Microbiology: An Introduction, eBook, Global Edition

Höfundar: Gerard J. Tortora, Berdell R. Funke, Christine L. Case, Derek Weber, Warner B. Bair III
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Microbiology: An Introduction, eBook, Global Edition

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Brief Contents
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • About the Authors
  • Digital Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contents
  • Features
  • ASM Recommended Curriculum Guidelinesfor Undergraduate Microbiology
  • PART ONE Fundamentals of Microbiology
    • 1 The Microbial World and You
      • Microbes in Our Lives
        • The Microbiome
      • Naming and Classifying Microorganisms
        • Nomenclature
        • Types of Microorganisms
        • Classification of Microorganisms
      • A Brief History of Microbiology
        • The First Observations
        • The Debate over Spontaneous Generation
        • The First Golden Age of Microbiology
        • The Second Golden Age of Microbiology
        • The Third Golden Age of Microbiology
      • Microbes and Human Welfare
        • Recycling Vital Elements
        • Sewage Treatment: Using Microbes to Recycle Water
        • Bioremediation: Using Microbes to Clean Up Pollutants
        • Insect Pest Control by Microorganisms
        • Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Technology
      • Microbes and Human Disease
        • Biofilms
        • Infectious Diseases
        • Emerging Infectious Diseases
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 2 Chemical Principles
      • The Structure of Atoms
        • Chemical Elements
        • Electronic Configurations
      • How Atoms Form Molecules: Chemical Bonds
        • Ionic Bonds
        • Covalent Bonds
        • Hydrogen Bonds
        • Molecular Mass and Moles
      • Chemical Reactions
        • Energy in Chemical Reactions
        • Synthesis Reactions
        • Decomposition Reactions
        • Exchange Reactions
        • The Reversibility of Chemical Reactions
      • IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
      • Inorganic Compounds
        • Water
        • Acids, Bases, and Salts
        • Acid–Base Balance: The Concept of pH
      • Organic Compounds
        • Structure and Chemistry
        • Carbohydrates
        • Lipids
        • Proteins
        • Nucleic Acids
        • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 3 Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope
      • Units of Measurement
      • Microscopy: The Instruments
        • Light Microscopy
        • Two-Photon Microscopy
        • Super-Resolution Light Microscopy
        • Scanning Acoustic Microscopy
        • Electron Microscopy
        • Scanned-Probe Microscopy
      • Preparation of Specimens for Light Microscopy
        • Preparing Smears for Staining
        • Simple Stains
        • Differential Stains
        • Special Stains
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      • Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: An Overview
      • THE PROKARYOTIC CELL
      • The Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells
      • Structures External to the Cell Wall
        • Glycocalyx
        • Flagella and Archaella
        • Axial Filaments
        • Fimbriae and Pili
      • The Cell Wall
        • Composition and Characteristics
        • Cell Walls and the Gram Stain Mechanism
        • Atypical Cell Walls
        • Damage to the Cell Wall
      • Structures Internal to the Cell Wall
        • The Plasma (Cytoplasmic) Membrane
        • The Movement of Materials across Membranes
        • Cytoplasm
        • The Nucleoid
        • Ribosomes
        • Inclusions
        • Endospores
      • THE EUKARYOTIC CELL
      • Flagella and Cilia
      • The Cell Wall and Glycocalyx
      • The Plasma (Cytoplasmic) Membrane
      • Cytoplasm
      • Ribosomes
      • Organelles
        • The Nucleus
        • Endoplasmic Reticulum
        • Golgi Complex
        • Lysosomes
        • Vacuoles
        • Mitochondria
        • Chloroplasts
        • Peroxisomes
        • Centrosome
      • The Evolution of Eukaryotes
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 5 Microbial Metabolism
      • Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions
      • Enzymes
        • Collision Theory
        • Enzymes and Chemical Reactions
        • Enzyme Specificity and Efficiency
        • Naming Enzymes
        • Enzyme Components
        • Factors Influencing Enzymatic Activity
        • Feedback Inhibition
        • Ribozymes
      • Energy Production
        • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
        • The Generation of ATP
        • Metabolic Pathways of Energy Production
      • Carbohydrate Catabolism
        • Glycolysis
        • Additional Pathways to Glycolysis
        • Cellular Respiration
        • Fermentation
      • Lipid and Protein Catabolism
      • Biochemical Tests and Bacterial Identification
      • Photosynthesis
        • The Light-Dependent Reactions: Photophosphorylation
        • The Light-Independent Reactions: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
      • A Summary of Energy Production Mechanisms
      • Metabolic Diversity among Organisms
        • Photoautotrophs
        • Photoheterotrophs
        • Chemoautotrophs
        • Chemoheterotrophs
      • Metabolic Pathways of Energy Use
        • Polysaccharide Biosynthesis
        • Lipid Biosynthesis
        • Amino Acid and Protein Biosynthesis
        • Purine and Pyrimidine Biosynthesis
      • The Integration of Metabolism
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 6 Microbial Growth
      • The Requirements for Growth
        • Physical Requirements
        • Chemical Requirements
      • Biofilms
      • Culture Media
        • Chemically Defined Media
        • Complex Media
        • Anaerobic Growth Media and Methods
        • Special Culture Techniques
        • Selective and Differential Media
        • Enrichment Culture
      • Obtaining Pure Cultures
      • Preserving Bacterial Cultures
      • The Growth of Bacterial Cultures
        • Bacterial Division
        • Generation Time
        • Logarithmic Representation of Bacterial Populations
        • Phases of Growth
        • Direct Measurement of Microbial Growth
        • Estimating Bacterial Numbers by Indirect Methods
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 7 The Control of Microbial Growth
      • The Terminology of Microbial Control
      • The Rate of Microbial Death
      • Actions of Microbial Control Agents
        • Alteration of Membrane Permeability
        • Damage to Proteins and Nucleic Acids
      • Physical Methods of Microbial Control
        • Heat
        • Filtration
        • Low Temperatures
        • High Pressure
        • Desiccation
        • Osmotic Pressure
        • Radiation
      • Chemical Methods of Microbial Control
        • Principles of Effective Disinfection
        • Evaluating a Disinfectant
        • Types of Disinfectants
      • Microbial Characteristics and Microbial Control
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 8 Microbial Genetics
      • Structure and Function of the Genetic Material
        • Genotype and Phenotype
        • DNA and Chromosomes
        • The Flow of Genetic Information
        • DNA Replication
        • RNA and Protein Synthesis
      • The Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression
        • Pre-transcriptional Control
        • Post-transcriptional Control
      • Changes in Genetic Material
        • Mutation
        • Types of Mutations
        • Mutagens
        • The Frequency of Mutation
        • Identifying Mutants
        • Identifying Chemical Carcinogens
      • Genetic Transfer and Recombination
        • Plasmids and Transposons
        • Transformation in Bacteria
        • Conjugation in Bacteria
        • Transduction in Bacteria
      • Genes and Evolution
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 9 Biotechnology and DNA Technology
      • Introduction to Biotechnology
        • Recombinant DNA Technology
        • An Overview of Recombinant DNA Procedures
      • Tools of Biotechnology
        • Selection
        • Mutation
        • Restriction Enzymes
        • Vectors
        • Polymerase Chain Reaction
      • Techniques of Genetic Modification
        • Inserting Foreign DNA into Cells
        • Obtaining DNA
        • Selecting a Clone
        • Making a Gene Product
      • Applications of DNA Technology
        • Therapeutic Applications
        • Genome Projects
        • Scientific Applications
        • Agricultural Applications
      • Safety Issues and the Ethics of Using DNA Technology
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
  • PART TWO A Survey of the Microbial World
    • 10 Classification of Microorganisms
      • The Study of Phylogenetic Relationships
        • The Three Domains
        • A Phylogenetic Tree
      • Classification of Organisms
        • Scientific Nomenclature
        • The Taxonomic Hierarchy
        • Classification of Prokaryotes
        • Classification of Eukaryotes
        • Classification of Viruses
      • Methods of Classifying and Identifying Microorganisms
