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Principles of Human Anatomy

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Eponyms
  • Combining Forms, Word Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • About the Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Clinical Connections
  • 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY
    • 1.1 Anatomy Defined
    • 1.2 Levels of Body Organization and Body Systems
    • 1.3 Life Processes
    • 1.4 Basic Anatomical Terminology
      • Anatomical Position
      • Regional Names
      • Planes and Sections
    • 1.5 Body Cavities
      • Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes
    • 1.6 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
    • 1.7 The Human Body and Disease
    • 1.8 Aging
    • 1.9 Medical Imaging
    • 1.10 Measuring the Human Body
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 2 CELLS
    • 2.1 A Generalized Cell
    • 2.2 The Plasma Membrane
      • Structure of the Membrane
      • Functions of Membrane Proteins
      • Membrane Permeability
      • Transport Across the Plasma Membrane
        • Kinetic Energy Transport
        • Transport by Transporter Proteins
        • Transport in Vesicles
    • 2.3 Cytoplasm
      • Cytosol
      • Organelles
        • Centrosome
        • Cilia and Flagella
        • Ribosomes
        • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
        • Golgi Complex
        • Lysosomes
        • Peroxisomes
        • Proteasomes
        • Mitochondria
    • 2.4 Nucleus
    • 2.5 Cell Division
      • Somatic Cell Division
        • Interphase
        • Mitotic Phase
      • Control of Cell Destiny
      • Reproductive Cell Division
        • Meiosis
    • 2.6 Cellular Diversity
    • 2.7 Aging and Cells
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Cells
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 3 TISSUES
    • 3.1 Types of Tissues
    • 3.2 Cell Junctions
      • Tight Junctions
      • Adherens Junctions
      • Desmosomes
      • Hemidesmosomes
      • Gap Junctions
    • 3.3 Comparison Between Epithelial and Connective Tissues
    • 3.4 Epithelial Tissue
      • Classification of Surface Epithelium
      • Surface Epithelium
      • Glandular Epithelium
        • Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
        • Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands
    • 3.5 Connective Tissue
      • General Features of Connective Tissue
      • Connective Tissue Cells
      • Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix
        • Ground Substance
        • Fibers
      • Classification of Connective Tissue
      • Embryonic Connective Tissue
      • Mature Connective Tissue
        • Connective Tissue Proper
        • Supporting Connective Tissue
        • Liquid Connective Tissue
    • 3.6 Membranes
      • Epithelial Membranes
        • Mucous Membranes
        • Serous Membranes
        • Cutaneous Membrane
      • Synovial Membranes
    • 3.7 Muscular Tissue
    • 3.8 Nervous Tissue
    • 3.9 Aging and Tissues
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Tissues
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 4 DEVELOPMENT
    • 4.1 Principles of Development
    • 4.2 Embryonic Period
      • First Week of Development
        • Fertilization
        • Cleavage of the Zygote
        • Blastocyst Formation
        • Implantation
      • Second Week of Development
        • Development of the Trophoblast
        • Development of the Bilaminar Embryonic Disc
        • Development of the Amnion
        • Development of the Yolk Sac
        • Development of Sinusoids
        • Development of the Extraembryonic Coelom
        • Development of the Chorion
      • Third Week of Development
        • Gastrulation
        • Neurulation
        • Development of Somites
        • Development of the Intraembryonic Coelom
        • Development of the Cardiovascular System
        • Development of the Chorionic Villi and Placenta
      • Fourth Week of Development
      • Fifth Through Eighth Weeks of Development
    • 4.3 Fetal Period
    • 4.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy
    • 4.5 Labor
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Development
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 5 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
    • 5.1 Structure of the Skin
      • Epidermis
        • Stratum Basale
        • Stratum Spinosum
        • Stratum Granulosum
        • Stratum Lucidum
        • Stratum Corneum
        • Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis
      • Dermis
      • Blood Supply of the Integumentary System
        • The Structural Basis of Skin Color
        • Tattooing and Body Piercing
