The Human Past

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The Human Past

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Front Matter
    • Title Page
    • Copyright
    • Brief Contents
    • Contents
    • Contributors
    • Preface
      • New in this Edition
      • Organization of the Book
      • Special Features
      • Student and Instructor Resources
      • A Note on Dating
      • Reviewers
  • 1 Introduction: The Study of the Human Past: Chris Scarre, Durham University
    • What Is Archaeology?
      • Prehistory vs. History
    • The Relevance of World Archaeology
    • A Brief History of Archaeology
      • Renaissance Beginnings
      • Advances in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: The First Excavations
      • Developments in the Nineteenth Century: Understanding Chronology and Evolution
    • Methods and Techniques
      • Dating
        • Radiocarbon Dating
        • Potassium-Argon Dating
        • Uranium-Series
        • Electron Spin Resistance
        • Luminescence Dating
        • Paleomagnetism
        • Tree-Ring Dating
        • Other Field and Laboratory Methods
        • Reconstructing Ancient Environments
        • Genetics in Archaeology
        • Archaeological Fieldwork
    • Archaeological Theory
      • Processual and Postprocessual Archaeology
      • Cultural Ecology and Agency Theory
      • Common Models in Archaeology
        • Innovation, Diffusion, Emulation, and Migration
    • Key Themes: Humans in Long-Term Perspective 38 Linear and Cyclical Patterns
      • Linear and Cyclical Patterns
    • The Responsibilities of Archaeology
    • Summary and Conclusions
    • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
  • Part I The Evolution of Humanity: 6 million to 11,600 years ago
    • 2 African Origins: Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, Indiana University
      • Evolution and Human Origins
        • The Human Evolutionary Record
      • The Primate Ancestors of Apes and Humans
        • What Is a Primate?
        • Our Ape Ancestry: The Comparative Anatomical and Genetic Evidence
          • Anatomical Evidence
          • Genetic Evidence
      • The Environmental Background
      • Key Discovery: Ardipithecus ramidus and Other Early Fossils
        • Climate Change and Early Hominin Evolution
      • The Rise of the Earliest Hominins
      • Key Theme: Climate Change Evolutionary Change
        • The Australopithecines
        • The Emergence of Homo: Homo habilis, Homo ergaster, and Homo rudolfensis
      • Key Sites: Hadar and Laetoli: “Lucy,” the “First Family,” and Fossil Footsteps
      • The First Stone Tools and the Oldowan
        • Technology
        • Who Made the Oldowan Tools?
      • Key Site: Olduvai Gorge: The Grand Canyon of Prehistory
        • The Nature of Oldowan Sites
      • Key Controversy: Modern Apes as Oldowan Toolmakers?
      • Key Discovery: Australopithecus garhi: The First Stone Toolmaker?
      • Food Procurement and Diet
        • Hunters or Scavengers?
        • Food for Thought: Diet and Encephalization
      • The Behavior of Oldowan Hominins
        • Social Organization
        • Diet
        • Fire
        • Art, Ritual, and Language
      • Recent Trends in Approaches to the Oldowan
        • Isotopic Studies
      • Key Controversy: What Were Oldowan Tools Used For?
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • 3 Hominin Dispersals in the Old World: Richard Klein, Stanford University
      • Homo ergaster
        • Anatomy
          • The Turkana Boy
          • Human Evolution and Inferences from the Turkana Boy
      • Key Controversy: Distinguishing Homo Ergaster and Homo Erectus
      • The Acheulean
        • The Acheulean Hand Axe Tradition
      • Key Discovery: The Acheulean Hand Axe Tradition
        • Hand Axe Function
        • Variation within the Acheulean Tradition
      • The Dispersal of Homo ergaster
        • The Initial Expansion of Homo ergaster from Africa
        • The Expansion of Homo ergaster to Eurasia: The Dmanisi Discoveries
      • Key Controversy: The “Hobbit”: Homo floresiensis, a Unique Species?
        • Dating the Dmanisi Fossils
      • Homo erectus
        • The Discovery and Dating of Homo erectus in Java and China
          • China and the Peking Man
          • The Movius Line
      • Key Theme: Climate Change Human Evolution and Adaptability
        • The Persistence and Fate of Homo erectus
      • Homo heidelbergensis and the Initial Occupation of Europe
      • Key Controversy: When Did Humans First Colonize Europe?
