Although girls and women account for approximately 40 percent of all athletes in the United States, they receive only 4 percent of the total sport media coverage. SportsCenter , ESPN's flagship program, dedicates less than 2 percent of its airtime to women. Local news networks devote less than 5 percent of their programming to women's sports. Excluding Sports Illustrated 's annual "Swimsuit Issue," women appear on just 4.
9 percent of the magazine's covers. Media is a powerful indication of the culture surrounding sport in the United States. Why are women underrepresented in sports media? Sports Illustrated journalist Andy Benoit infamously remarked that women's sports "are not worth watching. " Although he later apologized, Benoit's comment points to more general lack of awareness. Consider, for example, the confusion surrounding Title IX, the U.
S. Law that prohibits sex discrimination in any educational program that receives federal financial assistance. Is Title IX to blame when administrators drop men's athletic programs? Is it lack of interest or lack of opportunity that causes girls and women to participate in sport at lower rates than boys and men? In Women's Sports: What Everyone Needs to Know ®, Jaime Schultz tackles these questions, along with many others, to upend the misunderstandings that plague women's sports.
Using historical, contemporary, scholarly, and popular sources, Schultz traces the progress and pitfalls of women's involvement in sport. In the signature question-and-answer format of the What Everyone Needs to Know® series, this short and accessible book clarifies misconceptions that dog women's athletics and offers much needed context and history to illuminate the struggles and inequalities sportswomen continue to face.
- Höfundur: Jaime Schultz
- Útgáfudagur: 01-08-2018
- Engar takmarkanir á útprentun
- Engar takmarkanir afritun
- ISBN 13: 9780190657734
- Print ISBN: 9780190657710
- ISBN 10: 0190657731
- Title Page
- Copyright Page
- Figure and Tables
- 1 Why Women’s Sport Matters
- Why does sport matter?
- Why does girls’ and women’s sport matter?
- What counts as a sport?
- Case study: Is cheerleading a sport?
- 2 A Brief History of Women’s Sport
- How long have women played sport?
- What marked the beginning of the modern age of sport and what did it mean for women?
- What were the medical rationales for keeping women out of sport?
- What were the aesthetic rationales for keeping women out of sport?
- What were the social rationales for keeping women out of sport?
- Were the 1920s the “golden age of sport”?
- What were industrial leagues?
- How did the history of racial and ethnic segregation and oppression affect sport for American girls and women?
- When and how did physical educators change their collective philosophy about competitive sport for girls and women?
- 3 The Influence of Title IX
- What is Title IX?
- How has Title IX influenced girls’ and women’s participation in sport?
- How do athletic programs comply with Title IX?
- If athletic departments do not directly receive federal funding, are they exempt from Title IX?
- Is Title IX to blame when athletic departments cut men’s programs?
- What is gender equity?
- Do we still need Title IX, as it applies to athletics?
- How does Title IX apply to cases of sexual harassment and sexual violence?
- 4 Gender and Sport
- Do the terms “sex” and “gender” mean the same thing?
- How does gender affect girls’ and women’s participation in sport?
- What are some examples of gendered differences in sport?
- How do uniforms express gender differences in men’s and women’s sport?
- What is the feminine apologetic?
- Is muscularity a gendered characteristic?
- 5 Sexualities and Sport
- What were the historical concerns about women’s sexuality in sport?
- Does “sex sell” women’s sport?
- What is the Lingerie Football League?
- What is homophobia?
- What are some of the ways that homophobia affects women’s sport?
- Are there sports opportunities organized specifically for LGBTQ athletes?
- Are things getting better for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and queer athletes?
- 6 Sex Segregation
- Why do we segregate sport on the basis of sex?
- Should we segregate sport according to sex?
- Are women closing the “muscle gap” in sport?
- What are some examples of sex-integrated sport?
- Why do girls and women play softball while boys and men play baseball?
- Is there really any such thing as “throwing like a girl”?
- Does Title IX permit girls and women to play on boys’ and men’s teams?
- Does Title IX permit boys and men to play on girls’ and women’s teams?
- What are “sex tests” in women’s sport?
- What is hyperandrogenism?
- What policies do organizations follow with regard to transgender athletes?
- 7 The Olympic and Paralympic Games
- How is the Olympic Movement organized and what role do women play in its organization?
- How long have women been competing in the Olympic Games?
- What Olympic sports have been the most difficult for women to gain access?
- Do women compete in the same Olympic sports as men?
- Are there any negative consequences to adding new sports and events to the Olympic program?
- Do all National Olympic Committees send female athletes to the Games?
- What are the Paralympic Games?
- How is the Paralympic Movement organized and what role do women play in the organization?
- Do men and women compete equally at the Paralympic Games?
- Do all National Paralympic Committees send female athletes to the Games?
- Do the Paralympic Games receive the same amount of media coverage as the Olympic Games?
- 8 Women, Sport, and the Media
- Do male and female athletes receive the same amount of coverage in sport media?
- Isn’t this difference in coverage based on consumer interest?
- How does the coverage of women’s sport differ from the coverage of men’s sport?
- Are sportswomen of color treated differently in sport media?
- Are Muslim women treated differently in sport media?
- Are there any significant themes that emerge in the media coverage of parasport or female athletes with impairments?
- Has new and electronic media changed the coverage of women’s sport?
- What is the status of women in sport journalism?
- What types of challenges do women sport journalists face?
- Are women journalists allowed in men’s locker rooms?
- 9 Professional Opportunities
- What is the status of women in coaching positions?
- What is the status of women in other positions of authority in sport?
- Are there any professional sports in which women earn the same amount of money as men?
- In what sports are pay disparities between men and women athletes the widest?
- How do the WNBA and other professional women’s leagues survive?
- Why aren’t women’s professional sports more successful?
- 10 The Sport–Health Connection
- Is sport healthy?
- Do female athletes have health concerns that are different from those of male athletes?
- Does menstruation influence women’s sport participation?
- What is the female athlete triad?
- In what sports are female athletes most susceptible to disordered eating patterns?
- Is it OK to compete in sport while pregnant?
- What performance-enhancing drugs do women use and what are the effects?
- Does sport put girls and women at risk for sexual violence?
- There is a lot in the news concerning sexual abuse scandals in sport: Is this a new phenomenon?
- What is being done to address and prevent sexual abuse in sport?
- 11 Moving On
- If sport provides so many benefits, why don’t all girls and women participate?
- Are there any places where it is illegal for women to play sport?
- Is sport a human right?
- What is Sport for Development and Peace?
- Are things getting better for girls and women in sport?
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