      • Subcutaneous Layer or Hypodermis
    • 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
      • Hair
        • Anatomy of a Hair
        • Hair Growth
        • Types of Hairs
        • Hair Color
      • Skin Glands
        • Sebaceous Glands
        • Sudoriferous Glands
        • Ceruminous Glands
      • Nails
    • 5.3 Types of Skin
    • 5.4 Functions of the Skin
    • 5.5 Development of the Integumentary System
    • 5.6 Aging and the Integumentary System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Integumentary System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 6 BONE TISSUE
    • 6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System
    • 6.2 Types of Bones
    • 6.3 Anatomy of a Bone
    • 6.4 Bone Surface Markings
    • 6.5 Histology of Bone Tissue
      • Compact Bone Tissue
      • Spongy Bone Tissue
    • 6.6 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone
    • 6.7 Bone Formation
      • Initial Bone Formation in an Embryo and Fetus
      • Intramembranous Ossification
      • Endochondral Ossification
      • Bone Growth During Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
        • Growth in Length
        • Growth in Thickness
      • Remodeling of Bone
    • 6.8 Fractures
    • 6.9 Exercise and Bone Tissue
    • 6.10 Aging and Bone Tissue
    • 6.11 Factors Affecting Bone Growth
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Bone Tissue
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 7 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE AXIAL SKELETON
    • 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
    • 7.2 Skull
      • General Features and Functions
      • Nasal Septum
      • Orbits
      • Foramina
      • Unique Features of the Skull
        • Sutures
        • Paranasal Sinuses
        • Fontanels
      • Cranial Fossae
      • Age-related Changes in the Skull
      • Sexual Differences in the Skull
    • 7.3 Hyoid Bone
    • 7.4 Vertebral Column
      • Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column
      • Intervertebral Discs
      • Parts of a Typical Vertebra
        • Vertebral Body
        • Vertebral Arch
        • Processes
      • Regions of the Vertebral Column
      • Age-related Changes in the Vertebral Column
    • 7.5 Thorax
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Axial Skeleton
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 8 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
    • 8.1 Skeleton of the Upper Limb
    • 8.2 Skeleton of the Lower Limb
    • 8.3 False and True Pelves
    • 8.4 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves
    • 8.5 Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles
    • 8.6 Development of the Skeletal System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Appendicular Skeleton
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 9 JOINTS
    • 9.1 Joint Classifications
      • Ligaments
    • 9.2 Fibrous Joints
      • Sutures
      • Syndesmoses
      • Interosseous Membranes
    • 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
      • Synchondroses
      • Symphyses
      • Epiphyseal Cartilages
    • 9.4 Synovial Joints
      • Structure of Synovial Joints
        • Articular Capsule
        • Synovial Fluid
        • Accessory Ligaments, Articular Discs, and Labra
        • Nerve and Blood Supply
      • Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
    • 9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints
      • Gliding
      • Angular Movements
        • Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion, and Hyperextension
        • Abduction, Adduction, and Circumduction
      • Rotation
      • Special Movements
    • 9.6 Types of Synovial Joints
      • Plane Joints
      • Hinge Joints
      • Pivot Joints
      • Condyloid Joints
      • Saddle Joints
      • Ball-and-Socket Joints
    • 9.7 Factors Affecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints
    • 9.8 Selected Joints of the Body
    • 9.9 Aging and Joints
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Joints
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 10 MUSCULAR TISSUE
    • 10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue
      • Types of Muscular Tissue
      • Functions of Muscular Tissue
      • Properties of Muscular Tissue
    • 10.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Structure
      • Gross Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle
      • Connective Tissue Coverings
      • Nerve and Blood Supply
      • Microscopic Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle Fiber (Cell)
        • Sarcolemma, T Tubules, and Sarcoplasm
        • Myofibrils and Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
