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Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain

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  • Front Matter
    • DEDICATION
    • PREFACE
      • THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE: EXPLORING THE BRAIN
      • NEW IN THE FOURTH EDITION
      • AN OVERVIEW OF THE BOOK
        • Organization of Part I: Foundations (Chapters 1–7)
        • Organization of Part II: Sensory and Motor Systems (Chapters 8–14)
        • Organization of Part III: The Brain and Behavior (Chapters 15–22)
        • Organization of Part IV: The Changing Brain (Chapters 23–25)
      • HELPING STUDENTS LEARN
    • USER’S GUIDE
      • Chapter Outline
      • Brain Food Boxes
      • Of Special Interest Boxes
      • Path of Discovery Boxes
      • Key Terms
      • Review Questions
      • Further Reading
      • An Illustrated Guide to Human Neuroanatomy
      • Self-Quiz
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • PATH OF DISCOVERY AUTHORS
    • IMAGES
    • LIST OF BOXES
      • BRAIN FOOD
      • OF SPECIAL INTEREST
      • PATH OF DISCOVERY
  • PART ONE: Foundations
    • CHAPTER ONE: Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Future
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCE
        • FIGURE 1.1: Evidence of prehistoric brain surgery.
        • Views of the Brain in Ancient Greece
        • Views of the Brain During the Roman Empire
          • FIGURE 1.2: The brain of a sheep.
          • FIGURE 1.3: A dissected sheep brain showing the ventricles.
        • Views of the Brain from the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century
          • FIGURE 1.4: Human brain ventricles depicted during the Renaissance.
          • FIGURE 1.5: The brain according to Descartes.
          • FIGURE 1.6: White matter and gray matter.
          • FIGURE 1.7: The basic anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system.
          • FIGURE 1.8: The lobes of the cerebrum.
        • Nineteenth-Century Views of the Brain
          • Nerves as Wires.
            • FIGURE 1.9: Spinal nerves and spinal nerve roots.
          • Localization of Specific Functions to Different Parts of the Brain.
            • FIGURE 1.10: A phrenological map.
            • FIGURE 1.11: Paul Broca (1824–1880).
            • FIGURE 1.12: The brain that convinced Broca of localization of function in the cerebrum.
          • The Evolution of Nervous Systems.
            • FIGURE 1.13: Charles Darwin (1809-1882).
            • FIGURE 1.14: Different brain specializations in monkeys and rats.
          • The Neuron: The Basic Functional Unit of the Brain.
            • FIGURE 1.15: An early depiction of a nerve cell.
      • NEUROSCIENCE TODAY
        • Levels of Analysis
          • Molecular Neuroscience.
          • Cellular Neuroscience.
          • Systems Neuroscience.
          • Behavioral Neuroscience.
          • Cognitive Neuroscience.
        • Neuroscientists
          • TABLE 1.1: Medical Specialists Associated with the Nervous System
          • TABLE 1.2: Types of Experimental Neuroscientists
        • The Scientific Process
          • Observation.
          • Replication.
          • Interpretation.
          • Verification.
        • The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research
          • The Animals.
          • Animal Welfare.
          • Animal Rights.
            • FIGURE 1.16: Our debt to animal research.
        • The Cost of Ignorance: Nervous System Disorders
          • TABLE 1.3: Some Major Disorders of the Nervous System
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER TWO: Neurons and Glia
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE NEURON DOCTRINE
        • TABLE 2.1: Units of Size in the Metric System
        • FIGURE 2.1: Nissl-stained neurons.
        • The Golgi Stain
          • FIGURE 2.2: Camillo Golgi (1843-1926).
          • FIGURE 2.3: Golgi-stained neurons.
          • FIGURE 2.4: The basic parts of a neuron.
        • Cajal’s Contribution
          • FIGURE 2.5: Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934).
          • FIGURE 2.6: One of Cajal’s many drawings of brain circuitry.
          • FIGURE 2.7: Neurites in contact, not continuity.
          • BOX 2.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Advances in Microscopy
            • Figure A
      • THE PROTOTYPICAL NEURON
        • FIGURE 2.8: The internal structure of a typical neuron.
        • The Soma
          • The Nucleus.
            • FIGURE 2.9: Gene transcription.
          • Neuronal Genes, Genetic Variation, and Genetic Engineering.
            • BOX 2.2: BRAIN FOOD: Expressing One’s Mind in the Post-Genomic Era
              • Figure A
            • BOX 2.3: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Gene Targeting in Mice
              • Figure A
              • Figure B
          • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.
            • FIGURE 2.10: Rough endoplasmic reticulum, orrough ER.
            • FIGURE 2.11: Protein synthesis on a free ribosome and on rough ER.
          • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus.
            • FIGURE 2.12: The Golgi apparatus.
          • The Mitochondrion.
            • FIGURE 2.13: The role of mitochondria.
        • The Neuronal Membrane
        • The Cytoskeleton
          • FIGURE 2.14: Components of the cytoskeleton.
          • Microtubules.
          • Microfilaments.
          • Neurofilaments.
        • The Axon
          • FIGURE 2.15: The axon and axon collaterals.
          • BOX 2.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST:Alzheimer’s Disease and the Neuronal Cytoskeleton
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
          • The Axon Terminal.
            • FIGURE 2.16: The axon terminal and the synapse.
            • FIGURE 2.17: A bouton en passant.
          • The Synapse.
          • Axoplasmic Transport.
            • FIGURE 2.18: A mechanism for the movement of material on the microtubules of the axon.
        • Dendrites
          • FIGURE 2.19: Dendrites receiving synaptic inputs from axon terminals.
          • BOX 2.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Hitching a Ride with Retrograde Transport
            • Figure A
          • FIGURE 2.20: Dendritic spines.
          • FIGURE 2.21: Postsynaptic polyribosomes.
      • CLASSIFYING NEURONS
        • Classification Based on Neuronal Structure
          • Number of Neurites.
            • FIGURE 2.22: Classification of neurons based on the number of neurites.
          • Dendrites.
            • FIGURE 2.23: Classification of neurons based on dendritic tree structure.
            • BOX 2.6: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Intellectual Disability and Dendritic Spines
              • Figure A
          • Connections.
          • Axon Length.
        • Classification Based on Gene Expression
      • GLIA
        • Astrocytes
          • FIGURE 2.24: An astrocyte.
          • FIGURE 2.25: Astrocytes envelop synapses.
        • Myelinating Glia
          • FIGURE 2.26: Myelinated optic nerve fibers cut in cross section.
          • FIGURE 2.27: An oligodendroglial cell.
          • BOX 2.7: BRAIN FOOD: Understanding Neuronal Structure and Function with Incredible Cre
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
        • Other Non-Neuronal Cells
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER THREE: The Neuronal Membrane at Rest
      • INTRODUCTION
        • FIGURE 3.1: A simple reflex.
      • THE CAST OF CHEMICALS
        • Cytosol and Extracellular Fluid
          • Water.
            • FIGURE 3.2: Water is a polar solvent.
          • Ions.
        • The Phospholipid Membrane
          • FIGURE 3.3: The phospholipid bilayer.
        • Protein
          • Protein Structure.
            • FIGURE 3.4: Amino acids, the building blocks of protein.
            • FIGURE 3.5: The peptide bond and a polypeptide.
            • FIGURE 3.6: Protein structure.
          • Channel Proteins.
            • FIGURE 3.7: A membrane ion channel.
          • Ion Pumps.
      • THE MOVEMENT OF IONS
        • Diffusion
          • FIGURE 3.8: Diffusion.
        • Electricity
          • FIGURE 3.9: The movement of ions influenced by an electrical field.