        • Morphological Characteristics
        • Differential Staining
        • Biochemical Tests
        • Serology
        • Phage Typing
        • Fatty Acid Profiles
        • Flow Cytometry
        • DNA Sequencing
        • DNA Fingerprinting
        • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
        • Putting Classification Methods Together
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 11 The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea
      • The Prokaryotic Groups
      • DOMAIN BACTERIA
      • Gram-Negative Bacteria
        • Proteobacteria
        • The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria
      • The Gram-Positive Bacteria
        • Firmicutes (Low G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria)
        • Tenericutes
        • Actinobacteria (High G + C Gram-Positive Bacteria)
      • DOMAIN ARCHAEA
      • Diversity within the Archaea
      • MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
      • Discoveries Illustrating the Range of Diversity
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 12 The Eukaryotes: Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths
      • Fungi
        • Characteristics of Fungi
        • Medically Important Fungi
        • Fungal Diseases
        • Economic Effects of Fungi
      • Lichens
      • Algae
        • Characteristics of Algae
        • Selected Phyla of Algae
        • Roles of Algae in Nature
      • Protozoa
        • Characteristics of Protozoa
        • Medically Important Protozoa
      • Slime Molds
      • Helminths
        • Characteristics of Helminths
        • Platyhelminths
        • Nematodes
      • Arthropods as Vectors
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 13 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
      • General Characteristics of Viruses
        • Host Range
        • Viral Size
      • Viral Structure
        • Nucleic Acid
        • Capsid and Envelope
        • General Morphology
      • Taxonomy of Viruses
      • Isolation, Cultivation, and Identification of Viruses
        • Growing Bacteriophages in the Laboratory
        • Growing Animal Viruses in the Laboratory
        • Viral Identification
      • Viral Multiplication
        • Multiplication of Bacteriophages
        • Multiplication of Animal Viruses
      • Viruses and Cancer
        • The Transformation of Normal Cells into Tumor Cells
        • DNA Oncogenic Viruses
        • RNA Oncogenic Viruses
        • Viruses to Treat Cancer
      • Latent Viral Infections
      • Persistent Viral Infections
      • Plant Viruses and Viroids
      • Prions
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
  • PART THREE Interaction between Microbe and Host
    • 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
      • Pathology, Infection, and Disease
      • Human Microbiome
        • Relationships between the Normal Microbiota and the Host
        • Opportunistic Microorganisms
        • Cooperation among Microorganisms
      • The Etiology of Infectious Diseases
        • Koch’s Postulates
        • Exceptions to Koch's Postulates
      • Classifying Infectious Diseases
        • Occurrence of a Disease
        • Severity or Duration of a Disease
        • Extent of Host Involvement
      • Patterns of Disease
        • Predisposing Factors
        • Development of Disease
      • The Spread of Infection
        • Reservoirs of Infection
        • Transmission of Disease
      • Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)
        • Microorganisms in the Hospital
        • Compromised Host
        • Chain of Transmission
        • Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections
      • Emerging Infectious Diseases
      • Epidemiology
        • Descriptive Epidemiology
        • Analytical Epidemiology
        • Experimental Epidemiology
        • Case Reporting
        • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
      • How Microorganisms Enter a Host
        • Portals of Entry
        • The Preferred Portal of Entry
        • Numbers of Invading Microbes
        • Adherence
      • How Bacterial Pathogens Penetrate Host Defenses
        • Capsules
        • Cell Wall Components
        • Enzymes
        • Antigenic Variation
        • Penetration into the Host
        • Biofilms
      • How Bacterial Pathogens Damage Host Cells
        • Using the Host’s Nutrients: Siderophores
        • Direct Damage
        • Production of Toxins
        • Plasmids, Lysogeny, and Pathogenicity
      • Pathogenic Properties of Viruses
        • Viral Mechanisms for Evading Host Defenses
        • Cytopathic Effects of Viruses