        • Filaments and the Sarcomere
      • Muscle Proteins
    • 10.3 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Function
      • Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
        • Sliding Filament Mechanism
        • The Neuromuscular Junction
        • The Contraction Cycle
        • Excitation–Contraction Coupling
      • Muscle Tone
      • Isotonic and Isometric Contractions
    • 10.4 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
      • Slow Oxidative Fibers
      • Fast Oxidative-Glycolytic Fibers
      • Fast Glycolytic Fibers
    • 10.5 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue
      • Effective Stretching
      • Strength Training
    • 10.6 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
    • 10.7 Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • 10.8 Development of Muscles
    • 10.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Muscular Tissue
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 11 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
    • 11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements
      • Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin and Insertion
      • Lever Systems
      • Effects of Fascicle Arrangement
      • Muscle Actions
      • Coordination Among Muscles
      • Structure and Function of Muscle Groups
    • 11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named
    • 11.3 Principal Skeletal Muscles
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Muscular System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 12 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD
    • 12.1 Functions of Blood
    • 12.2 Physical Characteristics of Blood
    • 12.3 Components of Blood
      • Blood Plasma
      • Formed Elements
    • 12.4 Formation of Blood Cells
    • 12.5 Red Blood Cells
      • RBC Anatomy
      • RBC Functions
      • RBC Life Cycle
      • Erythropoiesis: Production of RBCs
      • Blood Group Systems
    • 12.6 White Blood Cells
      • WBC Anatomy and Types
        • Granular Leukocytes
        • Agranular Leukocytes
      • WBC Functions
    • 12.7 Platelets
    • 12.8 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow and Cord-Blood
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 13 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: THE HEART
    • 13.1 Location and Surface Projection of the Heart
    • 13.2 Structure and Function of the Heart
      • Pericardium
      • Layers of the Heart Wall
      • Chambers of the Heart
        • Right Atrium
        • Right Ventricle
        • Left Atrium
        • Left Ventricle
      • Myocardial Thickness and Function
      • Fibrous Skeleton of the Heart
      • Heart Valves
        • Atrioventricular Valves
        • Semilunar Valves
    • 13.3 Circulation of Blood
      • Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations
      • Coronary Circulation
        • Coronary Arteries
        • Coronary Veins
    • 13.4 Cardiac Conduction System and Innervation
      • Cardiac Conduction System
      • Cardiac Nerves
    • 13.5 Cardiac Cycle (Heartbeat)
    • 13.6 Heart Sounds
    • 13.7 Exercise and the Heart
    • 13.8 Development of the Heart
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Heart
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 14 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS
    • 14.1 Anatomy of Blood Vessels
      • Basic Structure of a Blood Vessel
        • Tunica Interna (Intima)
        • Tunica Media
        • Tunica Externa
      • Arteries
        • Elastic Arteries
        • Muscular Arteries
      • Anastomoses
      • Arterioles
      • Capillaries
      • Venules
      • Veins
      • Blood Distribution
    • 14.2 Circulatory Routes—Systemic Circulation
    • 14.3 Circulatory Routes—Hepatic Portal Circulation
    • 14.4 Circulatory Routes—Pulmonary Circulation
    • 14.5 Circulatory Routes—Fetal Circulation
    • 14.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood
    • 14.7 Aging and the Cardiovascular System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Blood Vessels
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 15 THE LYMPHATIC (LYMPHOID) SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY
    • 15.1 The Concept of Immunity
    • 15.2 Lymphatic System Structure and Functions
      • Structure
      • Functions
    • 15.3 Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation
      • Lymphatic Capillaries
      • Lymph Trunks and Ducts
      • Formation and Flow of Lymph
    • 15.4 Lymphatic Organs and Tissues
      • Thymus
      • Lymph Nodes
      • Spleen
      • Lymphatic Nodules
    • 15.5 Principal Groups of Lymph Nodes
    • 15.6 Development of Lymphatic Tissues
