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Pearson Baccalaureate Chemistry Higher Level 2e

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: Stoichiometric relationships
    • 1.1: Introduction to the particulate nature of matter and chemical change
      • Chemical elements are the fundamental building blocks of chemistry
      • Chemical compounds are formed from more than one element
      • Chemical equations summarize chemical change
      • Mixtures form when substances combine without chemical interaction
      • Matter exists in different states determined by the temperature and the pressure
      • Matter changes state reversibly
    • 1.2: The mole concept
      • The Avogadro constant defines the mole as the unit of amount in chemistry
      • Relative atomic mass is used to compare the masses of atoms
      • Relative formula mass is used to compare masses of compounds
      • Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance
      • The empirical formula of a compound gives the simplest ratio of its atoms
      • Percentage composition by mass can be calculated from the empirical formula
      • The molecular formula of a compound gives the actual number of atoms in a molecule
    • 1.3: Reacting masses and volumes
      • Chemical equations show reactants combining in a fixed molar ratio
      • The theoretical yield is determined by the limiting reactant
      • The percentage yield can be calculated from the experimental and theoretical yields
      • Avogadro’s law directly relates gas volumes to moles
      • All gases under the same conditions have the same molar volume
      • The gas laws describe pressure, volume, and temperature relationships for all gases
      • The ideal gas equation is derived from the combined gas equation and Avogadro’s law
      • Real gases show deviation from ideal behaviour
      • The concentration of a solution depends on moles of solute and volume of solution
      • Dilutions of solutions reduce the concentration
      • The concentration of a solution can be determined by volumetric analysis
  • Chapter 2: Atomic structure
    • 2.1: The nuclear atom
      • Dalton’s model of the atom
      • Atoms contain electrons
      • Rutherford’s model of the atom
      • Sub-atomic particles
      • Bohr model of the hydrogen atom
      • Atomic number and mass number
      • Isotopes
      • Ions
      • Relative atomic masses of some elements
      • Mass spectra
    • 2.2: Electron configuration
      • The electromagnetic spectrum
      • Atomic absorption and emission line spectra
      • Evidence for the Bohr model
      • The hydrogen spectrum
      • Wave and particle models
      • The Uncertainty Principle
      • Schrödinger model of the hydrogen atom
      • Atomic orbitals
      • Sub-levels of electrons
      • Aufbau Principle: orbital diagrams
      • The relative energy of the orbitals depends on the atomic number
      • Electron configuration of ions
      • Electronic configuration and the Periodic Table
    • 12.1: Electrons in atoms
      • Ionization energy
      • Patterns in successive ionization energies give evidence for the energy levels in the atom
      • A closer look at successive ionization energies gives evidence for the sub-levels
      • Trends in first ionization energy across periods accounts or the existence of main energy levels and
  • Chapter 3: Periodicity
    • 3.1: The Periodic Table
      • Periods and groups
      • Metals and non-metals
    • 3.2: Periodic trends
      • Physical properties
      • Chemical properties
      • Bonding of the Period 3 oxides
    • 13.1: First-row d-block elements
      • Transition elements have characteristic properties
      • Complex ions
      • Polydentate ligands act as chelating agents
      • Transition metals and their ions are important catalysts
      • The magnetic properties of the transition metals and their compounds
