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APA Style Simplified: Writing in Psychology, Education, Nursing, and Sociology

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  • Front Matter
    • Contents
    • Preface
      • How to Use This Book
    • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Writing Professionally
    • How Does Professional Writing Differ From Other Kinds of Writing?
    • Using APA Style
      • Table 1.1 Typical Sections in an APA-Style Research Report
    • Making a Credible Argument
    • Different Types of Communication
      • Written Communication
      • Oral Communication
      • Poster Presentations
      • Internet Publishing
    • Effective Communication
    • Establishing Good Writing Habits
    • Ethical Writing
      • Figure 1.1 Avoiding plagiarism.
      • Figure 1.2 How plagiarism has been avoided.
      • Scholarly Excerpt
      • Attempted Paraphrase
      • Paraphrase Rewrite
  • 2 Elements of Style
    • Recognizing the Importance of Good Grammar and Style
    • Choosing Effective Wording
      • Table 2.1 Transitions and Their Uses
    • Using Inclusive and Appropriate Language
    • Deciding on the Use of Technical Language
    • Avoiding Common Problems
      • Apostrophe Use
        • Table 2.2 Apostrophe Dos and Don'ts When Indicating Possession
        • Table 2.3 Frequently Misused Contractions
      • Pronoun Use
        • Table 2.4 Pronouns and Agreement in Number
        • Table 2.5 Pronouns and Antecedent References
    • Verb Forms
      • Table 2.6 Active and Passive Verbs
    • Spelling
      • Table 2.7 Rules for Forming Plurals
    • Specific Word Use
      • Table 2.8 Specific Word Use in APA Style
  • 3 The Introduction Section
    • Introducing the Topic
    • Different Approaches to Starting the Introduction
      • Citing an Actual Event
      • Creating a Fictional Scenario
      • Making a Compelling Statement About an Important Issue
      • Identifying the Scope of Previous Research
      • Presenting a Statistic
      • Citing a Quotation
      • Describing Common Occurrences
    • How to Begin
    • Reviewing the Literature
      • Reasons for Reviewing the Literature
      • Clarifying Terms in the Research
    • Introducing Your Research: Generating a Hypothesis
  • 4 The Method Section
    • Participants and Subjects
      • Human Participants
        • Table 4.1 Demographics of Research Participants
        • Box 4.1 Participant Descriptions From Journal Articles Involving People
      • Confidentiality of Participants
      • Nonhuman Subjects
      • Attrition
        • Box 4.2 Examples of Descriptions of Subjects in Research Involving Nonhuman Animals
    • Materials and Apparatus
      • Box 4.3 Examples of Details of Materials in Published Research Articles
      • Box 4.4 Examples of Details of Apparatus in Published Research Articles
    • Procedure
    • Design
      • Table 4.2 Common Elements in the Design Subsection
  • 5 Communicating Statistics
    • Why Do We Use Statistics?
    • What Point Are You Trying to Make?
    • Understanding Your Numbers
      • Table 5.1 Examples of Text With and Without Statistical Information Each version should communicate the same basic information; the numbers should not be necessary for the reader to understand your message.
      • Table 5.2 Common Research Questions and the Traditional Statistical Tests Associated With Them Each type of test has variations that are appropriate for different circumstances. You can refer to statistics and research methods books for details on appropriate use of these tests.
    • Helping Readers Understand Your Statistics
      • Figure 5.1 An illustration of (a) a graph with uninformative gridlines that clutter the figure and bars with a moiré effect that Tufte (1983) asserts will distract the reader, and (b) a graph with a less cluttered, more easily comprehensible format.
    • Differentiating Results and Interpretations
  • 6 The Results Section
    • Your Hypothesis
      • Table 6.1 Examples of Presentations of Descriptive Statistics
    • Deciding What to Present
      • Reporting Significant and Nonsignificant Results
      • Marginally Significant Effects
    • APA Style and Presentation of Your Results
      • Table 6.2 Format for Presenting Commonly Used Inferential Statistics
      • Table 6.3 Some Common Symbols and Abbreviations Used in Measurement
      • Table 6.4 Some Common Symbols Used in Presenting the Results of Statistical Tests
    • Creating Tables
      • Figure 6.1 Illustration of a basic table of data in APA style.
      • Figure 6.2 Example of a table in which different measurements (means and standard deviations) appear separately. This format is fairly rare in published articles.
      • Figure 6.3 Example of a table of correlations in APA style.
      • Table 6.5 Creating a Table with Word®
      • Table 6.6 The Result: Means (and Standard Deviations) of Ratings of Jokes According to Sex of Joke Victim and Sex of Participant. Marginal Means in Parentheses Reflect Overall Group Means
    • Creating Figures
      • Figure 6.4 Graph with labels of common elements of the graph. This is a bar graph, but the same general principles hold for any graph, such as line graphs, showing comparisons across groups. Line graphs are appropriate when the variable on the X-axis is quantitative. In your manuscript, the figure caption appears below the figure. The figure caption should include any explanatory information needed to understand the graph. In preparing a manuscript, you would place the caption and the figure on their own separate page, one caption and figure to a page.
      • Figure 6.5 A line graph showing the extent of mirth expressions like laughing and smiling as a function of mood of research participants. Note that the Y-axis starts with the value of zero.
      • Figure 6.6 Line graph in APA style. Normally, the Y-axis begins with zero. When it does not, the results may be deceptive. In this graph, the data are the same as those in Figure 6.5, but the differences across conditions on the X-axis seem greater because of the change of the scale of the Y-axis. Figures do not generally use notes the way tables do.