    • 15.7 Aging and the Lymphatic System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Lymphatic System and Immunity
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 16 NERVOUS TISSUE
    • 16.1 Overview of the Nervous System
      • Structures of the Nervous System
      • Organization of the Nervous System
        • Anatomical Organization
        • Functional Organization
    • 16.2 Histology and Functions of Neurons
      • Neurons
        • Parts of a Neuron
        • Cell Body
        • Nerve Fibers
      • Synapses
        • Neuromuscular Junction
        • Synapses Between Neurons
        • Neurotransmitters
        • Structural Diversity in Neurons
    • 16.3 Histology and Function of Neuroglia
      • Neuroglia of the CNS
      • Neuroglia of the PNS
      • Myelination
      • Gray and White Matter
    • 16.4 Neural Circuits
    • 16.5 Regeneration and Neurogenesis
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Nervous Tissue
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 17 THE SPINAL CORD AND THE SPINAL NERVES
    • 17.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy
      • Protective Structures
        • Vertebral Column
        • Meninges
      • External Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
      • Internal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
    • 17.2 Spinal Nerves
      • Structure of a Single Nerve
      • Organization of Spinal Nerves
      • Branches of Spinal Nerves
        • Intercostal Nerves
        • Plexuses
      • Dermatomes Versus Cutaneous Fields
    • 17.3 Spinal Cord Functions
      • Sensory and Motor Tracts
      • Reflexes and Reflex Arcs
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Spinal Cord and the Spinal Nerves
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 18 THE BRAIN AND THE CRANIAL NERVES
    • 18.1 Development and General Structure of the Brain
      • Brain Development
      • Major Parts of the Brain
    • 18.2 Protection and Blood Supply
      • Protective Coverings of the Brain
      • Cerebrospinal Fluid
        • Formation of CSF in the Ventricles
        • Functions of CSF
        • Circulation of CSF
      • Brain Blood Flow and the Blood–Brain Barrier
    • 18.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation
      • Medulla Oblongata
      • Pons
      • Midbrain
      • Reticular Formation
    • 18.4 The Cerebellum
    • 18.5 The Diencephalon
      • Thalamus
      • Hypothalamus
      • Epithalamus
      • Circumventricular Organs
    • 18.6 The Cerebrum
      • Structure of the Cerebrum
      • Cerebral White Matter
      • Basal Nuclei
      • The Limbic System
    • 18.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
      • Sensory Areas
      • Motor Areas
      • Association Areas
      • Hemispheric Lateralization
      • Memory
      • Brain Waves
    • 18.8 Aging and the Nervous System
    • 18.9 Cranial Nerves
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Brain and the Cranial Nerves
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 19 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 19.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
      • Somatic Nervous System
      • Autonomic Nervous System
      • Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Motor Neurons
    • 19.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways
      • Understanding Autonomic Motor Pathways
        • Migration of the Neural Crest Tissue
      • Shared Anatomical Components of an Autonomic Motor Pathway
        • Motor Neurons and Autonomic Ganglia
        • Autonomic Plexuses
    • 19.3 Structure of the Sympathetic Division
      • Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
      • Sympathetic Ganglia and Postganglionic Neurons
        • Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia
        • Prevertebral Ganglia
    • 19.4 Structure of the Parasympathetic Division
      • Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
      • Parasympathetic Ganglia and Postganglionic Neurons
    • 19.5 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors
      • Cholinergic Neurons and Receptors
      • Adrenergic Neurons and Receptors
    • 19.6 Functions of the ANS
      • Sympathetic Responses
      • Parasympathetic Responses
    • 19.7 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions
      • Autonomic Reflexes
      • Autonomic Control by Higher Centers
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Autonomic Nervous System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 20 SOMATIC SENSES AND MOTOR CONTROL
    • 20.1 Overview of Sensations
      • Definition of Sensations
      • Characteristics of Sensations
      • Classification of Sensations
      • Types of Sensory Receptors
    • 20.2 Somatic Sensations
