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Microeconomics, International Student Version

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Chapter 1 Analyzing Economic Problems
    • 1.1 Why Study Microeconomics?
    • 1.2 Three Key Analytical Tools
      • Constrained Optimization
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 1.1
      • Equilibrium Analysis
      • Comparative Statics
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 1.2
    • 1.3 Positive and Normative Analysis
      • Chapter Summary
    • Problems
  • Chapter 2 Demand and Supply Analysis
    • 2.1 Demand, Supply, and Market Equilibrium
      • Demand Curves
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 2.1
      • Supply Curves
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 2.2
      • Market Equilibrium
      • Shifts in Supply and Demand
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 2.3
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 2.4
    • 2.2 Price Elasticity of Demand
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 2.5
      • Elasticities Along Specific Demand Curves
      • Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenue
      • Determinants of the Price Elasticity of Demand
      • Market-Level versus Brand-Level Price Elasticities of Demand
    • 2.3 Other Elasticities
      • Income Elasticity of Demand
      • Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand
      • Price Elasticity of Supply
    • 2.4 Elasticity in the Long Run versus the Short Run
      • Greater Elasticity in the Long Run than in the Short Run
      • Greater Elasticity in the Short Run than in the Long Run
    • 2.5 Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations
      • Fitting Linear Demand Curves Using Quantity, Price, and Elasticity Information
      • Identifying Supply and Demand Curves on the Back of an Envelope
      • Identifying the Price Elasticity of Demand from Shifts in Supply
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix: Price Elasticity of Demand Along a Constant Elasticity Demand Curve
  • Chapter 3 Consumer Preferences and the Concept of Utility
    • 3.1 Representations of Preferences
      • Assumptions About Consumer Preferences
      • Ordinal and Cardinal Ranking
    • 3.2 Utility Functions
      • Preferences with a Single Good: The Concept of Marginal Utility
      • Preferences with Multiple Goods: Marginal Utility, Indifference Curves, and the Marginal Rate of Sub
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 3.1
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 3.2
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 3.3
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 3.4
    • 3.3 Special Preferences
      • Perfect Substitutes
      • Perfect Complements
      • The Cobb–Douglas Utility Function
      • Quasilinear Utility Functions
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 4 Consumer Choice
    • 4.1 The Budget Constraint
      • How does a Change in Income Affect the Budget Line?
      • How does a Change in Price Affect the Budget Line?
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 4.1
    • 4.2 Optimal Choice
      • Using the Tangency Condition to Understand When a Basket Is Not Optimal
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 4.2
      • Finding an Optimal Consumption Basket
      • Two Ways of Thinking about Optimality
      • Corner Points
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 4.3
    • 4.3 Consumer Choice with Composite Goods
      • Application: Coupons and Cash Subsidies
      • Application: Joining a Club
      • Application: Borrowing and Lending
      • Application: Quantity Discounts
    • 4.4 Revealed Preference
      • Are Observed Choices Consistent with Utility Maximization?
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 4.4
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 4.5
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix 1: The Mathematics of Consumer Choice
      • Appendix 2: The Time Value of Money
      • Future Value and Present Value
      • Net Present Value
      • Present Value, Future Value, and the Optimal Consumption Choice Problem
  • Chapter 5 The Theory of Demand
    • 5.1 Optimal Choice and Demand
      • The Effects of a Change in Price
      • The Effects of a Change in Income
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.1
      • The Effects of a Change in Price or Income: An Algebraic Approach
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.2
    • 5.2 Change in the Price of a Good: Substitution Effect and Income Effect
      • The Substitution Effect
      • The Income Effect
      • Income and Substitution Effects When Goods are not Normal
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.3
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.4
    • 5.3 Change in the Price of a Good: The Concept of Consumer Surplus
      • Understanding Consumer Surplus from the Demand Curve
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.5
      • Understanding Consumer Surplus from the Optimal Choice Diagram: Compensating Variation and Equivalen
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.6
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 5.7
    • 5.4 Market Demand
      • Market Demand with Network Externalities
    • 5.5 The Choice of Labor and Leisure
      • As Wages Rise, Leisure First Decreases, Then Increases
      • The Backward-Bending Supply of Labor
    • 5.6 Consumer Price Indices
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 6 Inputs and Production Functions
    • 6.1 Introduction to Inputs and Production Functions
    • 6.2 Production Functions with a Single Input
      • Total Product Functions
      • Marginal and Average Product
      • Relationship between Marginal and Average Product
    • 6.3 Production Functions with More Than One Input
      • Total Product and Marginal Product with Two Inputs
      • Isoquants
      • Economic and Uneconomic Regions of Production
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 6.1
      • Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 6.2
    • 6.4 Substitutability Among Inputs
      • Describing a Firm’s Input Substitution Opportunities Graphically
      • Elasticity of Substitution
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 6.3
      • Special Production Functions
    • 6.5 Returns to Scale
      • Definitions
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 6.4
      • Returns To Scale Versus Diminishing Marginal Returns
    • 6.6 Technological Progress
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 6.5
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix: The Elasticity of Substitution for a Cobb–Douglas Production Function
  • Chapter 7 Costs and Cost Minimization
    • 7.1 Cost Concepts for Decision Making
      • Opportunity Cost
      • Economic Versus Accounting Costs
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 7.1
    • 7.2 The Cost-Minimization Problem
      • Long Run Versus Short Run
      • The Long-Run Cost-Minimization Problem
      • Isocost Lines
      • Graphical Characterization of the Solution to the Long-Run Cost-Minimization Problem
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 7.2
      • Corner Point Solutions
    • 7.3 Comparative Statics Analysis of the Cost-Minimization Problem
      • Comparative Statics Analysis of Changes in Input Prices
      • Comparative Statics Analysis of Changes in Output
      • Summarizing the Comparative Statics Analysis: The Input Demand Curves
      • The Price Elasticity of Demand for Inputs
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 7.3
    • 7.4 Short-Run Cost Minimization
      • Characterizing Costs in the Short Run
      • Cost Minimization in the Short Run
      • Comparative Statics: Short-Run Input Demand Versus Long-Run Input Demand
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 7.4
      • More Than One Variable Input in The Short Run
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 7.5
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix: Advanced Topics in Cost Minimization
      • Solving the Cost-Minimization Problem Using the Mathematics of Constrained Optimization
      • Duality: “Backing Out” The Production Function from the Input Demand Functions
  • Chapter 8 Cost Curves
    • 8.1 Long-Run Cost Curves
      • Long-Run Total Cost Curve
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 8.1
      • How Does the Long-Run Total Cost Curve Shift When Input Prices Change?