      • Key Site: The Gran Dolina TD6 and the History of Cannibalism
        • Brain Expansion and Change within the Hand Axe Tradition
      • Key Theme: Migration Homo Ergaster As the First Afro-Eurasian Hominin
        • The European Origin of the Neanderthals
      • Evidence for Early Human Behavior apart from Stone Artifacts
        • Other Raw Materials
        • Site Modification and Housing
        • Fire
        • Art
        • Diet and Food Procurement
          • Plant Foods: Foraging
      • Key Controversy: Is Homo Erectus Represented by DNA From Denisova Cave?
        • Animal Foods: Hunting and Scavenging
      • Key Site: The Mystery of Dinaledi Cave and Homo naledi
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 4 The Rise of Modern Humans: Paul Pettitt, Durham University
      • The Climatic Background
      • Competing Hypotheses for the Origin of Homo sapiens
        • The Multi-Regional Evolution Hypothesis
        • The Out of Africa Hypothesis
        • Other Hypotheses and Attempts at Consensus
      • Key Theme: Climate Change Oscillations and Human Dispersal
      • Evidence for the Rise of Modern Humans in Africa
        • Earliest Homo sapiens
        • Transitional Homo sapiens
        • Anatomically Modern Humans
      • Genetic Keys to the Origins of Modern Humans
        • Mitochondrial DNA and the Theory of an Early African “Coalescence”
        • Other Theories and Potential Consensus
        • Mitochondrial DNA and the Evolution of Homo neanderthalensis
      • Archaeology and the Emergence of “Modern” Behavior in Middle Stone Age Africa
        • Hunting and Dietary Evidence
      • Key Site: Klasies River Mouth: Middle Stone Age Hunters?
        • Evidence of Site Modification and Art
      • Key Controversy: The Evolution of Language
        • The Neanderthals
      • Key Site: Blombos Cave and the Origins of Symbolism
        • The Anatomy of Homo neanderthalensis
        • Exploitation of Resources: Hunting, Gathering, and Scavenging
        • The Mousterian Lithic Industry
        • Neanderthal Behavior
      • Key Discovery: The Neanderthal Genome
      • Early Dispersals of Homo sapiens into the Levantine Corridor
      • Key Theme: Migration Changing Pleistocene Environments Drove Human Dispersals
      • The Colonization of East Asia and Australia
      • The Colonization of Europe, and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition
        • The Aurignacian
      • Key Controversy: The Initial Upper Paleolithic and the Emergence of Modern Behavior
        • The End of the Neanderthals and their Relationship to Incoming Homo sapiens
      • Developments in Human Behavior: The European Mid- and Later Upper Paleolithic
        • The Gravettian
        • Gravettian Behavior
      • Key Sites: Four Sites with Upper Paleolithic Art
        • The Magdalenian and Mezinian
      • Key Controversy: The Meaning of “Venus” Figurines
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 5 The Origins, Antiquity, and Dispersal of the First Americans: David J. Meltzer, Southern Methodist
      • Pleistocene Bridges and Barriers to America (35,000–11,600 Years Ago)
        • The Archaeology of Beringia
      • Colonization Complexities
      • Key Discovery: Genetics and the First Americans
        • When and How
      • Key Sites: Pushing the Antiquity Envelope: Folsom, Clovis, and Monte Verde
      • Key Theme: Migration Motives and Methods
        • Learning New Landscapes
      • The Clovis Occupation of North America (13,400–12,600 Years Ago)
      • Key Theme: Climate Change The Effects of Climate Change on the First Americans
      • North America after Clovis
      • Key Controversy: Pleistocene Extinctions
      • The Earliest South Americans
        • Adapting to Diversity
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Changes on the Horizon
      • Further Reading
  • Part II After the Ice Age: 11,600 years ago to the Early Civilizations
    • 6 The World Transformed: From Foragers and Farmers to States and Empires: Chris Scarre, Durham Unive
      • From Glacial to Postglacial
        • Climate Change and Faunal Extinction at the End of the Pleistocene
        • The Early Holocene Environment
        • Hunter-Gatherer Adaptations to the Holocene
      • The Adoption of Agriculture
        • What Is Agriculture?
        • The Development of Domesticates
        • The Geography of Domestication
      • Key Theme: Domestication The Domestication of the Dog
        • Why Agriculture?