          • BOX 3.1: BRAIN FOOD: A Review of Moles and Molarity
          • FIGURE 3.10: Electrical current flow across a membrane.
      • THE IONIC BASIS OF THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
        • FIGURE 3.11: Measuring the resting membrane potential.
        • Equilibrium Potentials
          • FIGURE 3.12: Establishing equilibrium in a selectively permeable membrane.
          • FIGURE 3.13: The distribution of electrical charge across the membrane.
          • FIGURE 3.14: Another example of establishing equilibrium in a selectively permeable membrane.
          • BOX 3.2: BRAIN FOOD: The Nernst Equation
        • The Distribution of Ions Across the Membrane
          • FIGURE 3.15: Approximate ion concentrations on either side of a neuronal membrane.
          • FIGURE 3.16: The sodium-potassium pump.
        • Relative Ion Permeabilities of the Membrane at Rest
          • BOX 3.3: BRAIN FOOD: The Goldman Equation
          • The Wide World of Potassium Channels.
            • FIGURE 3.17: The structure of a potassium channel.
            • FIGURE 3.18: A view of the potassium channel pore.
          • The Importance of Regulating the External Potassium Concentration.
            • FIGURE 3.19: The dependence of membrane potential on external potassium concentration.
            • BOX 3.4: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Feeling Around Inside Ion Channels in the Dark
              • Figure A
            • FIGURE 3.20: Potassium spatial buffering by astrocytes.
            • BOX 3.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Death by Lethal Injection
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER FOUR: The Action Potential
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPERTIES OF THE ACTION POTENTIAL
        • The Ups and Downs of an Action Potential
          • FIGURE 4.1: An action potential.
        • The Generation of an Action Potential
          • BOX 4.1: BRAIN FOOD: Methods of Recording Action Potentials
            • Figure A
        • The Generation of Multiple Action Potentials
          • FIGURE 4.2: The effect of injecting positive charge into a neuron.
          • FIGURE 4.3: The dependence of action potential firing frequency on the level of depolarization.
          • Optogenetics: Controlling Neural Activity with Light.
            • BOX 4.2: PATH OF DISCOVERY: The Discovery of the Channelrhodopsins
              • Figure A
            • FIGURE 4.4: Optogenetic control of neural activity in a mouse brain.
      • THE ACTION POTENTIAL, IN THEORY
        • Membrane Currents and Conductances
          • FIGURE 4.5: Membrane currents and conductances.
        • The Ins and Outs of an Action Potential
          • FIGURE 4.6: Flipping the membrane potential by changing the relative ionic permeability of the membrane.
      • THE ACTION POTENTIAL, IN REALITY
        • The Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
          • Sodium Channel Structure.
            • FIGURE 4.7: The structure of the voltage-gated sodium channel.
            • FIGURE 4.8: A hypothetical model for changing the configuration of the sodium channel by depolarizing the membrane.
            • FIGURE 4.9: Dimensions of the sodium channel selectivity filter.
          • Functional Properties of the Sodium Channel.
            • FIGURE 4.10: The opening and closing of sodium channels upon membrane depolarization.
            • BOX 4.3: BRAIN FOOD: The Patch-Clamp Method
              • Figure A
          • The Effects of Toxins on the Sodium Channel.
            • FIGURE 4.11: The puffer fish, source of TTX.
        • Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels
        • Putting the Pieces Together
          • FIGURE 4.12: The molecular basis of the action potential.
      • ACTION POTENTIAL CONDUCTION
        • FIGURE 4.13: Action potential conduction.
        • Factors Influencing Conduction Velocity
          • BOX 4.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Local Anesthesia
            • Figure A
        • Myelin and Saltatory Conduction
          • FIGURE 4.14: The myelin sheath and node of Ranvier.
          • BOX 4.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Multiple Sclerosis, a Demyelinating Disease
          • FIGURE 4.15: Saltatory conduction.
      • ACTION POTENTIALS, AXONS, AND DENDRITES
        • FIGURE 4.16: The spike-initiation zone.
        • BOX 4.6: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: The Eclectic Electric Behavior of Neurons
          • Figure A
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER FIVE: Synaptic Transmission
      • INTRODUCTION
        • BOX 5.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Otto Loewi’s Dream
      • TYPES OF SYNAPSES
        • Electrical Synapses
          • FIGURE 5.1: A gap junction.
          • FIGURE 5.2: Electrical synapses.
          • FIGURE 5.3: Electrical synapses can help neurons to synchronize their activity.
        • Chemical Synapses
          • FIGURE 5.4: The components of a chemical synapse.
          • FIGURE 5.5: Chemical synapses, as seen with the electron microscope.
          • CNS Chemical Synapses.
            • FIGURE 5.6: Synaptic arrangements in the CNS.
            • FIGURE 5.7: Various shapes and sizes of CNS synapses.
            • FIGURE 5.8: Two categories of CNS synaptic membrane differentiations.
            • BOX 5.2: PATH OF DISCOVERY: For the Love of Dendritic Spines
              • Figure A
              • Figure B
              • Figure C
          • The Neuromuscular Junction.
            • FIGURE 5.9: The neuromuscular junction.
      • PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
        • Neurotransmitters
          • FIGURE 5.10: Representative neurotransmitters.
          • TABLE 5.1: The Major Neurotransmitters
        • Neurotransmitter Synthesis and Storage
          • FIGURE 5.11: The synthesis and storage of different types of neurotransmitter.
        • Neurotransmitter Release
          • FIGURE 5.12: The release of neurotransmitter by exocytosis.
          • FIGURE 5.13: A “receptor’s eye” view of neurotransmitter release.
        • Neurotransmitter Receptors and Effectors
          • Transmitter-Gated Ion Channels.
            • FIGURE 5.14: The structure of a transmitter-gated ion channel.
            • FIGURE 5.15: The generation of an EPSP.
            • BOX 5.3: BRAIN FOOD: How to SNARE a Vesicle
              • Figure A
            • FIGURE 5.16: The generation of an IPSP.
          • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors.
            • BOX 5.4: BRAIN FOOD: Reversal Potentials
              • Figure A
            • FIGURE 5.17: Transmitter actions at G-protein-coupled receptors.
          • Autoreceptors.
        • Neurotransmitter Recovery and Degradation
        • Neuropharmacology
          • BOX 5.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Bacteria, Spiders, Snakes, and People
            • Figure A
      • PRINCIPLES OF SYNAPTIC INTEGRATION
        • The Integration of EPSPs
          • FIGURE 5.18: A patch-clamp recording from a transmitter-gated ion channel.
          • Quantal Analysis of EPSPs.
          • EPSP Summation.
            • FIGURE 5.19: EPSP summation.
        • The Contribution of Dendritic Properties to Synaptic Integration
          • Dendritic Cable Properties.
            • FIGURE 5.20: Decreasing depolarization as a function of distance along a long dendritic cable.
          • Excitable Dendrites.
        • Inhibition
          • IPSPs and Shunting Inhibition.
            • FIGURE 5.21: Shunting inhibition.
            • BOX 5.6: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Startling Mutations and Poisons
          • The Geometry of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses.
        • Modulation
          • FIGURE 5.22: Modulation by the NE ß receptor.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER SIX: Neurotransmitter Systems
      • INTRODUCTION
        • FIGURE 6.1: Elements of neurotransmitter systems.
      • STUDYING NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS
        • Localization of Transmitters and Transmitter-Synthesizing Enzymes
          • Immunocytochemistry.
            • FIGURE 6.2: Immunohistochemistry.
            • FIGURE 6.3: Immunohistochemical localization of proteins in neurons.
          • In Situ Hybridization.
