Radiation Protection in Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging

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Radiation Protection in Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover Page
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Reviewers
  • 1 Radiation Protection Overview
    • Introduction
    • A Rationale for Radiation Protection
      • Data Sources on Biological Effects
      • Dose-response Models
      • Biological Effects
    • The Philosophy of Radiation Protection
      • The ICRP Framework
      • Radiation Dose Limits
    • Radiation Protection Concepts
      • Historical Perspectives
      • The Four Quartets of Radiation Protection
      • X-Ray Dosimetry
      • Dose-Image Quality Optimization
      • Diagnostic Reference Levels
    • Radiation Protection Organizations and Reports
      • Organizations
      • Reports and Publications
    • Radiation Protection and the Technologist
      • Responsibilities: Four Major Components
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 2 Basic Physics for Radiation Protection: An Overview
    • Introduction
    • Atomic Structure
      • The Element
      • The Atom
      • The Nucleus of an Atom
      • Electrons
    • Types of Radiation
      • Particulate Radiations
      • Electromagnetic Radiation
      • X-Rays and Gamma Rays
      • Ionizing Radiation
    • X-Ray and Gamma Radiation Interactions
      • X-Ray Interactions I: Elastic (or Coherent or Rayleigh) Scattering
      • X-Ray Interactions II: Photoelectric Absorption
      • X-Ray Interactions III: Compton Scattering
      • X-Ray Interactions IV: Pair Production
    • Descriptive Terms or Concepts Associated with Radiation
      • Linear Energy Transfer (LET)
      • Linear Attenuation Coefficient
      • Mass Attenuation Coefficient
      • Inverse Square Law
    • Discussion Questions
    • Reference
  • 3 Radiation Exposure and Dose Units
    • Introduction
    • Radiation: A Natural History
    • Sources of Radiation Exposure
      • Natural Background Sources
      • Man-Made (Non-Medical) Radiation Sources
      • Sources of Exposure in Medicine
      • Diagnostic Exposures
      • Nuclear Medicine
      • Radiation Therapy
      • Footnote to Medical Radiation Doses
    • Basic Dosimetric Quantities and Units
      • Units of Exposure
      • Quantities of Radiation Dose
      • Absorbed Dose
      • Equivalent Dose
      • Effective Dose
      • Collective Effective Dose
      • Kinetic Energy Released Per Unit Mass (Kerma)
    • Patient Doses in Diagnostic Imaging
    • Staff Doses in Diagnostic Imaging
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 4 The Radiobiology of Low-Dose Radiation
    • Introduction
    • Stochastic Effects
      • Background
      • Basic Principles and Debate Over Risks with Low-Dose Exposures
      • Linear No-Threshold (LNT) Model
      • Do Diagnostic X-Ray Exposures Present Any Risk to Humans?
      • Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Change Responsible for Stochastic Risks
      • DNA and Cell Repair Mechanisms Following Irradiation
      • How Long Does it Take for Damaged DNA to Manifest Itself in Man?
    • Deterministic Effects
    • Factors Influencing Stochastic Risk or Deterministic Effects at Low-Dose Exposures
      • Radiosensitivity of the Cell
      • Kinetics
      • Presence of Oxygen
      • Dose Rate
      • Radioprotectants and Radiosensitizers
    • Changes in Non-Irradiated Cells
      • Genomic Instability
      • Bystander Effect
    • Epigenetics
    • Effects of Radiation on Children, Embryos, and Fetuses
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 5 Radiation Protection Practice
    • Introduction
    • Dose Risks in Diagnostic Imaging
      • Justification
    • Optimization
      • Optimization Initiatives
      • Optimization and Cost
      • Optimization: Image Quality Versus Diagnostic Efficacy
    • Radiation Dose Limits
    • Radiation Detection and Measurement
      • Thermoluminescent Dosimetry
      • Dose-Area Product Meters (DAPs)
      • Solid-State Meters
      • Radiochromic Film
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 6 Radiation Protection Organizations
    • Introduction
    • International Organizations
      • International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
      • International Commission on Radiation Unit and Measurement (ICRU)
      • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
      • Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF)
      • Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee (BEIR)
    • National Organizations
      • National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP)
      • Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH)
      • Radiation Protection Bureau-Health Canada (RPB-HC)
      • National Radiological Protection Board-United Kingdom (NRPB-UK)
    • Definition of Terms Used in Reports
      • ICRP’s Definitions
      • NCRP’s Definitions
      • RPB-HC’s Definitions
    • Radiation Protection Recommendations–Common Elements
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 7 Factors Affecting Dose in Radiographic Imaging
    • Introduction
    • System Components Affecting Dose: an Overview
      • Radiographic Systems: Exposure Components
    • Clinical Factors
      • Responsibility of Referring Physicians
      • Role of the Technologist
      • Role of the Radiologist
      • Responsibility of the Patient
      • Responsibilities and Radiation Protection
    • Technical Factors in Radiography
      • Exposure Technique Factors
      • Automatic Exposure Control
      • X-Ray Generator Waveform
      • Filtration
      • Collimation and Field Size
      • Beam Alignment
      • Source-to-Image Receptor Distance/Source-to-Skin Distance
      • Patient Thickness and Density
      • Anti-Scatter Grids
      • Sensitivity of the Image Receptor
      • Film Processing
      • Repeat Radiographic Examinations
      • Repeat Rates in Digital Radiography
      • Shielding Radio-Sensitive Organs
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 8 Factors Affecting Dose in Fluoroscopy
    • Introduction
    • Radiation Effects From Fluoroscopic X-Ray Exposure
    • Fluoroscopy Systems: Types and Major Components
      • Image Intensifier-Based Fluoroscopic System
      • The Flat-Panel Digital Detector-Based Fluoroscopy System
    • Major Dose Factors in Fixed Fluoroscopic Imaging Systems
      • Fluoroscopic Exposure Factors
      • Fluoroscopic Instrumentation Factors
    • Major Factors in Mobile Fluoroscopy Systems
    • C-Arm Computed Tomography Fluoroscopy
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 9 Dose in Digital Radiography
    • Introduction
    • Film-Screen Technology
    • The Digital Imaging Era: A New Paradigm
      • Exposure Creep
      • Highlighting Inappropriate Exposures
    • Principles of Exposure Indices
      • Scientific Criteria for Proposed Exposure Indices
      • Practical Criteria for Proposed Exposure Indices
    • How are Exposure Indices Established?