      • Tactile Sensations
        • Touch
        • Pressure
        • Vibration
        • Itch and Tickle
      • Thermal Sensations
      • Pain Sensations
        • Types of Pain
        • Localization of Pain
      • Proprioceptive Sensations
        • Muscle Spindles
        • Tendon Organs
        • Joint Kinesthetic Receptors
    • 20.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways
      • Posterior Column–Medial Lemniscus Pathway to the Cerebral Cortex
      • Anterolateral (Spinothalamic) Pathways to the Cerebral Cortex
      • Mapping the Primary Somatosensory Area
      • Somatic Sensory Pathways to the Cerebellum
    • 20.4 Somatic Motor Pathways
      • Origin of Motor Pathways
      • Direct Motor Pathways
        • Indirect Motor Pathways
      • Roles of the Basal Nuclei in Movement
      • Roles of the Cerebellum in Movement
      • Role of the Brainstem in Movement
        • Vestibular Nuclei in the Medulla and Pons
        • Reticular Formation in the Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain
        • Superior Colliculus in the Midbrain
    • 20.5 Integration of Sensory Input and Motor Output
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Somatic Senses and Motor Control
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 21 SPECIAL SENSES
    • 21.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell
      • Anatomy of Olfactory Receptors
      • The Olfactory Pathway
    • 21.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste
      • Anatomy of Gustatory Receptors
      • The Gustatory Pathway
    • 21.3 Vision
      • Accessory Structures of the Eye
        • Eyelids
        • Eyelashes and Eyebrows
        • The Lacrimal Apparatus
        • Extrinsic Eye Muscles
      • Anatomy of the Eyeball
        • Fibrous Tunic
        • Vascular Tunic
        • Retina
        • Lens
        • Interior of the Eyeball
      • The Visual Pathway
        • Processing of Visual Input in the Retina
        • Pathway in the Brain
    • 21.4 Hearing and Equilibrium
      • Anatomy of the Ear
        • External (Outer) Ear
        • Middle Ear
        • Internal (Inner) Ear
      • Mechanism of Hearing
      • The Auditory Pathway
      • Mechanism of Equilibrium
        • Otolithic Organs: Saccule and Utricle and Static Equilibrium
        • Semicircular Ducts and Dynamic Equilibrium
      • Equilibrium Pathways
    • 21.5 Development of the Eyes and Ears
      • Development of the Eyes
      • Development of the Ears
    • 21.6 Aging and the Special Senses
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with Special Senses
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 22 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • 22.1 Endocrine Glands Defined
    • 22.2 Hormones
    • 22.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
      • Anterior Pituitary
      • Posterior Pituitary
    • 22.4 Pineal Gland and Thymus
    • 22.5 Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands
    • 22.6 Adrenal Glands
      • Adrenal Cortex
      • Adrenal Medulla
    • 22.7 Pancreas
    • 22.8 Ovaries and Testes
    • 22.9 Other Endocrine Tissues
    • 22.10 Development of the Endocrine System
    • 22.11 Aging and the Endocrine System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Endocrine System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 23 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • 23.1 Respiratory System Anatomy
    • 23.2 Upper Respiratory System Anatomy
      • Nose
      • Pharynx
    • 23.3 Lower Respiratory System Anatomy
      • Larynx
      • The Structures of Voice Production
      • Trachea
      • Bronchi
      • Lungs
        • Lobes, Fissures, and Lobules
        • Alveolar Sacs and Alveoli
        • Blood Supply to the Lungs
      • Patency of the Respiratory System
    • 23.4 Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing)
      • Inhalation
      • Exhalation
    • 23.5 Regulation of Breathing
      • Role of the Respiratory Center
        • Medullary Respiratory Center
        • Pontine Respiratory Group
      • Regulation of the Respiratory Center
        • Cortical Influences on Breathing
        • Chemoreceptor Regulation of Breathing
        • Role of Lung Inflation in Stimulation of Breathing
    • 23.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System
    • 23.7 Development of the Respiratory System
    • 23.8 Aging and the Respiratory System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Respiratory System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 24 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    • 24.1 Overview of the Digestive System
    • 24.2 Layers of the GI Tract
      • Mucosa
      • Submucosa
      • Muscularis
      • Serosa