            • FIGURE 6.4: In situ hybridization.
            • FIGURE 6.5: In situ hybridization of the mRNA for a peptide neurotransmitter in neurons, visualized with autoradiography.
        • Studying Transmitter Release
        • Studying Synaptic Mimicry
          • FIGURE 6.6: Microiontophoresis.
        • Studying Receptors
          • Neuropharmacological Analysis.
            • FIGURE 6.7: The neuropharmacology of cholinergic synaptic transmission.
            • FIGURE 6.8: The neuropharmacology of glutamatergic synaptic transmission.
            • TABLE 6.1: Neurotransmitters, Some Receptors, and Their Pharmacology
          • Ligand-Binding Methods.
            • FIGURE 6.9: Opiate receptor binding to a slice of rat brain.
            • BOX 6.1: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Finding Opiate Receptors
          • Molecular Analysis.
      • NEUROTRANSMITTER CHEMISTRY
        • Cholinergic Neurons
          • FIGURE 6.10: The life cycle of ACh.
          • FIGURE 6.11: Acetylcholine.
          • BOX 6.2: BRAIN FOOD: Pumping Ions and Transmitters
            • Figure A
        • Catecholaminergic Neurons
          • FIGURE 6.12: The catecholamines.
          • FIGURE 6.13: The synthesis of catecholamines from tyrosine.
        • Serotonergic Neurons
          • FIGURE 6.14: The synthesis of serotonin from tryptophan.
        • Amino Acidergic Neurons
          • FIGURE 6.15: The amino acid neurotransmitters.
          • FIGURE 6.16: The synthesis of GABA from glutamate.
        • Other Neurotransmitter Candidates and Intercellular Messengers
          • FIGURE 6.17: Retrograde signaling with endocannabinoids.
          • BOX 6.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: This Is Your Brain on Endocannabinoids
            • Figure A
      • TRANSMITTER-GATED CHANNELS
        • The Basic Structure of Transmitter-Gated Channels
          • FIGURE 6.18: The subunit arrangement of the nicotinic ACh receptor.
          • FIGURE 6.19: Similarities in the structure of subunits for different transmitter-gated ion channels.
        • Amino Acid-Gated Channels
          • Glutamate-Gated Channels.
            • FIGURE 6.20: The coexistence of NMDA and AMPA receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of a CNS synapse.
            • BOX 6.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Exciting Poisons: Too Much of a Good Thing
            • FIGURE 6.21: Inward ionic current through the NMDA-gated channel.
          • GABA-Gated and Glycine-Gated Channels.
            • FIGURE 6.22: The binding of drugs to the GABAA receptor.
      • G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS AND EFFECTORS
        • The Basic Structure of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
          • FIGURE 6.23: The basic structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor.
          • TABLE 6.2: Some G-Protein-Coupled Neurotransmitter Receptors
        • The Ubiquitous G-Proteins
          • FIGURE 6.24: The basic mode of operation of G-proteins.
        • G-Protein-Coupled Effector Systems
          • The Shortcut Pathway.
            • FIGURE 6.25: The shortcut pathway.
          • Second Messenger Cascades.
            • FIGURE 6.26: The components of a second messenger cascade.
            • FIGURE 6.27: The stimulation and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by different G-proteins.
            • FIGURE 6.28: Second messengers generated by the breakdown of PIP2, a membrane phospholipid.
          • Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation.
            • FIGURE 6.29: Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.
          • The Function of Signal Cascades.
            • FIGURE 6.30: Signal amplification by G-protein-coupled second messenger cascades.
      • DIVERGENCE AND CONVERGENCE IN NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS
        • FIGURE 6.31: Divergence and convergence in neurotransmitter signaling systems.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER SEVEN: The Structure of the Nervous System
      • INTRODUCTION
        • FIGURE 7.1: Mammalian brains.
      • GROSS ORGANIZATION OF THE MAMMALIAN NERVOUS SYSTEM
        • Anatomical References
          • FIGURE 7.2: Basic anatomical references in the nervous system of a rat.
          • FIGURE 7.3: Anatomical planes of section.
          • SELF-QUIZ
        • The Central Nervous System
          • FIGURE 7.4: The brain of a rat.
          • The Cerebrum.
          • The Cerebellum.
          • The Brain Stem.
          • The Spinal Cord.
            • FIGURE 7.5: The spinal cord.
        • The Peripheral Nervous System
          • The Somatic PNS.
          • The Visceral PNS.
          • Afferent and Efferent Axons.
        • The Cranial Nerves
        • The Meninges
          • FIGURE 7.6: The meninges.
        • The Ventricular System
          • FIGURE 7.7: The ventricular system in a rat brain.
        • New Views of the Brain
          • FIGURE 7.8: A method to turn the brain transparent and visualize fluorescent neurons deep in the brain.
          • BOX 7.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Water on the Brain
            • Figure A
          • Imaging the Structure of the Living Brain.
            • FIGURE 7.9: Diffusion tensor imaging of the human brain.
          • Functional Brain Imaging.
            • BOX 7.2: BRAIN FOOD: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
              • Figure A
              • Figure B
            • BOX 7.3: BRAIN FOOD: PET and fMRI
              • Figure A
              • Figure B
            • SELF-QUIZ
      • UNDERSTANDING CNS STRUCTURE THROUGH DEVELOPMENT
        • TABLE 7.1: Collections of Neurons
        • TABLE 7.2: Collections of Axons
        • Formation of the Neural Tube
          • FIGURE 7.10: Formation of the neural tube and neural crest.
          • BOX 7.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Nutrition and the Neural Tube
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
        • Three Primary Brain Vesicles
          • FIGURE 7.11: The three primary brain vesicles.
        • Differentiation of the Forebrain
          • FIGURE 7.12: The secondary brain vesicles of the forebrain.
          • FIGURE 7.13: Early development of the eye.
          • Differentiation of the Telencephalon and Diencephalon.
            • FIGURE 7.14: Differentiation of the telencephalon.
            • FIGURE 7.15: Structural features of the forebrain.
          • Forebrain Structure-Function Relationships.
            • FIGURE 7.16: The thalamus: gateway to the cerebral cortex.
            • SELF-QUIZ
        • Differentiation of the Midbrain
          • FIGURE 7.17: Differentiation of the midbrain.
          • Midbrain Structure-Function Relationships.
        • Differentiation of the Hindbrain
          • FIGURE 7.18: Differentiation of the rostral hindbrain.
          • FIGURE 7.19: Differentiation of the caudal hindbrain.
          • Hindbrain Structure-Function Relationships.
            • FIGURE 7.20: The pyramidal decussation.
            • SELF-QUIZ
        • Differentiation of the Spinal Cord
          • FIGURE 7.21: Differentiation of the spinal cord.
          • Spinal Cord Structure-Function Relationships.
        • Putting the Pieces Together
          • FIGURE 7.22: The “brainship Enterprise.”
          • TABLE 7.3: The Ventricular System of the Brain
        • Special Features of the Human CNS
          • FIGURE 7.23: The rat brain and human brain compared.
          • FIGURE 7.24: The lobes of the human cerebrum.
          • FIGURE 7.25: The human ventricular system.
      • A GUIDE TO THE CEREBRAL CORTEX
        • Types of Cerebral Cortex
          • FIGURE 7.26: General features of the cerebral cortex.
          • FIGURE 7.27: Three types of cortex in a mammal.
        • Areas of Neocortex
          • FIGURE 7.28: Brodmann’s cytoarchitectural map of the human cerebral cortex.
          • Neocortical Evolution and Structure-Function Relationships.