    • 13.2: Coloured complexes
      • The visible spectrum
      • Transition metals appear coloured because they absorb visible light
      • Transition metals absorb light because the d orbitals split into two sub-levels
  • Chapter 4: Chemical bonding and structure
    • 4.1: Ionic bonding and structure
      • Ions form when electrons are transferred
      • Ionic compounds form when oppositely charged ions attract
      • Ionic compounds have a lattice structure
      • The physical properties of ionic compounds reflect their lattice structure
      • Different ionic compounds have a different extent of ionic character
    • 4.2: Covalent bonding
      • A covalent bond forms by atoms sharing electrons
      • Atoms can share more than one pair of electrons to form multiple bonds
      • Short bonds are strong bonds
      • Polar bonds result from unequal sharing of electrons
    • 4.3: Covalent structures
      • Lewis diagrams are used to show the arrangement of electrons in covalent molecules
      • In coordinate bonds both shared electrons come from one atom
      • The octet rule is not always followed
      • VSEPR theory: The shape of a molecule is determined by repulsion between electron domains
      • Molecules with polar bonds are not always polar
      • Electrons in multiple bonds can sometimes spread themselves between more than one bonding position
      • Some covalent substances form giant molecular crystalline solids
    • 4.4: Intermolecular forces
      • London (dispersion) forces
      • Dipole–dipole attraction
      • Hydrogen bonding
      • The physical properties of covalent compounds are largely a result of their intermolecular forces
    • 4.5: Metallic bonding
      • Alloys are solutions of metals with enhanced properties
    • 14.1: Further aspects of covalent bonding and structure
      • Some molecules contain a central atom with an expanded octet
      • Summary of shapes of molecules predicted from VSEPR theory
      • Molecular geometry determines molecular polarity
      • Formal charge is a useful tool for comparing Lewis (electron dot) structures
      • Ozone: a case study in resonance, molecular polarity, and formal charge
      • Atomic orbitals overlap to form two types of covalent bond: sigma and pi
    • 14.2: Hybridization
      • The formation of covalent bonds often starts with the excitation of the atoms
      • Hybridization involves mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid atomic orbitals
      • Hybridization can also be used to predict molecular shape
  • Chapter 5: Energetics and thermochemistry
    • 5.1: Measuring energy changes
      • Energy and heat transfer energy
      • System and surroundings
      • The heat content of a system is its enthalpy
      • Exothermic and endothermic reactions
      • Standard enthalpy changes
      • Thermochemical equations
      • Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy
      • Heat changes can be calculated from temperature changes
      • Enthalpy changes and the direction of change
      • Measuring enthalpy changes of combustion
      • Calculating enthalpies of reaction from temperature changes
      • Enthalpy changes of reaction in solution
    • 5.2: Hess’s law
      • Enthalpy cycles
      • Using Hess’s law
      • Standard enthalpy changes of reaction
      • Using standard enthalpy changes of formation
    • 5.3: Bond enthalpies
      • Breaking bonds is an endothermic process
      • Making bonds is an exothermic process
      • Using bond enthalpies to calculate the enthalpy changes of reaction
      • Ozone depletion
    • 15.1: Energy cycles
      • First ionization energies and electron affinities
      • Lattice enthalpies
      • Experimental lattice enthalpies and the Born–Haber cycle
      • Theoretical lattice enthalpies can be calculated from the ionic model
      • Lattice enthalpies depend on the size and charge of the ions.