      • Key Controversy: Explaining Agriculture
      • The Spread of Agriculture
      • The Consequences of Agriculture
        • Settlement
        • Social Complexity
        • Material Culture
        • Warfare
        • Agricultural Intensification
      • Cities, States, and Empires
      • Key Controversy: Cities, States, and Civilizations Defined and Explained
        • The Development of States
          • The Geography of State Formation
          • Archaeological Features of States
        • Toward History: The Adoption of Writing
        • States and Empires
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Website
    • 7 From Mobile Foragers to Complex Societies In Southwest Asia: Trevor Watkins, University of Edinbur
      • Terminologies in Southwest Asia
      • Landscapes and Environments of Southwest Asia: Defining the “Core Area”
        • Changing Climate and Environments
      • A Crescendo of Change (20,000–8800 bce)
        • The Epipaleolithic in the Levant (c. 20,000–9600 bce)
      • Key Controversy: Explaining the Neolithic Revolution
      • Key Theme: Climate Change Environmental Shocks in Southwest Asia
        • The Natufians in the Late Epipaleolithic Levant
      • Key Site: Ohalo II: Epipaleolithic Lifeways in the Levant
        • The Epipaleolithic beyond the South Levant
      • Key Site: Abu Hureyra: The Transition from Foraging to Farming
        • The Early Aceramic Neolithic: A Burst of New, Permanent Settlements
      • Key Site: Jerf el Ahmar: A Neolithic Village
        • Pre-Domestic Cultivation
      • A Cascade of Rapid Change: The Later Aceramic Neolithic (8800–6500 bce)
        • Settlements and Communities
      • Key Site: Göbekli Tepe: Religious Structures at a “Central Place”
        • Special Buildings for Special Purposes
        • Ritual Cycles of Burial, Skull Retrieval, and Curation
      • Key Site: Çatalhöyük
        • Regional and Supra-Regional Networks of Sharing and Exchange
      • Key Theme: Domestication A Story of Unintended Consequences
      • Transformation, Dispersal, and Expansion (6500–6000 bce)
        • The Levant
        • Central and West Anatolia
      • Key Site: Tell Sabi Abyad I
        • What Was the Cause of Dispersal and Expansion?
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 8 East Asian Agriculture and Its Impact: Charles Higham, University of Otago
      • Northern China
        • The Origins of Millet Cultivation: The Yellow River Valley to 7000 bce
        • The Development of Permanent Villages in the Yellow River Valley (c. 7000–5000 bce)
      • Key Site: Jiahu: The Transition to Agriculture in the Huai River Valley
      • Key Theme: Domestication The Consequences and Significance of Agriculture
      • The Growth of Agricultural Communities (c. 5000–2600 bce): Neolithic Cultures in the Yellow River
        • Central Plains and the Loess Plateau: The Yangshao Culture (c. 5000–3000 bce)
        • The Middle Yangshao (c. 4000–3500 bce)
        • Eastern China: The Dawenkou Culture (c. 4150–2600 bce)
      • The Yangzi Valley
        • The Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Yangzi River Valley
        • Gathering Wild Rice: Yuchanyang
        • The Transition from Wild to Cultivated Rice: Diaotonghuan and Xianrendong
      • Key Controversy: The Origins of Rice Cultivation
        • The Development of Permanent Villages in the Yangzi Valley
          • The Middle Yangzi Valley
          • The Lower Yangzi Valley
        • Summary: The Origins of Rice Domestication
      • Key Site: Tianluoshan
      • The Expansion of Neolithic Settlement in the Yangzi River Valley
        • The Daxi Culture (c. 4500–3300 bce)
        • The Qujialing Culture (c. 3300–2500 bce)
        • The Lower Yangzi Region: The Majiabang and Songze Cultures (c. 5000–3300 bce)
        • The Expansion of Rice and Millet Farmers
      • The Expansion of Farmers into Southeast Asia
        • Initial Dispersal into Southern China
        • From Southern China into Vietnam
        • Early Rice Farmers in Northeast Thailand
      • Key Site: Man Bac
        • Cambodia and the Dong Nai River
        • The Bangkok Plain
          • Khok Phanom Di
      • Key Site: Ban Non Wat: Hunter-Gatherers and Early Rice Farmers
      • The Expansion of Farmers into Korea and Japan
        • Korea
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality The Role of Agriculture and Metallurgy
        • Japan
          • Yayoi Rice Farmers
      • Key Discovery: Sedentism without Agriculture
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 9 Australia and the Indo-pacific Islands During the Holocene: Peter Bellwood, Australian National Un
      • Australia
        • Early Foragers in a Changing Landscape
      • Key Site: South Molle Quarry: Aboriginal Foragers at the End of the Ice Age
        • Technology in Uncertain Times
        • Changing Life in Tasmania
      • Key Controversy: Explaining Technological Change in Australia
      • Changes in Aboriginal Perceptions of the Landscape: The Rainbow Serpent
      • Key Controversy: Why Did the Tasmanians Stop Eating Fish?