      • Figure 6.7 Scatter diagram in APA style showing the relation between temperature and teen birth rates in the states in the US and example of a figure caption. A scatter diagram is appropriate for showing the pattern of individual cases measured on two different variables. In this example, there is a significant positive correlation, reflecting the fact that as the temperature increases, so does the teen pregnancy rate. Because this relation is correlational, however, you cannot draw any conclusions about cause and effect.
      • Figure 6.8 Illustration of a frequency histogram in which the categories fall on a continuum. In this case, the categories are ratings that progress from 1 to 7. In such a histogram, the bars should touch one another.
      • Figure 6.9 Illustration of a frequency histogram with discrete (nonquantitative) categories on the X-axis. When the categories are discrete, the bars should not touch.
    • The Connection Between the Text and the Tables and Figures
    • The Difference Between Results and Discussion Sections
    • Some Final Points About Presenting Results
      • Table 6.7 Specific Rules and Guidelines Commonly Used for Presenting Numbers and Statistics in APA Style
  • 7 The Discussion Section
    • Summarizing Your Results
      • Box 7.1 Examples of Approaches to Starting the Discussion Section
    • Connecting Different Aspects of Your Results
    • Dealing With Nonsignificant Results
    • Comparing Your Results With Those of Others
      • Box 7.2 Examples of Connections Between Current and Previous Research
    • Stating the Importance and Implications of Your Results
    • Acknowledging the Limitations of Your Study
  • 8 References: Citations in the Text and the Reference List
    • Citing References in the Text
      • Citing One or Two Authors
      • Citing Sources With Three to Five Authors
      • Citing Sources With Six or More Authors
      • Citing Personal Communications
      • Citing Multiple Sources Within Parentheses
    • Order of Citations in the Reference List
    • Using Your Word-Processing Program to Create the Citation
      • Using Word® to create a hanging indent
    • Examples of How Different Types of References Should Be Laid Out
      • Articles in Periodicals
      • References Involving Books
      • References to Newsletters
      • Internet References
      • Reference to an Encyclopedia Entry
      • References to Presentations
  • 9 Final Touches: The Abstract and Formatting Details
    • The Abstract
      • Figure 9.1 Format of the Abstract.
    • Formatting Your Manuscript
      • Title Page
        • Figure 9.2 Format of the title page. (In a manuscript submitted to a journal, notes on the title page include (a) departmental affiliation of authors, (b) changes in affiliation since the research was done, (c) acknowledgments of assistance, and (d) contact information for the authors. These may not be required for course-related manuscripts. Each of the four notes is in a separate paragraph.)
        • Table 9.1 Creating the Page Header and Page Number in Word®
      • Appendixes
      • Footnotes and Notes
      • Order of Manuscript Pages
      • Section Headings
        • Table 9.2 Different Levels of Headings in an APA-style Manuscript
        • Figure 9.3 Headings for manuscripts with two levels of headings.
        • Figure 9.4 Headings for a manuscript with three levels of headings.
        • Figure 9.5 Levels of headings for multiexperiment manuscripts and for manuscripts with all five levels of headings.
      • Miscellaneous Formatting Details
        • Table 9.3 Capitalization in APA Style
        • Table 9.4 Italics in APA Style
        • Table 9.5 Abbreviations in APA Style
        • Table 9.6 Creating Series in APA Style
        • Table 9.7 Using Quotations in APA Style
        • Figure 9.6 Illustration of format of short quotations of 40 words or fewer.
        • Figure 9.7 Illustration of format of long quotations of 40 words or more. The quotation is indented in its entirety. The first part of the quotation is not indented, but subsequent paragraphs in the quotation are indented.
        • Table 9.8 Using Common Punctuation Marks
  • 10 Creating Poster Presentations
    • Differentiating Visual and Written Communication
    • Reducing the Amount of Information
    • Visual Style
      • Figure 10.1 Example of a single-sheet poster for presentation at a conference.
      • Figure 10.2 Potential layout of a poster using multiple sheets of paper.
      • Figure 10.3 Potential layout of a poster using multiple sheets of paper and a banner title.
    • Your Behavior: The Ethic of a Poster Session
      • Attire
      • Covering Your Poster
    • Creating Your Poster Using PowerPoint®
      • Table 10.1 Initial steps for Creating a Large, Single-Sheet Poster Presentation Using PowerPoint®
      • Table 10.2 Steps for Creating a PowerPoint® Poster Either on a Single, Large Sheet or on Multiple Sheets
  • 11 Giving Oral Presentations
    • The Difference Between Oral and Written English
      • Table 11.1 Guidelines for Presentation Material
    • Adapting APA Style to Oral Presentations
    • Preparing for Your Talk
      • Table 11.2 Creating Your Presentation
    • Creating Graphics for Your Presentation
    • Giving the Presentation
      • Table 11.3 Preparations at the Conference
  • 12 Sharing Your Work Electronically
    • New Capabilities in Electronic Sharing
    • Using a Word Processor to Create Manuscripts for the Internet
      • Table 12.1 Saving a Word® Manuscript in a Format for Internet Publishing
      • Creating Hyperlinks
        • Table 12.2 Creating a Hyperlink to an Internet Location Outside Your Own Web Document
        • Table 12.3 Creating a Hyperlink to a Location Within Your Own Web Document Using Word®
      • Inserting Images
    • Advantages of Internet Publishing Software
      • Table 12.4 Useful Features of Internet Publishing Software That Are Not as Easy or are Impossible with Word Processors
    • Publishing Your Poster on the Web
      • Uploading Your Manuscript to the Internet
    • Revisiting the Concept of Plagiarism
  • Back Matter
    • Appendix A Example of APA-Style Manuscript with Common Errors
    • Appendix B Corrected APA-Style Manuscript
    • References
    • Name Index
    • Subject Index