      • Enthalpies of solution
      • The hydration enthalpy of an ion depends on the attraction between the ions and the polar water mole
      • The enthalpy change of solution is related to the lattice enthalpy and the hydration enthalpies of t
    • 15.2: Entropy and spontaneity
      • Entropy is a more complete direction of change
      • Predicting entropy changes
      • Absolute entropy
      • Calculating entropy changes
      • Spontaneity
      • Entropy changes of the surroundings
      • The change in entropy of the surroundings is proportional to – ?H(system)
      • ?S(surroundings) and an explanation of the units of entropy
      • Calculating total entropy changes and understanding endothermic reactions
      • Gibbs free energy is a useful accounting tool
      • Using ?G(system) to predict the feasibility of a change
      • The effect of ?H°, ?S°, and T on the spontaneity of reaction
      • Calculating ?G values
      • Gibbs free energy and equilibrium
  • Chapter 6: Chemical kinetics
    • 6.1: Collision theory and rates of reaction
      • Rate of reaction is defined as the rate of change in concentration
      • Measuring rates of reaction uses different techniques depending on the reaction
      • Collision theory
      • Factors affecting rate of reaction
    • 16.1: Rate expression and reaction mechanism
      • The rate law for a reaction is derived from experimental data
      • Units of k vary depending on the overall order of the reaction
      • Graphical representations of reaction kinetics
      • Determination of the order of a reaction
      • Reaction mechanism
      • The rate expression for an overall reaction is determined by the reaction mechanism
    • 16.2: Activation energy
      • The rate constant k is temperature dependent
      • The temperature dependence of the rate constant is expressed in the Arrhenius equation
      • Using the Arrhenius equation to calculate activation energy
  • Chapter 7: Equilibrium
    • 7.1: Equilibrium
      • Physical systems
      • Chemical systems
      • The equilibrium state has specific characteristics
      • The equilibrium constant Kc can be predicted from a reaction’s stoichiometry
      • The magnitude of Kc gives information on the extent of reaction
      • The reaction quotient, Q, enables us to predict the direction of reaction
      • Relationships between Kc for different equations of a reaction
      • When equilibrium is disrupted
      • Equilibrium theory is applied in many industrial processes
    • 17.1: The equilibrium law
      • Calculating the equilibrium constant from initial and equilibrium concentrations
      • Calculating equilibrium concentrations from the equilibrium constant
      • Free energy and equilibrium
      • Kc can be calculated from thermodynamic data
      • Kinetics and equilibrium
  • Chapter 8: Acids and bases
    • 8.1: Theories of acids and bases
      • Early theories
      • Brønsted–Lowry: a theory of proton transfer
    • 8.2: Properties of acids and bases
      • Acids react with metals, bases, and carbonates to form salts
      • Acids and bases can be distinguished using indicators
    • 8.3: The pH scale
      • pH is a logarithmic expression of [H+]
      • pH calculations
      • Measuring pH
      • The ionization of water
      • The relationship between H+ and OH– is inverse
    • 8.4: Strong and weak acids and bases
      • The strength of an acid or base depends on its extent of ionization
      • Weak acids and bases are much more common than strong acids and bases
      • Distinguishing between strong and weak acids and bases
    • 18.1: Lewis acids and bases
      • Lewis theory focuses on electron pairs
      • Nucleophiles and electrophiles
      • Comparison of Brønsted–Lowry and Lewis theories of acids and bases
    • 18.2: Calculations involving acids and bases
      • Kw is temperature dependent
      • pH and pOH scales are inter-related
      • Summary of the relationships between [H+], [OH–], pH, and pOH
      • Converting H+ and OH– into pH and pOH
      • Strong acids and bases: pH and pOH can be deduced from their concentrations
      • Dissociation constants express the strength of weak acids and bases
      • Calculations involving Ka and Kb
      • pKa and pKb
      • Relationship between Ka and Kb, pKa and pKb for a conjugate pair
    • 18.3: pH curves
      • Buffer solutions
      • Salt hydrolysis
      • Acid–base titrations
      • Indicators signal change in pH
    • 8.5: Acid deposition
      • Causes of acid deposition
      • Effects of acid deposition
      • Responses to acid deposition
  • Chapter 9: Redox processes
    • 9.1: Oxidation and reduction
      • Introduction to oxidation and reduction
      • Oxidation numbers enable us to track redox change
      • Strategy for assigning oxidation states