            • BOX 7.5: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Connecting with the Connectome
              • Figure A
            • FIGURE 7.29: A lateral view of the cerebral cortex in three species.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • FIGURE 7.30: MRI scans of the authors.
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER 7 APPENDIX: An Illustrated Guide to Human Neuroanatomy
      • INTRODUCTION
      • SURFACE ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN
        • The Lateral Surface of the Brain
          • (a) Gross Features.
          • (b) Selected Gyri, Sulci, and Fissures.
          • (c) Cerebral Lobes and the Insula.
          • (d) Major Sensory, Motor, and Association Areas of Cortex.
        • The Medial Surface of the Brain
          • (a) Brain Stem Structures.
          • (b) Forebrain Structures.
          • (c) Ventricles.
        • The Ventral Surface of the Brain
        • The Dorsal Surface of the Brain
          • (a) Cerebrum.
          • (b) Cerebrum Removed.
          • (c) Cerebrum and Cerebellum Removed.
      • CROSS-SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN
        • Cross Section 1: Forebrain at Thalamus–Telencephalon Junction
          • (a) Gross Features.
          • (b) Selected Cell and Fiber Groups.
        • Cross Section 2: Forebrain at Mid-Thalamus
          • (a) Gross Features.
          • (b) Selected Cell and Fiber Groups.
        • Cross Section 3: Forebrain at Thalamus–Midbrain Junction
          • (a) Gross Features.
          • (b) Selected Cell and Fiber Groups.
        • Cross Section 4: Rostral Midbrain
        • Cross Section 5: Caudal Midbrain
        • Cross Section 6: Pons and Cerebellum
        • Cross Section 7: Rostral Medulla
        • Cross Section 8: Mid-Medulla
        • Cross Section 9: Medulla–Spinal Cord Junction
      • THE SPINAL CORD
        • The Dorsal Surface of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
        • The Ventral–Lateral Surface
        • Cross-Sectional Anatomy
      • THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • THE CRANIAL NERVES
      • THE BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE BRAIN
        • Ventral View
        • Lateral view
        • Medial View (Brain Stem Removed)
      • SELF-QUIZ
  • PART TWO: Sensory and Motor Systems
    • CHAPTER EIGHT: The Chemical Senses
      • INTRODUCTION
      • TASTE
        • The Basic Tastes
        • The Organs of Taste
          • FIGURE 8.1: Anatomy of the mouth, throat, and nasal passages.
          • FIGURE 8.2: The tongue, its papillae, and its taste buds.
          • BOX 8.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Strange Tastes: Fat, Starch, Carbonation, Calcium, Water?
        • Taste Receptor Cells
          • FIGURE 8.3: Taste responsiveness of taste cells and gustatory axons.
          • FIGURE 8.4: Action potential firing rates of four different primary gustatory nerve axons in a rat.
        • Mechanisms of Taste Transduction
          • Saltiness.
            • FIGURE 8.5: Transduction mechanisms of (a) salt and (b) sour tastants.
          • Sourness.
          • Bitterness.
            • FIGURE 8.6: Taste receptor proteins.
            • FIGURE 8.7: Transduction mechanisms for bitter, sweet, and umami tastants.
          • Sweetness.
          • Umami (Amino Acids).
        • Central Taste Pathways
          • FIGURE 8.8: Central taste pathways.
          • BOX 8.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Memories of a Very Bad Meal
        • The Neural Coding of Taste
      • SMELL
        • The Organs of Smell
          • FIGURE 8.9: The location and structure of the olfactory epithelium.
          • BOX 8.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Human Pheromones?
        • Olfactory Receptor Neurons
          • Olfactory Transduction.
            • FIGURE 8.10: Transduction mechanisms of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells.
            • FIGURE 8.11: Voltage recordings from an olfactory receptor cell during stimulation.
          • Olfactory Receptor Proteins.
            • FIGURE 8.12: Maps of the expression of different olfactory receptor proteins on the olfactory epithelium of a mouse.
            • FIGURE 8.13: Broad tuning of single olfactory receptor cells.
          • cAMP-Gated Channels.
            • BOX 8.4: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Channels of Vision and Smell
        • Central Olfactory Pathways
          • FIGURE 8.14: The location and structure of an olfactory bulb.
          • FIGURE 8.15: The convergence of olfactory neuron axons onto the olfactory bulb.
          • FIGURE 8.16: Specific mapping of olfactory receptor neurons onto glomeruli.
          • FIGURE 8.17: Central olfactory pathways.
        • Spatial and Temporal Representations of Olfactory Information
          • Olfactory Population Coding.
          • Olfactory Maps.
            • FIGURE 8.18: Maps of neural activation of the olfactory bulb.
            • FIGURE 8.19: Maps of neural activation of the olfactory cortex.
          • Temporal Coding in the Olfactory System.
            • FIGURE 8.20: Spiking patterns may include changes of number, rate, and timing.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER NINE: The Eye
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPERTIES OF LIGHT
        • Light
          • FIGURE 9.1: Characteristics of electromagnetic radiation.
          • FIGURE 9.2: The electromagnetic spectrum.
        • Optics
          • FIGURE 9.3: Interactions between light and the environment.
      • THE STRUCTURE OF THE EYE
        • Gross Anatomy of the Eye
          • FIGURE 9.4: Gross anatomy of the human eye.
        • Ophthalmoscopic Appearance of the Eye
          • FIGURE 9.5: The retina, viewed through an ophthalmoscope.
          • BOX 9.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Demonstrating the Blind Regions of Your Eye
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
        • Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Eye
          • FIGURE 9.6: The eye in cross section.
      • IMAGE FORMATION BY THE EYE
        • Refraction by the Cornea
          • FIGURE 9.7: Refraction by the cornea.
          • BOX 9.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Eye Disorders
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
        • Accommodation by the Lens
          • FIGURE 9.8: Accommodation by the lens.
          • BOX 9.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Vision Correction
        • The Pupillary Light Reflex
        • The Visual Field
          • FIGURE 9.9: The visual field for one eye.
        • Visual Acuity
          • FIGURE 9.10: Visual angle.
      • MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE RETINA
        • FIGURE 9.11: The basic system of retinal information processing.
        • The Laminar Organization of the Retina
          • FIGURE 9.12: The laminar organization of the retina.
          • FIGURE 9.13: Eyeshine results from the reflective tapetum in cats.
        • Photoreceptor Structure
          • FIGURE 9.14: Rods and cones.
          • BOX 9.4: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Seeing Through the Photoreceptor Mosaic
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
        • Regional Differences in Retinal Structure and Their Visual Consequences
          • FIGURE 9.15: Regional differences in retinal structure.
          • FIGURE 9.16: The fovea in cross section.
      • PHOTOTRANSDUCTION
        • Phototransduction in Rods
          • FIGURE 9.17: Light transduction and G-proteins.
          • FIGURE 9.18: The hyperpolarization of photoreceptors in response to light.
          • FIGURE 9.19: The activation of rhodopsin by light.
          • FIGURE 9.20: The light-activated biochemical cascade in a photoreceptor.
        • Phototransduction in Cones
          • FIGURE 9.21: The spectral sensitivity of the three types of cone pigments.
          • Color Perception.
            • FIGURE 9.22: Mixing colored lights.
        • Dark and Light Adaptation
          • BOX 9.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: The Genetics of Color Vision
          • Calcium’s Role in Light Adaptation.
            • FIGURE 9.23: The role of calcium in light adaptation.
          • Local Adaptation of Dark, Light, and Color.
            • FIGURE 9.24: Light and color adaptation.
      • RETINAL PROCESSING AND OUTPUT
        • The Receptive Field
          • FIGURE 9.25: The receptive field.