        • The Growth of Trade Networks
        • Population and Settlement Change
        • The Effects of Historic Foreign Contacts
      • Key Site: Barlambidj: Aboriginal Contact with Southeast Asia
      • The Indo-Pacific Islands of Southeast Asia and Oceania
        • The First Homo sapiens in Island Southeast Asia
        • Early Agriculturalists in New Guinea
      • The Austronesian Dispersal
      • Key Discovery: Early Farming in the New Guinea Highlands
        • A Basic History of the Austronesian Languages
        • The Archaeology of Early Austronesian Dispersal
          • Taiwan
          • Further Dispersals into Island Southeast Asia and to Madagascar
        • Recent Debate over Movement through Taiwan
      • The Colonization of Oceania: Lapita
      • Key Site: Beinan and the Jade Trade
        • Lapita Economy
        • The Settlement of Polynesia
      • Key Controversy: The Origins of Lapita 285
        • Eastern Polynesia
      • Key Sites: Talepakemalai and Teouma
      • Key Controversy: Expert Navigation or Sheer Good Luck?
        • Why Migrate?
      • Key Controversy: Easter Island and South America
      • The Austronesian World after Colonization
        • Polynesian Complex Societies: Easter Island and Elsewhere
        • Hawai‘i and New Zealand: Varying Social Responses to Environmental Constraints
      • Key Theme: Climate Change Human Impact, Environmental Change, and Migration
        • The Chiefdoms of Polynesia: Comparative Ethnographic Perspectives
          • Theories of Social Evolution
      • Seaborne Trade and the Transformation of Tribal Society in Southeast Asia
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • 10 Origins of Food-producing Economies: David L. Browman and Gayle J. Fritz, Washington University i
      • The Mexican Archaic and the Origins of Mesoamerican Agriculture, c. 9500–2500 bce
        • The Earliest Cultigens
      • Eastern North America
        • Early to Middle Archaic, c. 9500–4000 bce
      • Key Theme: Climate Change Changing Climates and Early Agricultural Developments in the Americas
      • Key Site: Koster: An Archaic Camp in Illinois
        • The Beginnings of Agriculture in the Middle and Late Archaic
      • Key Sites: Watson Brake and Poverty Point, Louisiana
        • Late Archaic Lifeways and Social Elaborations (c. 4000–1000 bce)
          • The Carlston Annis Shell Mound in West Central Kentucky
          • Horr’s Island, Florida
          • The Earliest Pottery
      • Key Discovery: The Archaic Dog
        • Early Woodland Period, c. 1000–200 bce
        • Later Agricultural Developments
          • Tobacco
      • Southwest North America
        • The Archaic Period (c. 7500 bce–1 ce)
        • Agricultural Beginnings
          • The Economic Impact of Maize and Other Crops
      • Key Controversy: The Domestication of Maize
        • Models of Agricultural Adoption and Dispersal
        • Later Agricultural Developments and Systems
      • Western North America: Alternatives to Agriculture
        • Great Plains Bison Hunting
        • The Pacific Northwest Maritime Cultures
        • The Great Basin Desert Archaic
        • The Archaic Period in California
      • The South American Pacific Lowlands
        • The North Pacific Coast
        • The Peruvian Coast
          • North Coast
          • South Coast
      • Key Theme: Migration Early Agricultural Developments in the Americas
        • The Chilean Coast
      • Key Sites: La Paloma and Chilca: Archaic Villages of the Peruvian Coast
      • Key Discovery: The Chinchorro Mummies
        • Southern Chile and Southern Argentina
      • The Andean Highlands
        • The Northern Andes
        • The Central Andes
          • Northern Peru
          • Central Peru
          • Southern Peru
        • The Southern Andes
        • Andean Animal and Plant Domestication
      • Key Site: Caral and Norte Chico
      • The Amazonian Lowlands
      • The Atlantic Lowlands
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • 11 Holocene Africa: Graham Connah, Australian National University