      • Interpreting oxidation states
      • Systematic names of compounds use oxidation numbers
      • Redox equations
      • Oxidizing and reducing agents
      • More reactive metals are stronger reducing agents
      • More reactive non-metals are stronger oxidizing agents
      • Redox titrations
    • 9.2 & 19.1: Electrochemical cells
      • Voltaic cells generate electricity from spontaneous redox reactions
      • Half-cells generate electrode potentials
      • Two connected half-cells make a voltaic cell
      • Different half-cells make voltaic cells with different voltages
      • Standard electrode potentials
      • Comparisons of half-cell electrode potentials need a reference point
      • The standard hydrogen electrode
      • Measuring standard electrode potentials
      • Standard electrode potentials are given for the reduction reaction
      • Using standard electrode potential data
      • A little caution about interpreting E? data
      • An external source of electricity drives non-spontaneous redox reactions
      • Redox reactions occur at the electrodes
      • Determining the products in electrolytic cells
      • The electrolysis of molten salts
      • Electrolysis of aqueous solutions
      • Factors affecting the amount of product in electrolysis
      • Electroplating: a widely used application of electrolysis
      • Summary of voltaic and electrolytic cells
  • Chapter 10: Organic chemistry
    • 10.1: Fundamentals of organic chemistry
      • Homologous series
      • Formulas for organic compounds: empirical, molecular, and structural
      • Nomenclature for organic compounds: the IUPAC system
      • Structural isomers: different arrangements of the same atoms
      • Primary, secondary, and tertiary compounds
      • Arenes
      • Trends in physical properties
    • 10.2: Functional group chemistry
      • Alkenes
      • Alcohols
      • Halogenoalkanes
      • Benzene
    • 20.1: Types of organic reactions
      • Nucleophilic substitution reactions: halogenoalkanes
      • Electrophilic addition reactions: alkenes
      • Electrophilic substitution reactions: benzene
      • Reduction reactions
      • Summary of reaction mechanisms
    • 20.2: Synthetic routes
      • Retro-synthesis: working backwards
    • 20.3: Stereoisomerism
      • cis–trans and E/Z isomers
      • Optical isomers
  • Chapter 11: Measurement and data processing and analysis
    • 11.1: Uncertainties and errors in measurement and results
      • Uncertainty in measurement
      • Other sources of uncertainty
      • Significant figures in measurements
      • Experimental errors
      • Percentage uncertainties and errors
      • Propagation of uncertainties in calculated results
      • Significant figures in calculations
      • Discussing errors and uncertainties
    • 11.2: Graphical techniques
      • Plotting graphs
      • The ‘best-fit’ straight line
      • Finding the gradient of a straight line or curve
      • Errors and graphs
      • Choosing what to plot to produce a straight line
      • The use of log scales
      • Sketched graphs are used to show qualitative trends
      • Using spreadsheets to plot graphs
    • 11.3: Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds
      • Analytical techniques
      • Mass spectrometry
      • The degree of unsaturation/IHD
      • Different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum give different information about the structure of
      • Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
      • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
      • Analytical chemistry depends on combining information
    • 21.1: Spectroscopic identification of organic compounds
      • Further NMR spectroscopy
  • Chapter 12: Option A: Materials
    • A.1: Materials science introduction
      • Materials are classifi ed based on their uses, properties, or bonding and structure
      • The properties of a material based on the degree of covalent, ionic, ormetallic character can be ded
      • There are four distinct classes of materials
      • Some physical properties of materials
    • A.2: Metals and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy
      • The method of extraction is related to its position in the activity series
      • The equations for the extraction can be deduced from changes in oxidation numbers
      • Aluminium is extracted from its ore (bauxite) by electrolysis
      • The amount of metal produced depends on the number of electrons supplied
      • Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of metals with other metals or non-metals
      • Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials display different behaviour in magnetic fields because of the
      • Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy determines the identity and concentration of metals