      • Pathogenic Properties of Fungi, Protozoa, Helminths, and Algae
        • Fungi
        • Protozoa
        • Helminths
        • Algae
      • Portals of Exit
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 16 Innate Immunity: Nonspecific Defenses of the Host
      • The Concept of Immunity
      • FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE: SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES
      • Physical Factors
      • Chemical Factors
      • Normal Microbiota and Innate Immunity
      • SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE
      • Formed Elements in Blood
      • The Lymphatic System
      • Phagocytes
        • Actions of Phagocytic Cells
        • The Mechanism of Phagocytosis
      • Inflammation
        • Vasodilation and Increased Permeability of Blood Vessels
        • Phagocyte Migration and Phagocytosis
        • Tissue Repair
      • Fever
      • Antimicrobial Substances
        • The Complement System
        • Interferons
        • Iron-Binding Proteins
        • Antimicrobial Peptides
        • Other Factors
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 17 Adaptive Immunity: Specific Defenses of the Host
      • The Adaptive Immune System
      • Dual Nature of the Adaptive Immune System
        • Overview of Humoral Immunity
        • Overview of Cellular Immunity
      • Cytokines: Chemical Messengers of Immune Cells
      • Antigens and Antibodies
        • Antigens
        • Humoral Immunity: Antibodies
      • Humoral Immunity Response Process
        • Activation and Clonal Expansion of Antibody-Producing Cells
        • The Diversity of Antibodies
      • Results of the Antigen–Antibody Interaction
      • Cellular Immunity Response Process
        • Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs)
        • Classes of T Cells
      • Nonspecific Cells and Extracellular Killing by the Adaptive Immune System
      • Immunological Memory
      • Types of Adaptive Immunity
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 18 Practical Applications of Immunology
      • Vaccines
        • Principles and Effects of Vaccination
        • Types of Vaccines and Their Characteristics
        • Vaccine Production, Delivery Methods, and Formulations
      • Diagnostic Immunology
        • Use of Monoclonal Antibodies
        • Precipitation Reactions
        • Agglutination Reactions
        • Neutralization Reactions
        • Complement-Fixation Reactions
        • Fluorescent-Antibody Techniques
        • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
        • Western Blotting (Immunoblotting)
        • The Future of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Immunology
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 19 Disorders Associated with the Immune System
      • Hypersensitivity
        • Allergies and the Microbiome
        • Type I (Anaphylactic) Reactions
        • Type II (Cytotoxic) Reactions
        • Type III (Immune Complex) Reactions
        • Type IV (Delayed Cell-Mediated) Reactions
      • Autoimmune Diseases
        • Cytotoxic Autoimmune Reactions
        • Immune Complex Autoimmune Reactions
        • Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Reactions
      • Reactions to Transplantation
        • Immunosuppression to Prevent Transplant Rejection
      • The Immune System and Cancer
        • Immunotherapy for Cancer
      • Immunodeficiencies
        • Congenital Immunodeficiencies
        • Acquired Immunodeficiencies
      • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
        • The Origin of AIDS
        • HIV Infection
        • Diagnostic Methods
        • HIV Transmission
        • AIDS Worldwide
        • Preventing and Treating AIDS
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 20 Antimicrobial Drugs
      • The History of Chemotherapy
        • Antibiotic Use and Discovery Today
      • Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity
      • The Action of Antimicrobial Drugs
        • Inhibiting Cell Wall Synthesis
        • Inhibiting Protein Synthesis
        • Injuring the Plasma Membrane
        • Inhibiting Nucleic Acid Synthesis
        • Inhibiting the Synthesis of Essential Metabolites
      • Common Antimicrobial Drugs
        • Antibacterial Antibiotics: Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
        • Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
        • Injury to Membranes
        • Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
        • Competitive Inhibition of Essential Metabolites
        • Antifungal Drugs
        • Antiviral Drugs
        • Antiprotozoan and Antihelminthic Drugs