    Bókahillan þín er þitt svæði og þar eru bækurnar þínar geymdar. Þú kemst í bókahilluna þína hvar og hvenær sem er í tölvu eða snjalltæki. Einfalt og þægilegt!

    Þú kemst í bækurnar hvar sem er
    Þú getur nálgast allar raf(skóla)bækurnar þínar á einu augabragði, hvar og hvenær sem er í bókahillunni þinni. Engin taska, enginn kyndill og ekkert vesen (hvað þá yfirvigt).

    Auðvelt að fletta og leita
    Þú getur flakkað milli síðna og kafla eins og þér hentar best og farið beint í ákveðna kafla úr efnisyfirlitinu. Í leitinni finnur þú orð, kafla eða síður í einum smelli.

    Glósur og yfirstrikanir
    Þú getur auðkennt textabrot með mismunandi litum og skrifað glósur að vild í rafbókina. Þú getur jafnvel séð glósur og yfirstrikanir hjá bekkjarsystkinum og kennara ef þeir leyfa það. Allt á einum stað.

    Hvað viltu sjá? / Þú ræður hvernig síðan lítur út
    Þú lagar síðuna að þínum þörfum. Stækkaðu eða minnkaðu myndir og texta með multi-level zoom til að sjá síðuna eins og þér hentar best í þínu námi.

    Fleiri góðir kostir
    - Þú getur prentað síður úr bókinni (innan þeirra marka sem útgefandinn setur)
    - Möguleiki á tengingu við annað stafrænt og gagnvirkt efni, svo sem myndbönd eða spurningar úr efninu
    - Auðvelt að afrita og líma efni/texta fyrir t.d. heimaverkefni eða ritgerðir
    - Styður tækni sem hjálpar nemendum með sjón- eða heyrnarskerðingu
Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 9781118289136
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APA Style Simplified: Writing in Psychology, Education, Nursing, and Sociology

Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 9781118289136
Rafræn bók. Uppl. sendar á netfangið þitt eftir kaup

Veldu vöru

4.990 kr.
Fá vöru senda með tölvupósti
4.990 kr.