    • A.3: Catalysts
      • Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
      • Zeolites act as selective catalysts because of their cage structures
      • Nanoparticles are effective heterogeneous catalysts as they havea large surface area per unit mass
      • Catalytic activity can be modifi ed with the use of promoters and inhibitors or inactivated by poiso
      • Catalyst choice depends on selectivity for only the desired product and environmental impact
    • A.4: Liquid crystals
      • Thermotropic liquid crystals show liquid crystal behaviour over a temperature range
      • Lyotropic liquid crystals are solutions
      • The elasticity and electrical and optical properties depend on the orientation of the molecule to so
      • Biphenyl nitriles show liquid crystal behaviour
      • The use of biphenyl nitriles in liquid crystal display devices
      • Twisted nematic LCDs
    • A.5: Polymers
      • The density of poly(ethene) depends on the branching in the structure
      • Different orientations of side groups lead to isotactic and atactic forms
      • The properties of poly(vinyl chloride) are modified by using plasticizers
      • Expanded polystyrene is made by adding volatile hydrocarbons
      • Polymers can be classified based on their response to heat and applied forces
      • Atom economy is a measure of efficiency applied in Green Chemistry
    • A.6: Nanotechnology
      • Nanotechnology involves structures in the 1–100 nm range
      • Individual atoms can be visualized and manipulating using the scanning tunnelling and atomic force m
      • Self-assembly can occur spontaneously in solution due to intermolecular interactions
      • Nanowires are used in electronic devices
      • Carbon nanotubes aremade from pentagons and hexagons of carbon atoms
      • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs ) can be made
      • Graphene is a single atomic plane of graphite
      • Carbon nanotubes are made by arc discharge, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), and high-pressure carb
      • Implications of nanotechnology
    • A.7: Environmental impact: plastics
      • Health concerns of using volatile plasticizer in polymer production
      • Plastics do not degrade easily because of their strong covalent bonds
      • Incineration of plastics reduces bulk, releases energy but produces air pollution
      • Incomplete combustion of PVC produces dioxins
      • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans are dioxin-like substances and ar
      • House fires can release many toxins when plastic objects burn
      • Plastics require more processing to be recycled than other materials
      • Plastics can be identified from their IR spectrum
    • A.8: Superconducting metals and X-ray crystallography
      • Resistance in metallic conductors is caused by collisions between electrons and the positive ions in
      • Superconductors are materials that offer no resistance to electric currents below a critical tempera
      • The Meissner effect is the ability of a superconductor to create a mirror image magnetic field of an
      • Type 1 superconductors have sharp transitions to superconductivity whereas Type 2 superconductors ha
      • Type 1 and Type 2 superconductors
      • The structure of solids
      • The structure of solids is determined by X-ray diffraction
    • A.9: Condensation polymers
      • Condensation polymers can be formed from monomers with two functional groups
      • PET is a polyester
      • Nylon is a polyamide
      • Kevlar® is a polyamide
      • Phenol and methanal form a condensation polymer
      • Green Polymers
    • A.10: Environmental impact: heavy metals
      • Heavy metals are toxic
      • Ion exchange can be used to remove metal ions
      • Metal ions can be removed by chemical precipitation
      • Metal ions can be removed from solution by chelating agents
      • The solubility product is a measure of the solubility of an ionic compound
      • The common ion effect
      • Harmful hydroxyl free radicals can be formed in the body from hydrogen peroxide
      • The Haber–Weiss reaction generates free radicals naturally in biological processes
  • Chapter 13: Option B: Biochemistry
    • B.1: Introduction to biochemistry
      • Biochemical reactions are organized in metabolic pathways
      • Biomolecules are diverse organic molecules
      • Living cells transform energy
    • B.2 & B.7: Proteins and enzymes
      • B.2 Proteins and enzymes
      • B.7 Proteins and enzymes
      • The functions of proteins
      • The structure of proteins
      • Enzymes are globular proteins
      • Enzymes form a complex with the substrate
      • Analysis of proteins
    • B.3: Lipids
      • Functions of lipids
      • Structures of different lipids