      • Tests to Guide Chemotherapy
        • The Diffusion Methods
        • Broth Dilution Tests
      • Resistance to Antimicrobial Drugs
        • Mechanisms of Resistance
        • Antibiotic Misuse
        • Cost and Prevention of Resistance
      • Antibiotic Safety
      • Effects of Combinations of Drugs
      • Future of Chemotherapeutic Agents
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
  • PART FOUR Microorganisms and Human Disease
    • 21 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Eyes
      • Structure and Function of the Skin
        • Mucous Membranes
      • Normal Microbiota of the Skin
      • Microbial Diseases of the Skin
        • Bacterial Diseases of the Skin
        • Viral Diseases of the Skin
        • Fungal Diseases of the Skin and Nails
        • Parasitic Infestation of the Skin
      • Microbial Diseases of the Eye
        • Inflammation of the Eye Membranes: Conjunctivitis
        • Bacterial Diseases of the Eye
        • Other Infectious Diseases of the Eye
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 22 Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System
      • Structure and Function of the Nervous System
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Nervous System
        • Bacterial Meningitis
        • Tetanus
        • Botulism
        • Leprosy
      • Viral Diseases of the Nervous System
        • Poliomyelitis
        • Rabies
        • Arboviral Encephalitis
      • Fungal Disease of the Nervous System
        • Cryptococcus neoformans Meningitis (Cryptococcosis)
      • Protozoan Diseases of the Nervous System
        • African Trypanosomiasis
        • Amebic Meningoencephalitis
      • Nervous System Diseases Caused by Prions
        • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
      • Diseases Caused by Unidentified Agents
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 23 Microbial Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
      • Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
        • Sepsis and Septic Shock
        • Bacterial Infections of the Heart
        • Rheumatic Fever
        • Tularemia
        • Brucellosis (Undulant Fever)
        • Anthrax
        • Gangrene
        • Systemic Diseases Caused by Bites and Scratches
        • Vector-Transmitted Diseases
      • Viral Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
        • Burkitt’s Lymphoma
        • Infectious Mononucleosis
        • Other Diseases and Epstein-Barr Virus
        • Cytomegalovirus Infections
        • Chikungunya
        • Classic Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
        • Emerging Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
      • Protozoan Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
        • Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)
        • Toxoplasmosis
        • Malaria
        • Leishmaniasis
        • Babesiosis
      • Helminthic Disease of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
        • Schistosomiasis
      • Disease of Unknown Etiology
        • Kawasaki Syndrome
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 24 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System
      • Structure and Function of the Respiratory System
      • Normal Microbiota of the Respiratory System
      • MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Upper Respiratory System
        • Streptococcal Pharyngitis (Strep Throat)
        • Scarlet Fever
        • Diphtheria
        • Otitis Media
      • Viral Disease of the Upper Respiratory System
        • The Common Cold
      • MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Respiratory System
        • Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
        • Tuberculosis
        • Bacterial Pneumonias
        • Melioidosis
      • Viral Diseases of the Lower Respiratory System
        • Viral Pneumonia
        • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
        • Influenza (Flu)
      • Fungal Diseases of the Lower Respiratory System
        • Histoplasmosis
        • Coccidioidomycosis
        • Pneumocystis Pneumonia
        • Blastomycosis (North American Blastomycosis)
        • Other Fungi Involved in Respiratory Disease
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 25 Microbial Diseases of the Digestive System
      • Structure and Function of the Digestive System
      • Normal Microbiota of the Digestive System
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Mouth
        • Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)
        • Periodontal Disease
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Lower Digestive System
