Lateral collateral ligament tears
        • Posterolateral corner injuries
      • Articular cartilage damage
        • Epidemiology
        • Quantifying chondral injury
        • Management
      • Acute patellar trauma
        • Fracture of the patella
        • Patella dislocation
      • Less common causes
        • Patellar tendon rupture
        • Bursal haematoma
        • Fat pad impingement
        • Fracture of the tibial plateau
        • Superior tibiofibular joint injury
        • Ruptured hamstring tendon
      • References
    • Chapter 36: Anterior knee pain
      • Introduction
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Patient-reported outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Patellofemoral pain
        • What is patellofemoral pain?
        • What is patellofemoral osteoarthritis?
        • Functional anatomy
        • Factors that may contribute to patellofemoral pain
        • Treatment of PFP
      • Patellofemoral instability
        • Primary patellofemoral instability
        • Secondary patellofemoral instability
      • Patellar tendinopathy
        • Nomenclature
        • Clinical features
        • Investigations
        • Management: is the athlete still competing?
        • Sudden, acute patellar tendon pain
      • Less common causes of anterior knee pain
        • Fat pad irritation/impingement
        • Osgood–Schlatter lesion
        • Sinding-Larsen–Johansson lesion
        • Quadriceps tendinopathy
        • Bursitis
        • Synovial plica
      • References
    • Chapter 37: Lateral, medial and posterior knee pain
      • Introduction
      • Lateral knee pain
        • Clinical approach
        • Iliotibial band friction syndrome
        • Lateral meniscus abnormality
        • Less common causes of lateral knee pain
      • Medial knee pain
        • Patellofemoral syndrome
        • Medial meniscus abnormality
        • Osteoarthritis and chondral injuries of the medial compartment of the knee
        • Less common causes of medial knee pain
      • Posterior knee pain
        • Clinical evaluation
        • Baker’s cyst
        • Biceps femoris tendinopathy
        • Popliteus tendinopathy
        • Other causes of posterior knee pain
      • References
    • Chapter 38: Leg pain
      • Introduction
      • Clinical approach
        • Role of biomechanics
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Medial tibial stress fracture of the tibia
        • Assessment
        • Treatment
        • Prevention of recurrence
      • Stress fracture of the anterior cortex of the tibia
        • Treatment
      • Medial tibial stress syndrome
        • Risk factors
        • Treatment
      • Chronic exertional compartment syndrome
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical features
        • Deep posterior compartment syndrome
        • Anterior and lateral exertional compartment syndromes
        • Outcomes of exertional compartment syndrome surgery
        • Rehabilitation following compartment syndrome surgery
      • Less common causes
        • Stress fracture of the fibula
        • Referred pain
        • Nerve entrapments
        • Vascular entrapments
        • Developmental issues
        • Periosteal contusion
        • Fractured tibia and fibula
      • References
    • Chapter 39: Calf pain
      • Introduction
      • Anatomy
      • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
      • Gastrocnemius muscle strains
        • Acute strain
      • Soleus muscle strains
        • Accessory soleus
      • Claudicant-type calf pain
        • Vascular causes
      • Less common causes
        • Neuromyofascial causes
        • Nerve entrapments
        • Superficial compartment syndrome
      • Conditions not to be missed
      • References
    • Chapter 40: Pain in the Achilles region
      • Introduction
      • Clinical perspective
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures (PROMs)
        • Investigations
      • Midportion Achilles tendinopathy
        • Pathology
        • Predisposing factors for Achilles tendinopathy
        • Treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy
        • Medications
        • Electrophysical agents
        • Surgical treatment
      • Insertional Achilles tendinopathy including retrocalcaneal bursitis—the ‘enthesis organ’
        • Anatomy and the key role of compression
        • Clinical assessment
        • Treatment
        • Retrocalcaneal bursitis
        • Achilles (superficial calcaneal) bursitis
      • Posterior impingement syndrome
      • Sever’s disease
      • Other causes of pain in the Achilles region (gradual onset)
        • Accessory soleus
        • Referred pain
      • Acute Achilles tendon rupture (complete)
        • Clinical approach
        • History
        • Physical examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
        • Rehabilitation of Achilles tendon ruptures
      • References
    • Chapter 41: Acute ankle injuries
      • Introduction
      • Functional anatomy
      • Clinical perspective
        • History
        • Examination
        • Investigations
      • Lateral ligament injuries
      • Treatment and rehabilitation of lateral ligament injuries
        • Initial management
        • Treatment of grade III injuries
      • Less common causes
        • Medial (deltoid) ligament injuries
        • Significant ankle fractures
        • Lateral malleolar fracture with syndesmotic injury (Maisonneuve fracture)
      • Persistent pain after ankle sprain—‘the difficult ankle’
        • Clinical approach to the difficult ankle
        • Osteochondral lesions of the talar dome
        • Avulsion fracture of the base of the fifth metatarsal
        • Other fractures
        • Impingement syndromes
        • Tendon dislocation or rupture
        • Other causes of the difficult ankle
        • Sinus tarsi syndrome
        • Complex regional pain syndrome type 1
      • References
    • Chapter 42: Ankle pain
      • Introduction
      • Medial ankle pain
        • History
        • Examination
        • Key outcome measures
        • Investigations
        • Tibialis posterior tendinopathy
        • Flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy
        • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
