Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science

Námskeið GSL301G Röntgenbúnaður I - Höfundar: Richard R. Carlton, Arlene M. Adler, Vesna Balac
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Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • The Founders of Radiography
  • Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • About the Authors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Unit I: Creating the Beam
    • CHAPTER 1: Basic Mathematics
      • The Language of Science
      • Arithmetic
      • Algebra
      • Units of Measurement
    • CHAPTER 2: Radiation Concepts
      • Matter And Energy
      • Atomic Theory
      • Types of Energy
      • Electromagnetic Spectrum
      • The Discovery of X-Rays
      • X-Ray Properties
    • CHAPTER 3: Electricity
      • Understanding Electricity
      • Electrostatics
      • Electrodynamics
      • Series and Parallel Circuits
    • CHAPTER 4: Electromagnetism
      • Magnetism
      • Electromagnetism
      • Solenoids and Electromagnets
      • Controlling Electrical Current
      • Rectification
    • CHAPTER 5: The X-Ray Tube
      • The X-Ray Tube
      • The Cathode Assembly
      • The Anode Assembly
      • The Envelope
      • Protective Housing
      • Rating Charts and Cooling Curves
      • Recommendations for Extending Tube Life
    • CHAPTER 6: X-Ray Equipment
      • Types of X-Ray Equipment
      • Power for X-Ray Generation
      • A Basic X-Ray Circuit
      • Generators
      • Automatic Exposure Controls
    • CHAPTER 7: Automatic Exposure Controls
      • Historical Notes
      • Ionization Chambers
      • Positioning Skills
    • CHAPTER 8: X-Ray Production
      • Conditions
      • Target Interactions
      • Emission Spectrum
  • Unit II: Protecting Patients and Personnel
    • CHAPTER 9: Radiation Protection Concepts and Equipment
      • The Basics of Radiation Protection Principles and Practice
      • Quantities and Units Relevant to Radiation Protection
      • Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation
    • CHAPTER 10: Radiation Protection Procedures for Patients and Personnel
      • Advisory Groups and Regulatory Agencies
      • Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
      • Protection of Personnel
      • Protection of the Patient
      • Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy
    • CHAPTER 11: Filtration
      • Filtration
      • Measurement
      • Types of Filtration
      • Effect on Output
    • CHAPTER 12: The Prime Factors
      • The Prime Factors
      • Milliamperage-Second
      • Kilovoltage
      • Distance
      • Image Quality Factors
    • CHAPTER 13: X-Ray Interactions
      • X-Ray Interaction with Matter
      • Photoelectric Absorption
      • Coherent Scattering
      • Compton Scattering
      • Pair Production
      • Photodisintegration
      • Effect on Technical Factor Selection
    • CHAPTER 14: Minimizing Patient Exposure
      • Choosing Exposure Factors
      • Estimating Approximate Entrance Skin Exposure
      • Typical Entrance Skin Exposure
      • Reducing Patient Dose with Communication
      • Reducing Patient Dose with Positioning
      • Reducing Patient Dose with Technical Factors
      • Discussing Radiation Risk Versus Benefit with Patients
    • CHAPTER 15: Beam Restriction
      • Controlling Scatter
      • Beam Restrictors
      • Ancillary Devices
  • Unit III: Creating the Image
    • CHAPTER 16: Vision and Perception
      • Image Perception
      • Controlling the Image in Space
      • Radiography as an Art Form
    • CHAPTER 17: The Patient as a Beam Emitter
      • Attenuation
      • The Human Body as an Attenuator
      • The Patient’s Relationship to Image Quality
      • Pathology and Radiation Absorption
      • Increased Attenuation (Additive) Conditions
      • Decreased Attenuation (Destructive) Conditions
    • CHAPTER 18: The Grid
      • Purpose of the Grid
      • Grid Construction
      • Grid Patterns
      • Grid Types
      • Grid Uses
      • Grid Selection/Conversions
      • Grid Performance Evaluation
      • Grid Errors
      • An Alternate Scatter Reduction Method—The Air-Gap Technique
      • Use of Grids with Digital Image Receptors
    • CHAPTER 19: Film and Screens Imaging and Processing
      • Radiographic Film
      • Construction of Radiographic Film
      • Latent Image Formation
      • Types of Film
      • Film Storage and Handling
      • Film Identification
      • Film Processing
      • Developing
      • Fixing
      • Archiving
      • Darkroom
      • Silver Recovery Systems
      • Sensitometry
      • Sensitometric Equipment
      • The D Log E Curve
      • Film Characteristics
      • Intensifying Screens
      • Construction of Intensifying Screens
      • Phosphors
      • Characteristics of Intensifying Screens
      • Cassettes and Holders
      • Care
      • Emission Spectra
      • Chracteristics of Film-Screen Combinations
  • Unit IV: Digital Radiography Introduction
    • Chapter 20: Digital Image Processing
      • Historical Development
      • Digital Image Formation
      • Image Processing Operations
      • Digital Image Quality
      • Receptor Exposure
    • Chapter 21: Computed Radiography
      • Overview
      • Image Acquisition
      • Image Processing
      • Image Display
      • CR Technical Factors Selection
    • Chapter 22: Digital Radiography/Flat-Panel Detector Systems