      • Intensified Hunting, Gathering, and Fishing, c. 9000–5000 bCE
        • Southern and Central Africa
          • Southern African Rock Art
      • Key Controversy: Symbolism in Southern African Rock Art
      • Northern, Eastern, and Western Africa
        • North Africa and the Sahara
      • Key Controversy: Climate and Adaptation in the Sahara
        • East Africa
        • West Africa
      • Key Theme: Domestication Agriculture for a Broad Range of Environments
      • The Beginnings of Farming
        • The Sahara
        • The Nile Valley
        • West Africa
        • Northeast and East Africa
      • Ironworking and Early Farming in Central and Southern Africa
        • Movements of Bantu-Speaking Peoples
        • Ironworking Farmers
      • Key Controversy: The Origins of African Ironworking
      • Key Discovery: Nok: Unique Sculptures by Forgotten People
        • Domesticated Plants and Animals
        • Interaction between Hunter-Gatherers and Farmers
      • Urbanization and Social Complexity in Ancient Egypt
        • The Predynastic Period
        • The Early Dynastic Period
        • The Old Kingdom
        • The First and Second Intermediate Periods and the Middle Kingdom
      • Key Discovery: Insights from the Pyramids
        • The New Kingdom and After
      • Key Theme: Urbanization The Concept of Urbanization in Africa
      • Urbanization and State Formation in the Rest of Africa
        • Nubia and Ethiopia
          • Kerma
          • Napata and Meroë
          • Aksum
        • North and West Africa
      • Key Sites: Ethiopia’s Rock-Cut Churches
      • Key Site: Old Jarma: Urbanism in the Middle of Nowhere
        • Eastern, Southern, and Central Africa
          • The Swahili Coast
      • Key Site: Great Zimbabwe
        • The Zimbabwe Plateau
        • Remoter Parts of Central Africa
      • Africa and the World
        • The Mediterranean, Southwest Asia, and the Red Sea
        • The Indian Ocean
      • Key Site: Igbo-Ukwu
      • Key Site: Quseir al-Qadim and the Indian Ocean Trade
        • The Atlantic Coast
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 12 Holocene Europe: Chris Scarre, Durham University
      • From Foraging to Farming
        • After the Ice: Europe Transformed
      • Key Site: Star Carr: A Mesolithic Campsite in Northeast England
        • Farming Comes to Europe
      • Key Theme: Migration The Spread of Farming to Europe
      • Southeastern Europe
        • The First Neolithic Settlements, c. 6600–6000 bce
        • Developing Societies, c. 6000–3200 bce
      • Key Theme: Migration Incursions from the Steppes
        • Copper, Gold, and Secondary Products
      • Key Site: The Varna Cemetery
      • The Mediterranean Zone
        • Social Distinctions in Mediterranean Europe, c. 3500–2500 bce
      • Central Europe
      • Key Discovery: The “Iceman”
        • The Bandkeramik Culture, c. 5600–5000 bce
        • Regional Diversification, c. 5000–3000 bce
      • Key Discovery: The Talheim Death Pit
      • Atlantic Europe
        • Monuments and Society
          • Polished Stone Axes
      • Key Controversy: Stonehenge: Symbolism and Ceremony
      • Northern Europe
        • Monuments and Ritual
      • Toward Complexity: Europe from c. 2500 bce to the Roman Empire
      • Later Prehistoric Societies in Central and Western Europe
        • Beaker Pottery and Metalwork
        • Chiefly Elites and Long-Distance Contact
      • Key Controversy: Rock Art—Representation of Myth or Reality?
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality Centers of Power in Late Hallstatt Europe
        • “Princely Centers”
      • Later Prehistoric Societies in Eastern Europe
        • The Earlier Bronze Age in Eastern Europe, c. 2300–1300 bce
        • Urnfields, c. 1300–700 bce
      • European Society at the Dawn of History
        • European Societies beyond the Mediterranean
        • The So-Called “Celtic” Societies
          • Bog Bodies
      • Key Controversy: Who Were the Celts?