        • Bipolar Cell Receptive Fields
          • FIGURE 9.26: Direct and indirect pathways from photoreceptors to bipolar cells.
        • Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields
          • FIGURE 9.27: A center-surround ganglion cell receptive field.
          • FIGURE 9.28: Responses to a light–dark edge crossing an OFF-center ganglion cell receptive field.
          • FIGURE 9.29: The influence of contrast on the perception of light and dark.
          • Structure-Function Relationships.
            • FIGURE 9.30: M-type and P-type ganglion cells in the macaque monkey retina.
            • FIGURE 9.31: Different responses to light of M-type and P-type ganglion cells.
          • Color-Opponent Ganglion Cells.
            • FIGURE 9.32: Color opponency in ganglion cells.
        • Ganglion Cell Photoreceptors
          • FIGURE 9.33: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.
        • Parallel Processing
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER TEN: The Central Visual System
      • INTRODUCTION
        • FIGURE 10.1: Perceptual illusions.
      • THE RETINOFUGAL PROJECTION
        • The Optic Nerve, Optic Chiasm, and Optic Tract
          • FIGURE 10.2: The retinofugal projection.
        • Right and Left Visual Hemifields
          • FIGURE 10.3: Right and left visual hemifields.
        • Targets of the Optic Tract
          • FIGURE 10.4: The visual pathway that mediates conscious visual perception.
          • FIGURE 10.5: Visual field deficits from lesions in the retinofugal projection.
          • BOX 10.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: David and Goliath
          • Nonthalamic Targets of the Optic Tract.
            • FIGURE 10.6: The superior colliculus.
      • THE LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS
        • FIGURE 10.7: The LGN of the macaque monkey.
        • The Segregation of Input by Eye and by Ganglion Cell Type
          • FIGURE 10.8: Retinal inputs to the LGN layers.
          • FIGURE 10.9: The organization of the LGN.
        • Receptive Fields
        • Nonretinal Inputs to the LGN
      • ANATOMY OF THE STRIATE CORTEX
        • FIGURE 10.10: The primary visual cortex.
        • Retinotopy
          • FIGURE 10.11: The retinotopic map in the striate cortex.
        • Lamination of the Striate Cortex
          • FIGURE 10.12: The cytoarchitecture of the striate cortex.
          • The Cells of Different Layers.
            • FIGURE 10.13: The dendritic morphology of some cells in the striate cortex.
        • Inputs and Outputs of the Striate Cortex
          • Innervation of Other Cortical Layers from Layer IVC.
            • FIGURE 10.14: Patterns of intracortical connections.
          • Ocular Dominance Columns.
            • FIGURE 10.15: Transneuronal autoradiography.
            • FIGURE 10.16: Ocular dominance columns in layer IV of the striate cortex.
            • FIGURE 10.17: The mixing of information from the two eyes.
          • Striate Cortex Outputs.
            • FIGURE 10.18: Outputs from the striate cortex.
        • Cytochrome Oxidase Blobs
          • FIGURE 10.19: Cytochrome oxidase blobs.
      • PHYSIOLOGY OF THE STRIATE CORTEX
        • Receptive Fields
          • Binocularity.
          • Orientation Selectivity.
            • FIGURE 10.20: Orientation selectivity.
            • FIGURE 10.21: Systematic variation of orientation preferences across the striate cortex.
            • BOX 10.2: BRAIN FOOD: Cortical Organization Revealed by Optical and Calcium Imaging
              • Figure A
              • Figure B
              • Figure C
              • Figure D
          • Direction Selectivity.
            • FIGURE 10.22: Direction selectivity.
          • Simple and Complex Receptive Fields.
            • FIGURE 10.23: A simple cell receptive field.
            • FIGURE 10.24: A complex cell receptive field.
          • Blob Receptive Fields.
        • Parallel Pathways and Cortical Modules
          • Parallel Pathways.
            • FIGURE 10.25: A hypothetical model of parallel pathways in primary visual cortex.
          • Cortical Modules.
            • FIGURE 10.26: A cortical module.
      • BEYOND THE STRIATE CORTEX
        • FIGURE 10.27: Beyond the striate cortex in the macaque monkey brain.
        • FIGURE 10.28: Visual areas in the human brain.
        • The Dorsal Stream
          • Area MT.
          • Dorsal Areas and Motion Processing.
        • The Ventral Stream
          • Area V4.
            • BOX 10.3: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Finding Faces in the Brain
              • Figure A
          • Area IT.
            • FIGURE 10.29: Human brain activity elicited by pictures of faces.
      • FROM SINGLE NEURONS TO PERCEPTION
        • Receptive Field Hierarchy and Perception
          • FIGURE 10.30: A hierarchy of receptive fields.
          • BOX 10.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: The Magic of Seeing in 3D
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
            • Figure C
        • Parallel Processing and Perception
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER ELEVEN: The Auditory and Vestibular Systems
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE NATURE OF SOUND
        • FIGURE 11.1: The production of sound by variations in air pressure.
        • FIGURE 11.2: The frequency and intensity of sound waves.
        • BOX 11.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Ultrasound and Infrasound
      • THE STRUCTURE OF THE AUDITORY SYSTEM
        • FIGURE 11.3: The outer, middle, and inner ear.
        • FIGURE 11.4: Auditory and visual pathways compared.
      • THE MIDDLE EAR
        • Components of the Middle Ear
          • FIGURE 11.5: The middle ear.
        • Sound Force Amplification by the Ossicles
        • The Attenuation Reflex
          • FIGURE 11.6: The middle and inner ear.
      • THE INNER EAR
        • Anatomy of the Cochlea
          • FIGURE 11.7: The three scalae of the cochlea.
          • FIGURE 11.8: The basilar membrane in an uncoiled cochlea.
        • Physiology of the Cochlea
          • The Response of the Basilar Membrane to Sound.
            • FIGURE 11.9: A traveling wave in the basilar membrane.
            • FIGURE 11.10: The response of the basilar membrane to sound.
          • The Organ of Corti and Associated Structures.
            • FIGURE 11.11: Hair cells viewed through the scanning electron microscope.
            • FIGURE 11.12: The organ of Corti.
            • BOX 11.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: The Deaf Shall Hear: Cochlear Implants
          • Transduction by Hair Cells.
            • FIGURE 11.13: The bending of stereocilia produced by the upward motion of the basilar membrane.
            • FIGURE 11.14: Hair cell receptor potentials.
            • FIGURE 11.15: Depolarization of a hair cell.
          • Hair Cells and the Axons of the Auditory Nerve.
            • FIGURE 11.16: The innervation of hair cells by neurons from the spiral ganglion.
          • Amplification by Outer Hair Cells.
            • FIGURE 11.17: Amplification by outer hair cells.
            • BOX 11.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Hearing with Noisy Ears
      • CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSES
        • The Anatomy of Auditory Pathways
          • FIGURE 11.18: Auditory pathways.
        • Response Properties of Neurons in the Auditory Pathway
          • FIGURE 11.19: The response of an auditory nerve fiber to different sound frequencies.
      • ENCODING SOUND INTENSITY AND FREQUENCY
        • Stimulus Intensity
        • Stimulus Frequency, Tonotopy, and Phase Locking
          • Tonotopy.
            • FIGURE 11.20: Tonotopic maps on the basilarmembrane and cochlear nucleus.
          • Phase Locking.
            • FIGURE 11.21: Phase locking in the response of auditory nerve fibers.
            • BOX 11.4: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Capturing the Beat
      • MECHANISMS OF SOUND LOCALIZATION
        • Localization of Sound in the Horizontal Plane
          • FIGURE 11.22: Interaural time delay as a cue to the location of sound.