        • Staphylococcal Food Poisoning (Staphylococcal Enterotoxicosis)
        • Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)
        • Salmonellosis (Salmonella Gastroenteritis)
        • Typhoid Fever
        • Cholera
        • Noncholera Vibrios
        • Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis
        • Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter Gastroenteritis)
        • Helicobacter Peptic Ulcer Disease
        • Yersinia Gastroenteritis
        • Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis
        • Clostridium difficile–Associated Diarrhea
        • Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis
      • Viral Diseases of the Digestive System
        • Mumps
        • Hepatitis
        • Viral Gastroenteritis
      • Fungal Diseases of the Digestive System
      • Protozoan Diseases of the Digestive System
        • Giardiasis
        • Cryptosporidiosis
        • Cyclosporiasis
        • Amebic Dysentery (Amebiasis)
      • Helminthic Diseases of the Digestive System
        • Tapeworms
        • Hydatid Disease
        • Nematodes
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 26 Microbial Diseases of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems
      • Structure and Function of the Urinary System
      • Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems
      • Normal Microbiota of the Urinary and Reproductive Systems
      • DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Urinary System
        • Cystitis
        • Pyelonephritis
        • Leptospirosis
      • DISEASES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
      • Bacterial Diseases of the Reproductive Systems
        • Gonorrhea
        • Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU)
        • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
        • Syphilis
        • Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
        • Chancroid (Soft Chancre)
        • Bacterial Vaginosis
      • Viral Diseases of the Reproductive Systems
        • Genital Herpes
        • Genital Warts
        • AIDS
      • Fungal Disease of the Reproductive Systems
        • Candidiasis
      • Protozoan Disease of the Reproductive Systems
        • Trichomoniasis
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
  • PART FIVE Environmental and Applied Microbiology
    • 27 Environmental Microbiology
      • Microbial Diversity and Habitats
        • Symbiosis
      • Soil Microbiology and Biogeochemical Cycles
        • The Carbon Cycle
        • The Nitrogen Cycle
        • The Sulfur Cycle
        • Life without Sunshine
        • The Phosphorus Cycle
        • The Degradation of Synthetic Chemicals in Soil and Water
      • Aquatic Microbiology and Sewage Treatment
        • Aquatic Microorganisms
        • The Role of Microorganisms in Water Quality
        • Water Treatment
        • Sewage (Wastewater) Treatment
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
    • 28 Applied and Industrial Microbiology
      • Food Microbiology
        • Foods and Disease
        • Industrial Food Canning
        • Aseptic Packaging
        • Radiation and Industrial Food Preservation
        • High-Pressure Food Preservation
        • The Role of Microorganisms in Food Production
      • Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
        • Fermentation Technology
        • Industrial Products
        • Alternative Energy Sources Using Microorganisms
        • Biofuels
        • Industrial Microbiology and the Future
      • Study Outline
      • Study Questions
  • Answers to Knowledge and Comprehension Study Questions
  • Appendix A Metabolic Pathways
  • Appendix B Exponents, Exponential Notation, Logarithms, and Generation Time
  • Appendix C Methods for Taking Clinical Samples
  • Appendix D Pronunciation Rules and Word Roots
  • Appendix E Classification of Prokaryotes According to Bergey’s Manual
  • Glossary
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z
  • Credits
  • Trademark Attributions
  • Index
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z
  • Back Cover

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- Þú getur prentað síður úr bókinni (innan þeirra marka sem útgefandinn setur)
- Möguleiki á tengingu við annað stafrænt og gagnvirkt efni, svo sem myndbönd eða spurningar úr efninu
- Auðvelt að afrita og líma efni/texta fyrir t.d. heimaverkefni eða ritgerðir
- Styður tækni sem hjálpar nemendum með sjón- eða heyrnarskerðingu
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Umsagnir

Engar umsagnir
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5.790 kr.