    • 24.3 Peritoneum
    • 24.4 Mouth
      • Salivary Glands
      • Tongue
      • Teeth
    • 24.5 Pharynx
    • 24.6 Esophagus
      • Histology of the Esophagus
      • Functions of the Esophagus
    • 24.7 Stomach
      • Anatomy of the Stomach
      • Histology of the Stomach
      • Functions of the Stomach
    • 24.8 Pancreas
      • Anatomy of the Pancreas
      • Histology of the Pancreas
      • Functions of the Pancreas
    • 24.9 Liver and Gallbladder
      • Anatomy of the Liver and Gallbladder
      • Histology of the Liver and Gallbladder
      • Blood and Nerve Supply of the Liver and Gallbladder
      • Functions of the Liver and Gallbladder
    • 24.10 Small Intestine
      • Anatomy of the Small Intestine
      • Histology of the Small Intestine
      • Functions of the Small Intestine
    • 24.11 Large Intestine
      • Anatomy of the Large Intestine
      • Histology of the Large Intestine
      • Functions of the Large Intestine
    • 24.12 Development of the Digestive System
    • 24.13 Aging and the Digestive System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Digestive System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 25 THE URINARY SYSTEM
    • 25.1 Overview of the Urinary System
    • 25.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys
      • External Anatomy of the Kidneys
      • Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys
      • Blood and Nerve Supply of the Kidneys
    • 25.3 The Nephron
      • Parts of a Nephron
      • Histology of the Nephron and Collecting Duct
        • Glomerular Capsule
        • Renal Tubule and Collecting Duct
    • 25.4 Functions of Nephrons
      • Glomerular Filtration
      • Tubular Reabsorption
      • Tubular Secretion
    • 25.5 Urine Transportation, Storage, and Elimination
      • Ureters
      • Urinary Bladder
      • Urethra
    • 25.6 Development of the Urinary System
    • 25.7 Aging and the Urinary System
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Urinary System
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 26 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
    • 26.1 Male Reproductive System
      • Scrotum
      • Testes
        • Sperm
      • Reproductive System Ducts in Males
        • Ducts of the Testis
        • Epididymis
        • Ductus Deferens
        • Ejaculatory Ducts
        • Urethra
      • Spermatic Cord
      • Accessory Sex Glands in Males
        • Seminal Vesicles
        • Prostate
        • Bulbourethral Glands
      • Semen
      • Penis
    • 26.2 Female Reproductive System
      • Ovaries
        • Histology of the Ovaries
        • Oogenesis and Follicular Development
      • Uterine Tubes
      • Uterus
      • Vagina
      • Vulva
      • Perineum
      • Mammary Glands
    • 26.3 Female Reproductive Cycle
      • Menstrual Phase
        • Events in the Ovaries
        • Events in the Uterus
      • Preovulatory Phase
        • Events in the Ovaries
        • Events in the Uterus
      • Ovulation
      • Postovulatory Phase
        • Events in the Ovaries
        • Events in the Uterus
    • 26.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion
      • Birth Control Methods
        • Surgical Sterilization
        • Non-incisional Sterilization
        • Hormonal Methods
        • Intrauterine Devices
        • Spermicides
        • Barrier Methods
        • Periodic Abstinence
      • Abortion
    • 26.5 Development of the Reproductive Systems
    • 26.6 Aging and the Reproductive Systems
    • Key Medical Terms Associated with the Reproductive Systems
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • 27 SURFACE ANATOMY
    • 27.1 Overview of Surface Anatomy
    • Chapter Review and Resource Summary
    • Critical Thinking Questions
    • Answers to Figure Questions
  • APPENDIX A: MEASUREMENTS
  • APPENDIX B: ANSWERS
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • EULA

UM RAFBÆKUR Á HEIMKAUP.IS

Bókahillan þín er þitt svæði og þar eru bækurnar þínar geymdar. Þú kemst í bókahilluna þína hvar og hvenær sem er í tölvu eða snjalltæki. Einfalt og þægilegt!

Þú kemst í bækurnar hvar sem er
Þú getur nálgast allar raf(skóla)bækurnar þínar á einu augabragði, hvar og hvenær sem er í bókahillunni þinni. Engin taska, enginn kyndill og ekkert vesen (hvað þá yfirvigt).

Auðvelt að fletta og leita
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Hvað viltu sjá? / Þú ræður hvernig síðan lítur út
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Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 9781119320593
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Principles of Human Anatomy

Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 9781119320593
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