      • Flat-Panel Detector Types
      • Image Acquisition, Processing, and Display
      • Flat-Panel Technology Features
      • DR Panel Precautions
    • Chapter 23: Technical Considerations in Digital Imaging
      • Effective use of Digital Imaging
      • Digital Exposure Considerations
      • Digital Processing Considerations
      • Digital Post-Processing Considerations
      • Digital Imaging Artifacts
    • Chapter 24: Informatics in Medical Imaging
      • Introduction
      • Informatics
      • Informatics Standards
      • Computers and Networks
      • Display and Archives
      • Storage
      • Workflow
      • Security
  • Unit V: Analyzing the Image
    • Chapter 25: The Imaging Process
      • The Imaging Process
      • Professional Imaging Standards
      • The Analytical Process
      • Acceptance Limits
    • Chapter 26: Image Receptor Exposure
      • Defining IR Exposure
      • Assessing IR Exposure
      • Effects on Image Appearance
      • Factors Affecting IR Exposure
    • Chapter 27: Contrast
      • Defining Contrast
      • Assessing Contrast
      • Image Contrast
      • Evaluating Contrast
    • Chapter 28: Spatial Resolution
      • Defining Spatial Resolution
      • Assessing Resolution
      • Effects on Image Appearance
      • Factors Affecting Spatial Resolution
    • Chapter 29: Distortion
      • Defining Distortion
      • Assessing Distortion
      • Factors Affecting Size Distortion
      • Factors Affecting Shape Distortion
      • Effect on Image Appearance
    • Chapter 30: The Art of Image Critique
      • Implementing Imaging Standards
      • Identifying an Imaging Problem
      • An Effective Image Critique Method
      • Applying the Image Critique Method
    • Chapter 31: Quality Management
      • Quality Assurance and Quality Control
      • Purchasing Equipment
      • Monitoring Equipment Performance
      • Ancillary Equipment
      • PACS Systems
      • Rejected Image Analysis
      • Troubleshooting
  • Unit VI: Special Imaging Systems and Modalities
    • CHAPTER 32: Mobile Radiography
      • Mobile Radiography
      • Special Patient Considerations
      • Special Radiation Protection Considerations
      • Types of Equipment
      • Special Technical Factor Selection Considerations
    • CHAPTER 33: Fluoroscopy
      • Historical Development
      • Fluoroscopy Uses
      • Types of Equipment
      • Fluoroscopic X-Ray Tubes
      • Image Intensification Tubes
      • Image Quality
      • Video Viewing Systems
      • Digital Fluoroscopy
      • Flat-Panel Fluoroscopy Designs
      • Recording the Fluoroscopic Image
      • Mobile Fluoroscopic Equipment
      • Radiation Protection During Fluoroscopy
    • CHAPTER 34: Tomography and Digital Tomosynthesis
      • The Tomographic Principle
      • Tomographic Quality
      • Types of Motion
      • Digital Tomosynthesis
      • Tomographic Procedures
    • CHAPTER 35: Mammography
      • Historical Development
      • Generator Characteristics
      • X-Ray Tube
      • Accessories
      • Resolution
      • Digital Mammography
      • Quality Control
    • CHAPTER 36: Bone Densitometry
      • Bone Densitometry
      • History and Overview
      • Bone Science
      • Osteoporosis
      • WHO Diagnostic Criteria
      • DXA Principles and Instrumentation
      • Scan Acquisition and Analysis
      • Femur
      • Spine
      • Forearm
      • Quality Control
      • Radiation Safety and Protection
    • CHAPTER 37: Vascular Imaging Equipment
      • Vascular Imaging History
      • Digital Image Acquisition
      • Modes of Digital Image Acquisition
      • Image Post-Processing
      • C-Arm Assembly
      • Vascular Imaging Tables
      • Contrast Medium Injection Devices
      • Quality Control
    • CHAPTER 38: Computed Tomography
      • Computed Tomography Scanning
      • The Invention of Computed Tomography
      • Scanner Generations
      • The Components of a Ct Unit
      • Ct Numbers (Hounsfield Units)
      • Image Reconstruction
      • Image Quality
      • Scanning Procedures
      • Advanced CT Applications
      • Artifacts
      • Radiation Protection
    • CHAPTER 39: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
      • History
      • Instrumentation
      • Mri Physics
      • Mri
      • Mr Safety
    • CHAPTER 40: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
      • Nuclear Physics
      • Radioactive Decay
      • Radiochemistry and Radiopharmaceuticals
      • Imaging Instrumentation
      • Positron Emission Tomography (Pet)
      • Hybrid Imaging
      • Nonimaging Instrumentation
      • Radiation Protection
      • Clinical Applications
      • Hybrid Imaging
    • CHAPTER 41: Radiation Therapy
      • Historical Overview
      • Consultation
      • Treatment Planning
      • Treatment
      • Specialized Treatments and Units
    • CHAPTER 42: Diagnostic Medical Sonography
      • Introduction
      • Sound Waves
      • Attenuation
      • Range
      • Field
      • Doppler
      • Harmonics
      • Contrast Agents
      • Transducer and Components
      • Instrumentation
  • Appendix A: On a New Kind of Rays by W. C. Röntgen
  • Appendix B: Fixed and Variable kVp Technique System Charts
  • Appendix C: Answers to Case Studies
  • Appendix D: Epigraph Sources and Credits
  • Glossary
  • Index

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