        • The Expansion of Roman Control
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • 13 Peoples and Complex Societies of Ancient Southwest Asia: Roger Matthews, University of Reading
      • Farmers of the Early Chalcolithic: The Halaf and Ubaid Periods, c. 6000–4200 bce
        • The Halaf Period, c. 6000–5400 bce
        • The Ubaid Period, c. 5900–4200 bce
          • Eridu
          • Ubaid Sites beyond Lower Mesopotamia
      • Key Discovery: Early Steps toward Social Complexity on the Iranian Plateau
      • Urban Communities of the Late Chalcolithic: The Uruk Period, c. 4200–3000 bce
        • The Lower Mesopotamian Site of Uruk: The “First City”
      • Key Theme: Urbanization The World’s First True Cities
        • The Invention of Writing
          • Cylinder Seals
        • Uruk Expansion and Trade
      • City States, Kingdoms, and Empires of the Early Bronze Age, c. 3000–2000 bce
        • Sumerian City States
        • Upper Mesopotamian, Iranian, and Anatolian Communities
        • Kingdoms and Empires of the Later Third Millennium bce
      • Key Site: Ebla
      • Commerce and Conflict in the Middle Bronze Age, c. 2000–1650 bce
        • Lower Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf
        • Upper Mesopotamia and the Levant
        • Upper Mesopotamia and Anatolia, c. 2000–1650 bce
      • Empires and States at War and Peace: The Late Bronze Age, c. 1650–1185 bce
        • Anatolia and the Hittites
      • Key Site: Hattusa, Capital of the Hittites
        • The Levant in the Late Bronze Age
          • Ugarit
        • Upper Mesopotamia and Syria: Hurrian Mittani
      • Key Discovery: The Uluburun Shipwreck
        • The Rise of Assyria
        • Lower Mesopotamia: Kassite Babylonia
        • Elam
        • The End of the Late Bronze Age
      • New and Resurgent Powers of the Iron Age, c. 1185–330 bce
        • The Levant: Philistines, Phoenicians, Neo-Hittites
          • The Philistines
          • The Phoenicians
          • The Neo-Hittites
        • The Assyrian Empire
        • The Levant: Israel and Judah
        • Anatolian States
        • Babylonia
        • The Achaemenid Empire and the Conquest of Southwest Asia
      • Key Theme: Migration Small and Large Movements across Southwest Asia
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 14 The Mediterranean World: Susan E. Alcock and John F. Cherry, Brown University
      • Defining the Mediterranean, Redefining Its Study
      • The Bronze Age, c. 3500–1000 bce
        • The Aegean Early Bronze Age
          • Crete
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality The Emergence of Social Inequality in the Mediterranean
        • The Cyclades
      • Key Controversy: Early Cycladic Marble Figures
        • The Greek Mainland and Troy
        • Minoan Crete: The Palace Period
          • The Palace at Knossos
          • Peak Sanctuaries
          • Life outside the Palaces
      • Key Site: Troy
        • The End of the Minoan Palaces
        • Mycenaean Greece: Mycenae and the Mycenaean Kingdoms
      • Key Discovery: Linear B
        • Other Mycenaean Palaces
        • Overseas Influence
        • The End of the Aegean Bronze Age
      • Cultural Variety in the First Millennium bce
        • Greece and the Aegean
          • The Early Iron Age
          • The Orientalizing and Archaic Periods
      • Key Theme: Migration Human Trafficking in the Mediterranean World
        • The Classical Period
      • Key Sites: Olympia and Other Panhellenic Sanctuaries
        • Features of the Classical City
      • Key Controversy: What Did Greek Sculptures Really Look Like?
        • Greek Colonization
      • Key Site: The Necropolis at Metapontum
        • The Phoenicians and Phoenician Expansion
        • The Etruscans and the Italian Peninsula
      • Growing Powers, Growing Territories
        • Alexander and the East
          • The Conquests of Alexander
          • The Hellenistic World
        • Carthage and the Carthaginian Empire
      • Key Site: Alexandria-by-Egypt
        • The Rise of Rome
          • Growth and Crisis
      • A Mediterranean Empire
        • Rome, Center of the World
        • The Provinces and Frontiers
          • Reactions to Roman Annexation
      • Key Controversy: Pompeii—All Problems Solved?
      • Key Discovery: The Mahdia Shipwreck
        • The Roman Army
        • The Later Empire
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 15 South Asia: From Early Villages to Buddhism: Robin Coningham, Durham University
      • Land and Language
      • The Foundations, c. 26,000–6500 bce
        • Western India
        • The Ganga Plain
        • Central India
        • Sri Lanka
        • Seasonality and Mobility
      • Early Neolithic Villages: The First Food Producers
        • Western Pakistan
        • Kashmir and the Swat Valley
      • Key Site: Mehrgarh: An Early Farming Community
        • The Ganga Basin
        • Peninsular India
      • An Era of Regionalization: Early Harappan Proto-Urban Forms
        • Kot Diji and Early Pointers toward the Indus Civilization