      • Structure of triglycerides: fats and oils
      • Structure of phospholipids
      • Hydrolysis of fats and phospholipids
      • Structure of steroids
    • B.4: Carbohydrates
      • Functions of carbohydrates
      • Structure of carbohydrates
    • B.5: Vitamins
      • Vitamins are organic micronutrients
      • Vitamin deficiencies are a form of malnutrition
    • B.8: Nucleic acids
      • The role of nucleic acids
      • The structure of nucleic acids
      • DNA is expressed through protein synthesis
      • DNA replication makes a copy of the genetic information
      • DNA can be transferred between species
    • B.9: Pigments
      • Porphyrins
      • Carotenoids
      • Anthocyanins
      • Analysis of pigments
    • B.10: Stereochemistry in biomolecules
      • Stereochemistry in proteins
      • Stereochemistry in lipids
      • Stereochemistry in carbohydrates
      • Stereochemistry in vitamins
    • B.6: Biochemistry and the environment
      • Xenobiotics: strangers to life
      • Amelioration: responses to xenobiotics
      • Green Chemistry
  • Chapter 14: Option C: Energy
    • C.1: Energy sources
      • A useful energy source releases energy at a reasonable rate and produces minimal pollution
      • Renewable energy sources are naturally replenished
      • The energy density of a fuel is the energy produced per unit volume and the specific energy is the e
      • Energy conversions are never 100% efficient
    • C.2: Fossil fuels
      • Fossil fuels were formed by the reduction of biological compounds
      • Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel
      • Crude oil is a valuable fuel and chemical feedstock
      • Natural gas is mainly methane
      • The past and future of fossil fuels
      • Carbon footprint
    • C.3 & C.7: Nuclear fusion and fission
      • Some particles in the particles zoo
      • The mass defect is the difference between the mass of the nucleus and the sum of the masses of its i
      • Binding energy graphs can be used to understand nuclear stability
      • Light nuclei can undergo fusion reactions as this increases the binding energy per nucleon
      • The elements in the stars can be identified by their absorption spectra
      • Nuclear fusion as a possible source of energy
      • The advantages of nuclear fusion
      • Heavy nuclei can undergo fission reactions as this increases the binding energy per nucleon
      • Fuel enrichment involves the separation of different isotopes of uranium
      • Uncontrolled nuclear reactions are used in nuclear weapons
      • 23994Pu used as a fuel in ‘breeder reactors’ is produced from 23892U by neutron capture
      • Nuclear waste is still radioactive
      • The half-life of radioactive isotopes
      • Radioactive decay is a first-order process
      • Nuclear waste can be high level or low level
      • Comparison between fossil fuel and nuclear power stations
      • The dangers of nuclear energy are due to the ionizing nature of the radiation
    • C.4: Solar energy
      • Light can be absorbed by chlorophyll and other pigments with a conjugated electronic structure
      • Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy
      • Ethanol can be used as a biofuel
      • The advantages and disadvantages of using biofuels
      • The energy content of vegetable oils
      • Transesterifi cation with ethanol or methanol produces oils with lower viscosity that can be used in
    • C.5: Environmental impact: global warming
      • Greenhouse gases absorb long-wave length IR radiation from the Earth
      • Greenhouse gases and their sources
      • Influence of increasing amounts of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere
      • There is a heterogeneous equilibrium between atmospheric carbon dioxide and aqueous carbon dioxide i
      • Ocean acidification affects shell-forming animals
      • Global dimming
      • Three strategies for reducing carbon dioxide levels
    • C.6: Electrochemistry, rechargeable batteries, and fuel cells
      • Electric circuits
      • The voltage of a battery depends primarily on the nature of the electrodes and the electrolytes
      • The Nernst equation can be used to calculate the potential of a half-cell under non-standard conditi
      • The electrodes in a concentration cell are the same
      • The total work that can be obtained from a cell depends on the quantity of materials used
      • Secondary cells can be recharged and so have longer life times than primary cells
      • Thermodynamic efficiency of a cell
      • Similarities and differences between fuel cells and rechargeable batteries
    • C.8: Photovoltaic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC)
      • Silicon is a semiconductor
      • Comparing conductors and semiconductors