      • What are the Options?
      • Exposure Indices Represent the Exposure
      • Previous Manufacturer Solutions
      • Aapm Tg 116 Solution
    • Deviation Index
      • Why an Exposure Index?
      • Deviation Index Action Levels
      • IEC Publication
      • What Can Be Gained From Audits of Exposure Index?
      • Other Factors to Consider with the Exposure Index
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 10 Radiation Dose in Computed Tomography
    • Introduction
    • Early Pioneering Work: Nobel Prize for CT Development
    • The CT Process: Basic Principles and Major Components
      • Data Flow in a CT Scanner
      • Multislice CT Technology: The Pitch
      • CT Image Quality Characteristics: An Overview
    • Risks of CT: A Rationale for Dose Reduction and Optimization
    • CT Dose Descriptors
      • The CTDI
      • The Dose Length Product
    • Factors Affecting Dose in CT
      • Exposure Technique Factors: mAs and kVp
      • Collimation
      • Pitch
      • Patient Centering
      • Automatic Tube Current Modulation
      • Iterative Image Reconstruction
    • Dose-Image Quality Optimization Research in CT
      • An Example of CT Dose Optimization Study
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 11 Image Quality Assessment Tools for Dose Optimization in Digital Radiography
    • Introduction
    • Radiation Dose Quantities
    • Image Quality in Digital Radiography
      • What is Image Quality?
      • Assessment of Image Quality
    • Visual Grading of Normal Anatomy
      • Visual Grading Analysis
    • Dose Optimization Research
      • Example of a Dose Optimization Study in Computed Radiography
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 12 Diagnostic Reference Levels
    • Introduction
    • Patient Dose Variations
      • Historical Perspective
      • Patient Dose Variations Today
    • What are Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs)?
      • DRLs: An Overview
      • DRLs: A Definition
      • What are Diagnostic Reference Levels Not?
      • Why is It Important to Implement DRLs?
      • Have DRLs Reduced Doses?
    • Establishment of Diagnostic Reference Values
      • The Survey to Establish Current Dose Levels
      • Calculation of DRL Values
      • Pediatric DRL Values
      • Diagnostic Reference Levels: A Global Activity
      • Practical Considerations When Gathering The Data
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 13 Optimization of Radiation Protection: Regulatory and Guidance Recommendations
    • Introduction
    • Radiation Protection Reports
    • Optimization of Radiation Protection
      • Education and Training
      • Equipment Specifications
      • Personnel Practices
      • Shielding
    • Equipment Design and Performance Recommendations
      • Radiographic Equipment: General Recommendations
      • Radiographic Equipment: Specific Recommendations
      • Fluoroscopic Equipment
      • Mobile Radiographic Equipment
    • Recommendations for Personnel Practices
      • Protection of Personnel
      • Protection of Patients
      • Recommendations for Radiography in Pregnancy
    • Recommendations for Quality Assurance
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 14 Protective Shielding in Diagnostic Radiology
    • Introduction
    • X-Ray Tube Shielding
    • X-Ray Room Shielding
      • Radioprotective Materials
      • General Principles
      • Primary and Secondary Barriers
      • How is the Amount of Shielding Calculated?
      • The Formulae
      • The Planning Process
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • 15 Radiation Protection Through Quality Control
    • Introduction
    • Definitions of QA and QC
      • Quality Assurance (QA)
      • Quality Control (QC)
    • Dose Optimization
      • Levels of Optimization
      • QC Concepts Leading to Dose Optimization
    • The Tolerance Limit in QC Testing
      • Exceeding the Tolerance Limit
    • Dose Reduction/Optimization as a Consequence of QC
    • Discussion Questions
    • References
  • Appendix A: ARRT Exam Specifications Content Map
  • Appendix B: ASRT Objectives Content Map
  • Index

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