Pearson Baccalaureate History: The Cold War - Superpower tensions and rivalries 2nd Edition uPDF

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Part 1: Rivalry, mistrust and accord
    • Chapter 1: What was the Cold War?
      • Communism versus Capitalism
        • Increasing hostility
      • Idealism versus self-interest
      • What was the significance of Stalinism?
        • Stalin’s role in World War Two
        • The cost of World War Two
      • Why did the USA and the USSR emerge as superpowers after 1945?
        • Military reasons
        • Economic reasons
        • Political reasons
    • Chapter 2: Breakdown of the Grand Alliance: Part 1
      • The breakdown of the Grand Alliance
      • Step 1: The wartime conferences
        • The Tehran Conference, 1943
        • The Yalta Conference, 1945
        • What were the crucial developments that took place between the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences?
        • The Potsdam Conference, 1945
      • Key developments, 1946–1947
        • Salami tactics
        • Soviet pressure on Iran
        • Instability in Greece and Turkey
        • Communist parties in Italy and France
      • Step 2: Kennan’s Long Telegram, February 1946
      • Step 3: Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech, March 1946
        • What was the basis for the Iron Curtain speech?
        • Soviet reaction to Churchill’s speech
    • Chapter 3: Breakdown of the Grand Alliance: Part 2
      • Confrontation and containment
      • Step 4: The Truman Doctrine
      • Step 5: The Marshall Plan
        • Dollar imperialism?
        • Soviet reaction to the Marshall Plan
        • The Soviet response
        • Cominform and the ‘two camps’ doctrine
      • Step 6: Red Army occupation of Eastern Europe, 1945–1947
        • The ‘X article’
      • Step 7: The Czechoslovakian Coup, February 1948
      • Step 8: The Berlin Crisis of 1948
        • Post-war Germany
        • Why did the post-war powers fail to unify Germany?
        • What were the results of the Berlin Blockade?
      • What conclusions can be drawn about Europe’s situation at the end of 1949?
      • What did this situation mean for international relations beyond Europe?
    • Chapter 4: How can we explain the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
      • What was the role of ideology in causing the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
      • What was the role of Great Power rivalry in causing the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
      • What was the role of economic interests in causing the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
      • How far did the actions of the USA and USSR cause the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
        • Was the USSR responsible for the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
        • Was the USA responsible for the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
      • What was the role of fear and suspicion in causing the breakdown of the Grand Alliance?
        • Fear on the part of the USA
        • Fear on the part of the USSR
      • How have historians interpreted the origins of the Cold War?
        • The Orthodox view
        • The Revisionist view
        • Post-revisionist view
        • Views of the post-Cold War historians
      • European and Soviet perspectives
        • What was the role of the Europeans in the development of the Cold War?
        • What is the Soviet perspective?
    • Chapter 5: The Cold War goes global: The Korean War
      • US Foreign Policy, 1949–1950
        • The USSR gets the bomb
        • China falls to the Communists
        • The Red Scare: McCarthyism and the anti-Communist crusade in America
        • NSC-68: ‘Total Commitment’
        • North Korea invades South Korea, 1950
        • Why did North Korea attack South Korea in 1950?
        • Background to the conflict
        • Why did the superpowers get involved?
        • What was the role of Kim Il Sung in starting the war?
        • What was the role of Stalin in starting the war?
        • What was the role of Mao Zedong in the outbreak of the war?
        • The course of the war
      • Results of the Korean War
        • Actions of the United States
        • What did the Korean War and the subsequent actions of the USA mean for other countries?
      • The effects of the Korean War on the Cold War
    • Chapter 6: The USA and containment in Asia
      • Case Study 1: Korea
      • Case Study 2: Japan
        • Was containment a success in Japan?
      • Case Study 3: Taiwan
        • Was containment a success in Taiwan?
      • Case Study 4: An In-Depth Study of the USA and Containment in Vietnam
        • How did the United States become involved?
        • How did President Kennedy widen the conflict?
        • The Great Society and the ‘credibility gap’
        • The Tet Offensive
        • Did President Nixon achieve ‘peace with honour’?
        • The Paris peace talks
        • Was Vietnam a failure for the American policy of containment? Historians’ views
        • Conclusions on the US policy of containment in Asia
    • Chapter 7: Peaceful co-existence: New leaders, new ideas?
      • Eisenhower and Dulles in the United States: roll-back, brinkmanship, and the New Look
      • Khrushchev and co-existence
      • What other factors encouraged a change in international relations?
      • East–West relations in the 1950s: the reality
        • Was the Geneva Summit a failure?