          • FIGURE 11.23: Interaural intensity difference as a cue to sound location.
          • The Sensitivity of Binaural Neurons to Sound Location.
            • FIGURE 11.24: Responses of a neuron in the superior olive sensitive to interaural time delay.
            • FIGURE 11.25: Delay lines and neuronal sensitivity to interaural delay.
        • Localization of Sound in the Vertical Plane
          • FIGURE 11.26: Vertical sound localization based on reflections from the pinna.
      • AUDITORY CORTEX
        • FIGURE 11.27: Primary auditory cortex.
        • Neuronal Response Properties
          • BOX 11.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: How Does Auditory Cortex Work? Ask a Specialist
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
          • BOX 11.6: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Auditory Disorders and Their Treatments
        • The Effects of Auditory Cortical Lesions and Ablation
      • THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
        • The Vestibular Labyrinth
          • FIGURE 11.28: The vestibular labyrinth.
        • The Otolith Organs
          • FIGURE 11.29: Macular hair cells responding to tilt.
          • FIGURE 11.30: Macular orientation.
          • The Semicircular Canals
            • FIGURE 11.31: A cross section through the ampulla of a semicircular canal.
            • FIGURE 11.32: Push-pull activation of the semicircular canals.
        • Central Vestibular Pathways and Vestibular Reflexes
          • FIGURE 11.33: A summary of the central vestibular connections from one side.
          • The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR).
            • FIGURE 11.34: Vestibular connections mediating horizontal eye movements during the VOR.
        • Vestibular Pathology
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER TWELVE: The Somatic Sensory System
      • INTRODUCTION
      • TOUCH
        • FIGURE 12.1: Somatic sensory receptors in the skin.
        • Mechanoreceptors of the Skin
          • FIGURE 12.2: Testing the receptive fields of human sensory receptors.
          • FIGURE 12.3: Variations of receptive field size and adaptation rate for four somatic sensory skin receptors.
          • FIGURE 12.4: Frequency sensitivity of two rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors.
          • Vibration and the Pacinian Corpuscle.
            • FIGURE 12.5: Adaptation in the Pacinian corpuscle.
          • Mechanosensitive Ion Channels.
            • FIGURE 12.6: Mechanosensitive ion channels.
          • Two-Point Discrimination.
            • FIGURE 12.7: Two-point discrimination on the body surface.
        • Primary Afferent Axons
          • FIGURE 12.8: The peripheral nerves.
          • FIGURE 12.9: The structure of a segment of the spinal cord and its roots.
          • FIGURE 12.10: Various sizes of primary afferent axons.
        • The Spinal Cord
          • Segmental Organization of the Spinal Cord.
            • FIGURE 12.11: Segmental organization of the spinal cord.
            • FIGURE 12.12: Dermatomes.
            • FIGURE 12.13: Dermatomes on all fours.
          • Sensory Organization of the Spinal Cord.
            • FIGURE 12.14: The trajectory of the touch-sensitive Aß axons in the spinal cord.
        • The Dorsal Column–Medial Lemniscal Pathway
          • FIGURE 12.15: The dorsal column–medial lemniscal pathway.
          • BOX 12.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Herpes, Shingles, and Dermatomes
            • Figure A
        • The Trigeminal Touch Pathway
          • FIGURE 12.16: The trigeminal nerve pathway.
          • BOX 12.2: BRAIN FOOD: Lateral Inhibition
            • Figure A
            • Figure B
        • Somatosensory Cortex
          • FIGURE 12.17: Somatic sensory areas of the cortex.
          • FIGURE 12.18: Columnar organization of S1’s area 3b.
          • Cortical Somatotopy.
            • FIGURE 12.19: A somatotopic map of the body surface onto primary somatosensory cortex.
            • FIGURE 12.20: The homunculus.
            • FIGURE 12.21: A somatotopic map of the facial vibrissae on mouse cerebral cortex.
            • FIGURE 12.22: Multiple somatotopic maps.
            • BOX 12.3: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Cortical Barrels
          • Cortical Map Plasticity.
            • FIGURE 12.23: Somototopic map plasticity.
          • The Posterior Parietal Cortex.
            • FIGURE 12.24: Symptoms of a neglect syndrome.
      • PAIN
        • BOX 12.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: The Misery of Life Without Pain
        • Nociceptors and the Transduction of Painful Stimuli
          • Types of Nociceptors.
          • Hyperalgesia and Inflammation.
            • FIGURE 12.25: Peripheral chemical mediators of pain and hyperalgesia.
            • BOX 12.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Hot and Spicy
              • Figure A
        • Itch
        • Primary Afferents and Spinal Mechanisms
          • FIGURE 12.26: First and second pain.
          • FIGURE 12.27: Spinal connections of nociceptive axons.
          • FIGURE 12.28: Immunocytochemical localization of substance P in the spinal cord.
          • FIGURE 12.29: The convergence of nociceptor input from the viscera and the skin.
        • Ascending Pain Pathways
          • The Spinothalamic Pain Pathway.
            • FIGURE 12.30: The spinothalamic pathway.
            • FIGURE 12.31: An overview of the two major ascending pathways of somatic sensation.
          • The Trigeminal Pain Pathway.
          • The Thalamus and Cortex.
            • FIGURE 12.32: Somatic sensory nuclei of the thalamus.
        • The Regulation of Pain
          • Afferent Regulation.
            • FIGURE 12.33: Melzack’s and Wall’s gate theory of pain.
          • Descending Regulation.
            • FIGURE 12.34: Descending pain-control pathways.
          • The Endogenous Opioids.
            • BOX 12.6: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Pain and the Placebo Effect
      • TEMPERATURE
        • Thermoreceptors
          • FIGURE 12.35: Thermoreceptor TRP channels tuned to detect different temperatures.
          • FIGURE 12.36: Adaptations of thermoreceptors.
        • The Temperature Pathway
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Spinal Control of Movement
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE SOMATIC MOTOR SYSTEM
        • FIGURE 13.1: The structure of skeletal muscle.
        • FIGURE 13.2: Major muscles of the elbow joint.
        • FIGURE 13.3: How contracting muscles flex or extend a joint.
      • THE LOWER MOTOR NEURON
        • FIGURE 13.4: Muscle innervation by lower motor neurons.
        • The Segmental Organization of Lower Motor Neurons
          • FIGURE 13.5: The distribution of motor neurons in the spinal cord.
          • FIGURE 13.6: The distribution of lower motor neurons in the ventral horn.
        • Alpha Motor Neurons
          • FIGURE 13.7: A motor unit and motor neuron pool.
          • Graded Control of Muscle Contraction by Alpha Motor Neurons.
            • FIGURE 13.8: From muscle twitch to sustained contraction.
          • Inputs to Alpha Motor Neurons.
            • FIGURE 13.9: An alpha motor neuron and its three sources of input.
        • Types of Motor Units
          • FIGURE 13.10: Three types of motor units and their contractile properties.
          • Neuromuscular Matchmaking.
            • FIGURE 13.11: A crossed-innervation experiment.
            • BOX 13.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: ALS: Glutamate, Genes, and Gehrig
      • EXCITATION–CONTRACTION COUPLING
        • Muscle Fiber Structure
          • FIGURE 13.12: The structure of a muscle fiber.
          • BOX 13.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Myasthenia Gravis
          • FIGURE 13.13: The release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
        • The Molecular Basis of Muscle Contraction
          • FIGURE 13.14: The myofibril: a closer look.
          • FIGURE 13.15: The sliding-filament model of muscle contraction.
          • FIGURE 13.16: The molecular basis of muscle contraction.