      • Key Controversy: Foreign Contact and State Formation 1: The Indus Cities
      • An Era of Integration: The Indus Civilization, c. 2600–1900 bce
        • A Hierarchy of Settlement Forms
      • Key Controversy: The Decipherment of the Indus Script
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality Uniformity within the Indus Civilization
      • Key Sites: Mohenjo-daro and Harappa
        • Character of the Indus Civilization
        • Subsistence and Trade
        • The Western Borderlands
      • An Era of Localization: The Eclipse of the Indus Civilization, c. 1900 bce
        • The Core Cities
      • Key Theme: Migration The Aryan Migration and the End of the Indus Cities
        • Peripheral Areas
          • Gandharan Grave Culture
          • The Ganga–Yamuna Doab
          • The Western Deccan
      • The Re-Emergence of Regionalized Complexity, c. 1200–500 bce
        • Developments in the Northwest and East
          • Painted Gray Ware
      • Key Controversy: Foreign Contact and State Formation 2: The Early Historic Cities
        • “Great Territories”
        • Southern India and Sri Lanka
      • Reintegration: The Early Historic Empires, c. 500 bce–320 ce
        • The Mauryan Empire
      • Key Controversy: Early Historic Hierarchy and Heterarchies
        • Post-Mauryan Dynasties
        • The Kushan, Satavahana, and Later Dynasties
      • Key Controversy: Roman Contact and the Origins of Indian Ocean Trade
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 16 Complex Societies of East and Southeast Asia: Charles Higham, University of Otago
      • Early States of China
        • The Longshan Culture, c. 3000–1900 bce
        • The Xia Dynasty, c. 2070–1500 bce
        • The Shang Dynasty, c. 1500–1045 bce
      • Key Site: Zhengzhou: A Shang Capital
      • Key Discovery: The Origins of Chinese Writing
        • Southern Rivals to Shang Culture
        • The Western Zhou Dynasty, 1045–771 bce
      • Key Site: Sanxingdui
        • Western Zhou Bronzeworking
        • The Eastern Zhou Dynasty, 770–221 bce
          • Technological and Social Changes
      • Key Controversy: Confucianism and Buddhism
      • Key Site: Tonglushan: A Copper Mining Site
      • Imperial China
        • The Qin Dynasty, 221–207 bce
      • Key Controversy: The Origins of Chinese Metallurgy
        • The Han Dynasty, 206 bce–220 ce
          • Administration
      • Key Theme: Urbanism Feeding a State
        • Agriculture
        • Religious Beliefs
      • KEY Site: Mawangdui
      • Korea
        • Koguryo, 37 bce–668 ce
        • Paekche, 18 bce—680 ce
        • Silla, 37 bce–668 ce
        • Great Silla, 668–918 ce
      • Japan
        • Early Yamato
        • The Growth of Yamato Power
        • Decline and Civil War
        • The Asuka Enlightenment
        • The Transition from Yamato to Nara
      • Silk Roads
        • The Central Asian Silk Road
        • Khotan
        • A Maritime Silk Road
        • Funan, the Mekong Delta
        • Angkor, Cambodia
        • The Pyu of Burma
      • Key Controversy: Khao Sam Kaeo and the Origins of Southeast Asian Indianized States
        • The Dvaravati of Thailand
        • The Cham of Vietnam
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality Social Status and the Built Environment
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • 17 Mesoamerican Civilization: David Webster and Susan Toby Evans, The Pennsylvania State University
      • The Landscape and Its Peoples
      • Key Discovery: The Mesoamerican Ball Game
      • The Spread of Agriculture and the Rise of Complex Societies in Preclassic Mesoamerica
        • Early Sedentism
      • Key Theme: Domestication Social Consequences of Agriculture
      • Key Site: Paso de la Amada and the Emergence of Social Complexity
      • The Olmecs, c. 1200–400 bce (Early to Middle Preclassic)
        • San Lorenzo and La Venta
      • Key Controversy: The Olmecs: Mesoamerica’s “Mother Culture”?
        • West Mexican Polities, c. 1500 bce–400 ce
      • Late Preclassic Mesoamerica, c. 400 bce–250 ce
      • Key Controversy: Metallurgy in Mesoamerica
        • Calendars and Writing
        • Kings, Courts, and Cities
      • Key Discovery: The Mesoamerican Calendar
      • Key Controversy: Who Invented Mesoamerican Writing?
        • Monte Albán
        • Teotihuacán
      • Key Site: Teotihuacán
      • The Classic Period: Teotihuacán and Its Neighbors
      • Key Controversy: The Teotihuacán Writing System
      • Teotihuacán’s Wider Influence: The Middle Horizon
      • Key Site: Classic Monte Albán
        • Cholula, Cantona, and the Teuchitlan Cultural Tradition—Independent Polities?
        • The Demise of Teotihuacán
      • Epiclassic Mesoamerica, c. 600–900 ce
      • The Classic Maya
        • Kingdoms and Capitals
      • Key Theme: Urbanism Defining a City in Mesoamerica
        • Maya Society
          • Royalty
      • Key Site: Tikal
        • Lords and Officials
        • Commoners
      • Key Controversy: How Sudden Was the “Collapse” of Maya Civilization?