      • The conversion of light energy to electricity involves light absorption and charge separation
      • Solar energy can be converted to electricity in a photovoltaic cell
      • Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC)
  • Chapter 15: Option D: Medicinal chemistry
    • D.1: Pharmaceutical products an ddrug action
      • The human body has many natural systems of defence
      • Medicines and drugs: some terminology
      • Drugs can be administered in different ways
      • Bioavailability of drugs: the amount that reaches the target
      • Physiological effects of drugs are complex
      • Drug action depends on interactions with receptors
      • The development of new synthetic drugs is a long and costly process
    • D.2: Aspirin and penicillin
      • Aspirin: a mild analgesic
      • Penicillin: an early antibiotic
    • D.3: Opiates
      • The opiates bind to receptor sites in the brain
      • The structures and synthesis of opioids
      • Advantages and disadvantages of using strong analgesics
    • D.4: pH regulation of the stomach
      • Excess acidity in the stomach is potentially harmful
      • Some drugs work to prevent the production of excess acid
      • Antacids are weak bases which neutralize excess acid
    • D.5: Antiviral medications
      • Viruses: nature’s most successful parasites
      • The war against viruses
      • Flu viruses: a case study in antivirals
      • AIDS : a viral pandemic
    • D.7: Taxol: a chiral auxiliary case study
      • Optical isomerism: chiral drugs exist in two forms with different activities
      • Taxol is a powerful anti-cancer drug
      • Asymmetric synthesis: theproduction of a single enantiomer of Taxol
    • D.8: Nuclear medicine
      • Unstable atomic nuclei emit radiation
      • The main types of radiation are alpha, beta, and gamma
      • Radioactive emissions have an ionizing effect
      • Half-life of an isotope determines the rate of radioactive decay
      • Nuclear radiation in medical treatment
      • Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine
      • Radionuclide therapy
    • D.9: Drug detection and analysis
      • Drug isolation and purification
      • Drug detection
      • Organic structure analysis and identification
    • D.6: Environmental impact of some medications
      • Solvent waste: the major emission of the drug industry
      • Nuclear waste: an increasing problem in the drug industry
      • Antibiotic waste: are we killing the cures?
      • Obtaining the Tamiflu precursor: a Green Chemistry case study
      • Green Chemistry success stories in the pharmaceutical industry
  • Green chemistry
  • Experimental work in chemistry
    • Experimental work is an integral part of chemistry
    • Health, safety, and the environment
    • Practical skills
    • Assessment of experimental work
  • Internal assessment
    • The investigation
    • The assessment criteria
    • Making the most of your Internal Assessment opportunity
  • Theory of knowledge
    • Introduction
    • Ways of knowing: perception
    • Chemistry and technology
    • The scientific method
    • Ways of knowing: induction (reason)
    • Ways of knowing: deduction (reason)
    • Same data, different hypothesis
    • Are the models and theories that scientists use merely pragmatic instruments or do they actually des
    • Science and pseudoscience: alchemy and homeopathy
    • A web and hierarchy of disciplines
    • How does chemical knowledge change with time?
    • Paradigm shifts: phlogiston theory and the discovery of oxygen
    • Shared and personal knowledge
    • Ways of knowing: language
    • Measurement: the observer effect
    • Knowledge and belief
    • Chemistry and ethics
    • Ways of knowing: imagination
    • The knowledge framework in chemistry
    • Chemistry and TOK assessment
    • Some examples of prescribed essay titles for you to consider
  • Advice on the extended essay
    • Some advice
    • The assessment criteria
    • Bibliography and references
    • Viva voce
    • World Studies Extended Essay
  • Strategies for success
    • During the course
    • Preparing for the examination
    • In the examination
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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- Möguleiki á tengingu við annað stafrænt og gagnvirkt efni, svo sem myndbönd eða spurningar úr efninu
- Auðvelt að afrita og líma efni/texta fyrir t.d. heimaverkefni eða ritgerðir
- Styður tækni sem hjálpar nemendum með sjón- eða heyrnarskerðingu
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Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292371559
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Pearson Baccalaureate Chemistry Higher Level 2e

Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292371559
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