          • BOX 13.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
      • SPINAL CONTROL OF MOTOR UNITS
        • Proprioception from Muscle Spindles
          • FIGURE 13.17: A muscle spindle and its sensory innervation.
          • The Stretch Reflex.
            • FIGURE 13.18: The stretch reflex.
            • FIGURE 13.19: The knee-jerk reflex.
            • BOX 13.4: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Nerve Regeneration Does Not Ensure Full Recovery
              • Figure A
        • Gamma Motor Neurons
          • FIGURE 13.20: Alpha motor neurons, gamma motor neurons, and the muscle fibers they innervate.
          • FIGURE 13.21: The function of gamma motor neurons.
        • Proprioception from Golgi Tendon Organs
          • FIGURE 13.22: A Golgi tendon organ.
          • FIGURE 13.23: The organization of muscle proprioceptors.
          • FIGURE 13.24: Golgi tendon organ circuit.
          • Proprioception from the Joints.
        • Spinal Interneurons
          • Inhibitory Input.
            • FIGURE 13.25: Reciprocal inhibition of flexors and extensors of the same joint.
          • Excitatory Input.
            • FIGURE 13.26: Circuitry of the flexor withdrawal reflex.
            • FIGURE 13.27: Circuitry of the crossed-extensor reflex.
        • The Generation of Spinal Motor Programs for Walking
          • FIGURE 13.28: Rhythmic activity in a spinal interneuron.
          • FIGURE 13.29: A possible circuit for rhythmic alternating activity.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Brain Control of Movement
      • INTRODUCTION
        • TABLE 14.1: The Motor Control Hierarchy
        • FIGURE 14.1: The contributions of the motor control hierarchy.
      • DESCENDING SPINAL TRACTS
        • FIGURE 14.2: The descending tracts of the spinal cord.
        • The Lateral Pathways
          • FIGURE 14.3: The lateral pathways.
          • The Effects of Lateral Pathway Lesions.
            • BOX 14.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Paresis, Paralysis, Spasticity, and Babinski
        • The Ventromedial Pathways
          • The Vestibulospinal Tracts.
            • FIGURE 14.4: The ventromedial pathways.
          • The Tectospinal Tract.
          • The Pontine and Medullary Reticulospinal Tracts.
            • FIGURE 14.5: The pontine (medial) and medullary (lateral) reticulospinal tracts.
            • FIGURE 14.6: A summary of the major descending spinal tracts and their origins.
      • THE PLANNING OF MOVEMENT BY THE CEREBRAL CORTEX
        • Motor Cortex
          • FIGURE 14.7: Planning and directing voluntary movements.
          • FIGURE 14.8: A somatotopic motor map of the human precentral gyrus.
        • The Contributions of Posterior Parietal and Prefrontal Cortex
        • Neuronal Correlates of Motor Planning
          • FIGURE 14.9: The discharge of a neuron in the premotor area before a movement.
          • BOX 14.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Behavioral Neurophysiology
        • Mirror Neurons
          • FIGURE 14.10: The discharge of a mirror neuron.
      • THE BASAL GANGLIA
        • FIGURE 14.11: A summary of the motor loop from the cortex to the basal ganglia to the thalamus and back to area 6.
        • Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
          • FIGURE 14.12: The basal ganglia and associated structures.
        • Direct and Indirect Pathways through the Basal Ganglia
          • FIGURE 14.13: A wiring diagram of the basal ganglia motor loop.
          • FIGURE 14.14: The direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia.
          • Basal Ganglia Disorders.
            • BOX 14.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Do Neurons in Diseased Basal Ganglia Commit Suicide?
              • Figure A
              • Figure B
            • BOX 14.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Destruction and Stimulation: Useful Therapies for Brain Disorders
              • Figure A
      • THE INITIATION OF MOVEMENT BY PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX
        • The Input–Output Organization of M1
          • FIGURE 14.15: Corticospinal tract axons control pools of motor neurons.
        • The Coding of Movement in M1
          • FIGURE 14.16: Responses of an M1 neuron during arm movements in different directions.
          • FIGURE 14.17: Direction vectors and population vectors.
          • FIGURE 14.18: Predicting the direction of movement by population vectors.
          • The Malleable Motor Map.
            • FIGURE 14.19: Malleable motor maps.
            • BOX 14.5: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Distributed Coding in the Superior Colliculus
              • Figure A
      • THE CEREBELLUM
        • BOX 14.6: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Involuntary Movements—Normal and Abnormal
        • Anatomy of the Cerebellum
          • FIGURE 14.20: The cerebellum.
          • FIGURE 14.21: Neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
        • The Motor Loop through the Lateral Cerebellum
          • FIGURE 14.22: A summary of the motor loop through the cerebellum.
          • Programming the Cerebellum.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
  • PART THREE: The Brain and Behavior
    • CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Chemical Control of the Brain and Behavior
      • INTRODUCTION
        • FIGURE 15.1: Patterns of communication in the nervous system.
      • THE SECRETORY HYPOTHALAMUS
        • FIGURE 15.2: Locations of the hypothalamus and pituitary.
        • An Overview of the Hypothalamus
          • Homeostasis.
          • Structure and Connections of the Hypothalamus.
            • FIGURE 15.3: Zones of the hypothalamus.
        • Pathways to the Pituitary
          • Hypothalamic Control of the Posterior Pituitary.
            • FIGURE 15.4: Magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus.
            • FIGURE 15.5: Communication between the kidneys and the brain.
          • Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary.
            • TABLE 15.1: Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
            • FIGURE 15.6: Parvocellular neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus.
            • FIGURE 15.7: The stress response.
            • BOX 15.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Stress and the Brain
      • THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
        • ANS Circuits
          • FIGURE 15.8: The organization of the three neural outputs of the CNS.
          • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions.
            • FIGURE 15.9: The chemical and anatomical organization of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS.
          • The Enteric Division.
            • FIGURE 15.10: The enteric division of the ANS.
          • Central Control of the ANS.
        • Neurotransmitters and the Pharmacology of Autonomic Function
          • Preganglionic Neurotransmitters.
          • Postganglionic Neurotransmitters.
      • THE DIFFUSE MODULATORY SYSTEMS OF THE BRAIN
        • Anatomy and Functions of the Diffuse Modulatory Systems
          • The Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus.
            • FIGURE 15.11: Norepinephrine-containing neurons of the locus coeruleus.
            • FIGURE 15.12: The noradrenergic diffuse modulatory system arising from the locus coeruleus.
            • BOX 15.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: You Eat What You Are
          • The Serotonergic Raphe Nuclei.
            • FIGURE 15.13: The serotonergic diffuse modulatory systems arising from the raphe nuclei.
            • BOX 15.3: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Exploring the Central Noradrenergic Neurons
              • Figure A
          • The Dopaminergic Substantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area.
            • FIGURE 15.14: The dopaminergic diffuse modulatory systems arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area.
          • The Cholinergic Basal Forebrain and Brain Stem Complexes.
            • FIGURE 15.15: The cholinergic diffuse modulatory systems arising from the basal forebrain and brain stem.
        • Drugs and the Diffuse Modulatory Systems
          • Hallucinogens.
          • Stimulants.
            • FIGURE 15.16: Stimulant drug action on the catecholamine axon terminal.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Motivation
      • INTRODUCTION
      • THE HYPOTHALAMUS, HOMEOSTASIS, AND MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR
      • THE LONG-TERM REGULATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR
        • Energy Balance
          • FIGURE 16.1: Loading and emptying the body’s energy reserves.
          • FIGURE 16.2: Energy balance and body fat.
        • Hormonal and Hypothalamic Regulation of Body Fat and Feeding
          • Body Fat and Food Consumption.