        • Why did East–West tension increase again after 1955?
      • The technology race
        • The missile gap
      • How did events of 1958–1960 affect East–West relations?
        • The U-2 incident
    • Chapter 8: Case study in crisis: Berlin 1958–1961
      • The two Germanys
        • Economic differences between West Germany and East Germany
        • Political differences between West Germany and East Germany
      • Why did the Berlin Crisis develop?
        • Khrushchev and the crisis of 1958
        • Kennedy and flexible response
      • Khrushchev, Ulbricht, and the crisis of 1960–1961
        • The Berlin Wall
      • What did the building of the wall mean
        • … for Khrushchev?
        • … for Ulbricht?
        • … for the citizens of Berlin?
        • … for the Cold War?
      • The symbolism of the wall
    • Chapter 9: Case study in crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis
      • Background to and causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis
        • Why was the United States opposed to Castro’s revolution?
        • Castro takes power
        • How did the United States deal with the ‘threat’ of Castro?
        • Why was the Bay of Pigs invasion a failure?
        • What were the results of the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion?
      • The Cuban Missile Crisis
        • Why did Khrushchev put missiles in Cuba?
        • Why was the presence of missiles so intolerable to the United States?
        • How was the Cuba crisis linked to the Berlin Crisis?
        • How was the crisis resolved?
      • How effective was Kennedy’s handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
        • The Orthodox view
        • The Revisionist view
        • New interpretations
      • What conclusions can be reached about Khrushchev’s actions?
      • What was Castro’s role in the crisis?
      • The impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis
        • What were the results of the crisis
    • Chapter 10: Sino-Soviet relations
      • China becomes a Communist nation
        • Background
        • Civil war in China
      • Stalin and Mao, 1945–1953
        • The Sino-Soviet Treaty of Alliance
      • The USSR, the PRC, and the Korean War,1950–1953
      • Sino-Soviet Relations after Stalin, 1953–1956
      • Mao, Khrushchev, and ‘the split’, 1956–1964
        • Conference of Communist Parties, 1957
        • Khrushchev’s visit to Beijing, 1958
        • Taiwan, 1958
      • Sino-Soviet relations and the ‘Great Leap Forward’
        • What was the Great Leap Forward?
        • Failure and starvation
        • Soviets denounce the GLF
        • Albania
      • The Sino-Indian War, 1962
      • The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
      • Sino-Soviet relations and the Cultural Revolution, 1966–1976
      • China, the USSR, and nuclear weapons
      • The PRC and Leonid Brezhnev, 1968–1982
        • The invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968
      • Sino-Soviet border war, 1969
      • The PRC, the USSR, and Indochina
        • The Vietnam War
        • Sino-Soviet clashes over Cambodia and Vietnam
      • Sino-Soviet rapprochement, 1982–2000
        • Mikhail Gorbachev and Deng Xiaoping
        • Tiananmen Square, 1989
        • The fall of the Soviet Union
    • Chapter 11: Sino-American relations
      • Background
      • The 1950s – increasing tension
        • Tibet, 1950
        • The Korean War, 1950–1953
        • The impact of the Korean War on Sino-American relations
        • Taiwan, 1954 and 1958
      • The Sino-American Cold War in the 1960s
        • The United States, the PRC, and Taiwan
        • The United States, Vietnam, and the People’s Republic of China
        • The PRC and decolonization
        • The USA and the PRC’s Cultural Revolution
      • Sino-American détente in the 1970s
        • Why did the USA want détente with the PRC?
        • Why did China want détente with the USA?
        • What did China gain from détente with the United States?
        • What did the US gain from détente with the PRC?
      • The PRC and the Cold War
        • Tiananmen Square, the PRC, and the United States, 1989
      • The United States, the PRC, and the end of the Cold War
    • Chapter 12: Why did détente end in a second Cold War?
      • What were the reasons for PRC–USA rapprochement?
      • What were the reasons for improved East–West relations in Europe?
      • What were the successes of détente?
        • Arms agreements between the USA and the USSR: SALT I
        • SALT II
        • Agreements between the two Germanys and the Soviet Union
        • Agreements between the United States and China
        • The ‘high point of détente’: the Helsinki Agreement
      • Why did détente between the USA and the USSR come under pressure?
        • Political factors that undermined détente
        • Economic factors that undermined détente
      • Why did détente collapse?
      • Did détente fail? The historiography of détente
      • The Second Cold War
    • Chapter 13: Soviet containment 1945–1980
      • Challenges to Soviet control in Eastern Europe
      • The challenge of Yugoslavia
        • Why was Tito able to survive?