        • Warfare
      • Postclassic Mesoamerica
        • The Rise of the Toltecs
        • The Postclassic Maya
          • The Puuc Florescence
          • Chichén Itzá
          • Mayapan
      • Mesoamerica Contacted: What the Spaniards Found
        • The Maya of the Early Sixteenth Century
        • The Aztecs and the Late Horizon: History and Myth
        • The Aztec Empire in 1519
      • Key Site: Tenochtitlán: The Aztec Capital
        • Aztec Society
        • The Spanish Conquest
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 18 From Village to Empire in South America: Michael E. Moseley and Michael J. Heckenberger, Universi
      • A Continent of Extremes
        • The Andes
        • Amazonia
          • Coasts
          • Floodplains
          • Uplands
      • Preceramic (Prepottery) Civilization in the Andes, c. 3000–1800 bce
        • Temple Mounds and Sunken Courts
      • Key Controversy: The Maritime Hypothesis
      • The Initial Period and the Early Horizon, c. 1800–400 bce: Civilization Reconfigured
        • The Initial Period, c. 1800–400 bce
      • Key Site: Sechín Alto
        • The Early Horizon, c. 400–200 bce
          • Paracas
          • Pukara
      • The Early Intermediate Period, c. 200 bce–650 ce: Andean Confederacies and States
      • Key Site: Sipán and the Presentation Theme
        • The Moche
          • The Temples of the Sun and the Moon
        • Nazca and the South Coast
          • Nazca Lines
      • The Rise and Fall of the Andean Empires
        • The Middle Horizon, c. 650–1000 ce: Tiwanaku and Wari
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality Descent and the Kurakas
        • The Late Intermediate Period, c. 1000–1476 ce: Lambayeque and Chimor
          • Chimor and Chan Chan
          • Lambayeque and Batán Grande
        • The Late Horizon, 1476–1533: Cuzco and the Incas
          • Origins and Expansion
          • Cuzco and the Trappings of Empire
      • Key Site: The Sacred Valley of the Incas and Machu Picchu
      • Amazonia
      • The Amazonian Formative Period, c. 1000 bce–500 ce
        • The Linguistic Evidence
        • The Archaeological Evidence
      • Key Controversy: The Rank Revolution
      • Regionalism and Complexity in Amazonia, c. 1–1500 ce
        • The Lower Amazon
      • Key Controversy: Amazonian Mound Builders
      • Key Controversy: “Amazonian Dark Earths” and Anthropogenic Landscapes
      • Key Theme: Urbanism Amazonian Urbanism?
        • The Central Amazon
        • The Upper Amazon
        • The Orinoco and the Caribbean
        • The Southern Amazon
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading
    • 19 Complex Societies Of North America: George R. Milner, The Pennsylvania State University, and W. H
      • Eastern Woodlands
        • Adena and Hopewell: The Early and Middle Woodland Period, c. 800 bce–400 ce
          • Pervasive Intergroup Connections
      • Key Site: Hopewell
        • Establishing Food-Producing Economies
        • Late Woodland Period, c. 400–1000 ce
          • Changes in Social Relationships and Diets
        • Mississippian Period, c. 1000–1650 ce
          • Integral Roles of Mounds and Burials
      • Key Controversy: The Size and Influence of Cahokia
        • How People Lived
        • Northern and Eastern Periphery, c. 1000–1650 ce
      • Southwest
        • Preclassic and Classic Hohokam, c. 700–1450 ce
      • Key Discovery: Hohokam Ball Courts
      • Key Theme: Social Inequality Identifying Social Distinctions in North America
        • Pueblo Villages on the Colorado Plateau
          • Agricultural Foundations
      • Key Theme: Migration Movement and Abandonment in North America
        • Pueblo I, c. 750–900 ce
          • The Great Kiva
        • Pueblo II, c. 900–1150 ce
          • The Chaco Phenomenon
      • Key Discovery: Chocolate at Pueblo Bonito
        • Pueblo III, c. 1150–1300 ce
        • Pueblo IV, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries ce: Abandonment of the Colorado Plateau
          • Pottery Innovations and Group Expression
          • Population Decline
      • Plains
        • Village Life
        • Widespread Exchange
      • Pacific Coast
        • Southern California
        • Pacific Northwest
          • Life in Villages
      • Key Site: Ozette
        • Warfare and Population Loss
      • Arctic and Subarctic
        • Dorset and Thule Cultures
      • Key Site: L’Anse aux Meadows
      • Two Worlds Collide
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • Further Reading and Suggested Websites
    • 20 The Human Past: Retrospect and Prospect: Chris Scarre, Durham University
      • Demographic Increase
      • Intensification and Degradation
      • Biological Exchange
      • Climate Change and Human Society
      • The Wider Relevance of Archaeology
        • Climate Change
        • Domestication
        • Urbanization
        • Social Inequality
        • Migration
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Sources of Illustrations
  • Index

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