            • FIGURE 16.3: The maintenance of body weight around a set value.
            • FIGURE 16.4: The regulation of body fat by a circulating hormone.
            • FIGURE 16.5: The reversal of obesity in ob/ob mice by leptin.
            • BOX 16.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: The Starving Brains of the Obese
              • Figure A
          • The Hypothalamus and Feeding.
            • FIGURE 16.6: Altered feeding behavior and body weight resulting from bilateral lesions of the rat hypothalamus.
          • The Effects of Elevated Leptin Levels on the Hypothalamus.
            • FIGURE 16.7: Hypothalamic nuclei important for the control of feeding.
            • FIGURE 16.8: The response to elevated leptin levels.
          • The Effects of Decreased Leptin Levels on the Hypothalamus.
            • FIGURE 16.9: The response to decreased leptin levels.
            • FIGURE 16.10: Summary of the responses to increased and decreased adiposity (fat).
            • FIGURE 16.11: Competition for activation of the MC4 receptor.
          • The Control of Feeding by Lateral Hypothalamic Peptides.
      • THE SHORT-TERM REGULATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR
        • FIGURE 16.12: A hypothetical model for the short-term regulation of feeding behavior.
        • Appetite, Eating, Digestion, and Satiety
          • BOX 16.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Marijuana and the Munchies
            • Figure A
          • Ghrelin.
          • Gastric Distension.
          • Cholecystokinin.
            • FIGURE 16.13: The synergistic action of gastric distension and CCK on feeding behavior.
          • Insulin.
            • BOX 16.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Shock
              • Figure A
            • FIGURE 16.14: Changes in blood insulin levels before, during, and after a meal.
      • WHY DO WE EAT?
        • Reinforcement and Reward
          • FIGURE 16.15: Electrical self-stimulation by a rat.
          • FIGURE 16.16: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system.
          • BOX 16.4: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Self-Stimulation of the Human Brain
            • Figure A
        • The Role of Dopamine in Motivation
          • FIGURE 16.17: Dopamine neurons in the VTA fire when reward is unexpected.
          • BOX 16.5: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Dopamine and Addiction
            • Figure A
        • Serotonin, Food, and Mood
          • FIGURE 16.18: Changes in hypothalamic serotonin levels before and during a meal.
      • OTHER MOTIVATED BEHAVIORS
        • BOX 16.6: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Learning to Crave
        • Drinking
          • FIGURE 16.19: Pathways triggering volumetric thirst.
          • FIGURE 16.20: Osmometric thirst: the hypothalamic response to dehydration.
        • Temperature Regulation
          • TABLE 16.1: Hypothalamic Responses to Stimuli That Motivate Behavior
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • BOX 16.7: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Neuroeconomics
          • Figure A
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: Sex and the Brain
      • INTRODUCTION
      • SEX AND GENDER
        • FIGURE 17.1: Biological and behavioral gender differences.
        • The Genetics of Sex
          • FIGURE 17.2: Human chromosomes.
          • FIGURE 17.3: The location of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome.
          • Sex Chromosome Abnormalities.
        • Sexual Development and Differentiation
          • FIGURE 17.4: Development of the reproductive organs.
      • THE HORMONAL CONTROL OF SEX
        • The Principal Male and Female Hormones
          • FIGURE 17.5: Cholesterol and the synthesis of the principal steroid sex hormones.
          • FIGURE 17.6: The distribution of estradiol receptors in a sagittal section of the rat brain.
        • The Control of Sex Hormones by the Pituitary and Hypothalamus
          • FIGURE 17.7: Bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gonads.
      • THE NEURAL BASIS OF SEXUAL BEHAVIORS
        • Reproductive Organs and Their Control
          • FIGURE 17.8: The neural control of human sex organs.
        • Mammalian Mating Strategies
        • The Neurochemistry of Reproductive Behavior
          • FIGURE 17.9: Studying reproductive behavior.
          • FIGURE 17.10: Pair-bonding in prairie and montane voles.
          • BOX 17.1: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Bonding with Voles
          • FIGURE 17.11: The role of oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in reproductive behavior.
        • Love, Bonding, and the Human Brain
          • FIGURE 17.12: Imaging maternal and romantic love in the human brain.
      • WHY AND HOW MALE AND FEMALE BRAINS DIFFER
        • FIGURE 17.13: Dimorphism in brain size.
        • Sexual Dimorphisms of the Central Nervous System
          • FIGURE 17.14: Sexual dimorphism in rats.
        • Sexual Dimorphisms of Cognition
          • FIGURE 17.15: Cognitive tasks that may favor women or men.
        • Sex Hormones, the Brain, and Behavior
          • FIGURE 17.16: The direct and indirect effects of steroids on neurons.
          • Masculinization of the Fetal Brain.
            • BOX 17.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Bird Songs and Bird Brains
              • Figure A
          • Mismatches between Genetic Sex and Hormone Action.
        • Direct Genetic Effects on Behavior and Sexual Differentiation of the Brain
          • FIGURE 17.17: Brain analysis of a gynandromorphic zebra finch.
          • BOX 17.3: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: David Reimer and the Basis of Gender Identity
            • Figure A
        • The Activational Effects of Sex Hormones
          • Brain Changes Associated with Maternal and Paternal Behavior.
            • FIGURE 17.18: The effect of lactation on a sensory representation in the cortex.
          • Estrogen Effects on Neuron Function, Memory, and Disease.
            • FIGURE 17.19: The effect of estrogen on neurite growth in the hypothalamus.
            • FIGURE 17.20: An activational effect of steroid hormones.
            • FIGURE 17.21: Fluctuations of hormone levels during the estrous cycle and hippocampal seizure threshold.
        • Sexual Orientation
          • FIGURE 17.22: The location and size of INAH-3.
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
        • KEY TERMS
        • REVIEW QUESTIONS
        • FURTHER READING
    • CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: Brain Mechanisms of Emotion
      • INTRODUCTION
      • EARLY THEORIES OF EMOTION
        • FIGURE 18.1: Expressions of anger in animals and humans.
        • The James–Lange Theory
        • The Cannon–Bard Theory
          • FIGURE 18.2: A comparison of the James–Lange and Cannon–Bard theories of emotion.
        • Implications of Unconscious Emotion
          • FIGURE 18.3: Unconscious emotional brain activity.
          • BOX 18.1: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Butterflies in the Stomach
            • Figure A
      • THE LIMBIC SYSTEM
        • Broca’s Limbic Lobe
          • FIGURE 18.4: The limbic lobe.
        • The Papez Circuit
          • FIGURE 18.5: The Papez circuit.
          • BOX 18.2: OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Phineas Gage
            • Figure B
            • Figure A
        • Difficulties with the Concept of a Single System for Emotions
      • EMOTION THEORIES AND NEURAL REPRESENTATIONS
        • Basic Emotion Theories
          • FIGURE 18.6: Brain activation associated with five basic emotions.
        • Dimensional Emotion Theories
          • FIGURE 18.7: A dimensional representation of basic emotions.
        • What is an Emotion?
          • BOX 18.3: PATH OF DISCOVERY: Concepts and Names in Everyday Science
      • FEAR AND THE AMYGDALA
        • The Klüver-Bucy Syndrome
        • Anatomy of the Amygdala
          • FIGURE 18.8: A cross section of the amygdala.
        • Effects of Amygdala Stimulation and Lesions
Vörumerki: Lippincott
Tilboði lýkur 25.06.2019
Vörunúmer: 9781451107272
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Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain

Vörumerki: Lippincott
Tilboði lýkur 25.06.2019
Vörunúmer: 9781451107272
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