        • What was Stalin’s reaction to Tito?
      • Challenge in East Germany, 1953
      • Challenges to Soviet control under Khrushchev
        • Khrushchev and de-Stalinization
        • Khrushchev and Tito
        • Khrushchev and Poland
      • The challenge from Poland in the 1980s
      • To what extent were Soviet leaders following Stalin’s structural legacy?
        • What was the American response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan?
        • Afghanistan and its impact on détente
    • Chapter 14: Confrontation: The impact of the arms race on the Cold War
      • How did the nuclear arms race develop during the Cold War?
      • Why was the arms race so intense during the Cold War?
      • What strategies were developed for using nuclear weapons?
        • Eisenhower and massive retaliation
        • McNamara and ‘counterforce’
      • The impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis: mutually assured destruction (MAD)
      • The impact of Reagan and Gorbachev
      • The role of conventional weapons
      • The space race
    • Chapter 15: Confrontation and reconciliation: The end of the Cold War
      • What was the impact of Mikhail Gorbachev?
      • What was the role of Ronald Reagan?
      • Long-term factors in the ending of the Cold War
        • What was the role of the Soviet economy?
        • The impact of Gorbachev’s reforms
      • The events of 1989
        • Events in Poland
        • Events in East Germany
        • Events in Hungary
        • Events in Czechoslovakia
        • Events in Romania
      • The end of the USSR
      • What was the impact of the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War?
    • Chapter 16: The impact of Cold War tensions on the United Nations
      • The United Nations system
      • The main principles of the United Nations
        • Three key principles of the UN Charter
        • The American perspective and expectations
        • The Soviet perspective and expectations
      • The impact of the emergence of Cold War tension on the UN
      • The UN and the global Cold War: the 1950s
      • The impact of Cold War tensions on the UN’s first decade
      • The UN and the Cold War: the 1960s
      • The UN and détente, 1968–1979
      • The UN and the Second Cold War
      • The UN and the end of the Cold War
      • The UN and the Cold War: Conclusion
  • Part 2: Leaders and nations
    • Chapter 17: The impact of leaders on the development of the Cold War
      • The impact of leaders on the course and development of the Cold War: Truman and Stalin
      • The impact of leaders on the course and development of the Cold War: Khrushchev and Mao
      • The impact of leaders on the course and development of the Cold War: Brezhnev, Brandt, and Nixon
      • The impact of leaders on the course and development of the Cold war: Reagan and Gorbachev
    • Chapter 18: The impact of Cold War tensions on nations
      • The impact of Cold War tensions on individual states: Cuba
        • Impact of Cold War tensions on the nature and direction of Cuba’s revolution
        • The impact of the Cold War on Cuba’s economy
        • The impact of the Cold war on the nature of Castro’s government
        • Impact of Cold War tensions on Cuban Foreign Policy
        • Impact of Cold War tensions on the direction of Nasser’s domestic policy
        • The impact of the Cold War on Egypt’s economic policy
        • Impact of Cold War tensions on Egyptian Foreign Policy
      • The impact of Cold War tension on Germany
        • The impact of the Cold War on the division of Germany, 1945–1949
        • The impact of the Cold War on the constitution of the FRG
        • The impact of the Cold War on the economy of the FRG
        • The impact of the Cold War on West German politics up to 1969
        • The impact of the Cold War on West Germany’s foreign policy
      • The impact of Cold War tension on China
  • Part 3: Cold War crises
    • Chapter 19: Comparative studies of key Cold War crises
      • What makes an event in the Cold War a ‘crisis’?
      • Case Study comparison: Berlin Crisis of 1948–1949 and the North Korean invasion of 1950
        • Berlin Crisis of 1948–1949
        • The invasion of South Korea by North Korea, 1950
      • Case Study comparison: the Suez Crisis, 1956 and the invasion of South Korea by North Korea, 1950
      • Case Study comparison: the Berlin Crisis,1958–1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
        • The Berlin Crisis
        • The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
      • Case Study comparison: Hungary, 1956 and Afghanistan, 1989
        • What were the causes, impact, and signifi cance of the Hungarian Uprising of 1956?
        • What were the causes, impact, and significance of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1989?
  • Theory of Knowledge
    • Introduction
    • Ways of knowing
    • Areas of knowledge
    • Historical development
    • Personal and shared knowledge
    • Conclusion
  • Appendices
    • Appendix I
      • Basic timeline
    • Appendix II
      • China’s relations with the USA and the USSR
    • Appendix III
      • US presidential policies during the Cold War
  • Further reading
    • Books
    • Websites
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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