        • Medial malleolar stress fracture
        • Medial calcaneal nerve entrapment
        • Other causes of medial ankle pain
      • Lateral ankle pain
        • Examination
        • Peroneal tendinopathy
        • Sinus tarsi syndrome
        • Anterolateral impingement
        • Posterior impingement syndrome
        • Stress fracture of the talus
        • Referred pain
      • Anterior ankle pain
        • Anterior impingement of the ankle
        • Tibialis anterior tendinopathy
        • Anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL) injury
      • References
    • Chapter 43: Foot pain
      • Introduction
      • Rearfoot pain
        • History
        • Examination
        • Investigations
        • Patient-reported outcome measures
        • Plantar fasciopathy (formerly called ‘plantar fasciitis’)
        • Fat pad contusion
        • Calcaneal stress fracture
        • First branch of lateral plantar nerve (Baxter’s nerve) entrapment
      • Midfoot pain
        • Clinical approach to midfoot pain
        • Investigations
        • Navicular stress fracture
        • Midtarsal joint sprains
        • Lisfranc joint injuries
        • Tibialis posterior tendinopathy (distal pain presentation)
        • Less common causes of midfoot pain
      • Forefoot pain
        • Clinical perspective
        • Stress fractures of the neck of metatarsals I–IV
        • Special metatarsal stress fracture: base of the second MT
        • Fractures of the fifth metatarsal
        • MTP joint synovitis
        • First MTP joint sprain (‘turf toe’)
        • Hallux limitus
        • Hallux valgus
        • Sesamoid injuries
        • Plantar plate tear—with Kent Sweeting
        • Corns and calluses
        • Morton’s interdigital neuroma
        • Plantar warts
        • Onychocryptosis
        • Less common causes of forefoot pain
      • References
  • Part C: Practical Sports Medicine
    • Chapter 44: The younger athlete
      • Introduction
      • The young athlete is unique
        • Nonlinearity of growth
        • Maturity-associated variation
        • Unique response to skeletal injury
      • Management of musculoskeletal conditions
        • Acute fractures
        • Overuse injuries of the physis
        • Shoulder pain
        • Elbow pain
        • Wrist pain
        • Back pain and postural abnormalities
        • Hip pain
        • Knee pain
        • Painless abnormalities of gait
        • Foot pain
      • References
    • Chapter 45: Military personnel
      • Introduction
      • Special military culture
      • Epidemiology of military injuries
      • Common military injuries
        • Overuse injuries of the lower limb
        • Blister injuries
        • Parachuting injuries
        • The ageing defence forces
      • Injury prevention in the military
        • Injury surveillance
        • Sex as a risk factor for injury
        • Body composition
        • Previous injury
        • Weekly running distance
        • Running experience
        • Competitive behaviours
        • Warm-up/stretching
        • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 46: Periodic medical assessment of athletes
      • Introduction
      • Why perform the medical assessment?
        • Identification of medical conditions that contraindicate participation in sport
        • Assessment of known injuries and illnesses
        • Review of current medications and supplements
        • Education
        • Baseline testing
        • Development of athlete rapport
        • Screening
      • Who is being assessed?
        • Sport and position
        • Geographical location
        • Age
        • Sex
        • Available resources
      • When to perform a PMA
      • What to include in the template
      • Other issues to consider
        • Consent
        • Clearance or restriction from play
        • Who should perform the PMA?
        • Pre-employment medical assessment
        • Insurance medical assessment
        • Action points from the PMA
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 47: Working and travelling with teams
      • Introduction
      • The medical support team
      • Key attributes of a successful medical team
      • Medical indemnity and trauma training
      • Where does the medical team work?
      • Medical equipment
      • Team care throughout the season
        • Core principles providing care for a team
      • Emergency action plans
      • Preparing to travel
        • 1. Before travel
        • 2. During travel
        • 3. On arrival
        • 4. Journey home
      • Jet lag
        • Air travel and jet lag
        • Pathophysiology
        • Prevention of jet lag
        • Symptomatic treatment for jet lag
      • References
    • Chapter 48: Career development
      • Introduction
      • Development of sport and exercise medicine
        • The adoption of exercise medicine in the sports medicine movement
        • Increased resources in sport
        • Proficiency in a second or third language
        • Widening the scope of practice—dual qualifications and subspecialist courses
        • Sports therapy, sports and exercise science and sports rehabilitation
        • Men and women have a place in sport and exercise medicine
      • Key behaviours for a successful and interesting career
      • Lessons from around the world
        • Ummukulthoum Bakare—football medicine enthusiast and sports injury prevention strategist, West Africa
        • Dr Liam West—the rookie doctor, Northern Europe and Australia
        • Hans-Wilhelm Müller-Wohlfahrt—the team and celebrity doctor, Bavaria, Central Europe
        • Rod Whiteley—sports physiotherapist who has moved across continents for his career, Middle East via Australasia and Major League Baseball
        • Roald Bahr—Professor of Sports Medicine, the Nordic countries
      • References
  • Backmatter
    • Child SCAT5
    • Credit
    • Index
    • References

    UM RAFBÆKUR Á HEIMKAUP.IS

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Vörumerki: McGrawHill
Vörunúmer: 9781743769263
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Brukner & Khan's Revised Clinical Sports Medicine: Injuries

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