      • Long-Run Average and Marginal Cost Curves
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 8.2
    • 8.2 Short-Run Cost Curves
      • Short-Run Total Cost Curve
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 8.3
      • Relationship Between the Long-Run and the Short-Run Total Cost Curves
      • Short-Run Average and Marginal Cost Curves
      • Relationships Between the Long-Run and the Short-Run Average and Marginal Cost Curves
      • When Are Long-Run and Short-Run Average and Marginal Costs Equal and When Are They Not?
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 8.4
    • 8.3 Special Topics in Cost
      • Economies of Scope
      • Economies of Experience: The Experience Curve
    • 8.4 Estimating Cost Functions
      • Constant Elasticity Cost Function
      • Translog Cost Function
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix: Shephard’s Lemma and Duality
        • What Is Shephard’s Lemma?
        • Duality
        • Proof of Shephard’s Lemma
  • Chapter 9 Perfectly Competitive Markets
    • 9.1 What Is Perfect Competition?
    • 9.2 Profit Maximization by a Price-Taking Firm
      • Economic Profit Versus Accounting Profit
      • The Profit-Maximizing Output Choice for a Price-Taking Firm
    • 9.3 How the Market Price Is Determined: Short-Run Equilibrium
      • The Price-Taking Firm’s Short-Run Cost Structure
      • Short-Run Supply Curve for a Price-Taking Firm When All Fixed Costs Are Sunk
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 9.1
      • Short-Run Supply Curve for a Price-Taking Firm When Some Fixed Costs Are Sunk and Some Are Nonsunk
      • Short-Run Market Supply Curve
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 9.2
      • Short-Run Perfectly Competitive Equilibrium
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 9.3
      • Comparative Statics Analysis of the Short-Run Equilibrium
    • 9.4 How the Market Price Is Determined: Long-Run Equilibrium
      • Long-Run Output and Plant-Size Adjustments by Established Firms
      • The Firm’s Long-Run Supply Curve
      • Free Entry and Long-Run Perfectly Competitive Equilibrium
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 9.4
      • Long-Run Market Supply Curve
      • Constant-Cost, Increasing-Cost, and Decreasing-Cost Industries
      • What Does Perfect Competition Teach Us?
    • 9.5 Economic Rent and Producer Surplus
      • Economic Rent
      • Producer Surplus
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 9.5
      • Economic Profit, Producer Surplus, Economic Rent
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix:Profit Maximization Implies Cost Minimization
  • Chapter 10 Competitive Markets: Applications
    • 10.1 The Invisible Hand, Excise Taxes, and Subsidies
      • The Invisible Hand
      • Excise Taxes
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 10.1
      • Incidence of a Tax
      • Subsidies
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 10.2
    • 10.2 Price Ceilings and Floors
      • Price Ceilings
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 10.3
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 10.4
    • 10.3 Production Quotas
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 10.5
    • 10.4 Price Supports in the Agricultural Sector
      • Acreage Limitation Programs
      • Government Purchase Programs
    • 10.5 Import Quotas and Tariffs
      • Quotas
      • Tariffs
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 10.6
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 11 Monopoly and Monopsony
    • 11.1 Profit Maximization by a Monopolist
      • The Profit-Maximization Condition
      • A Closer Look at Marginal Revenue: Marginal Units and Inframarginal Units
      • Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.1
      • The Profit-Maximization Condition Shown Graphically
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.2
      • A Monopolist Does Not Have a Supply Curve
    • 11.2 The Importance of Price Elasticity of Demand
      • Price Elasticity of Demand and the Profit-Maximizing Price
      • Marginal Revenue and Price Elasticity of Demand
      • Marginal Cost and Price Elasticity of Demand: The Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.3
      • The Monopolist Always Produces on the Elastic Region of the Market Demand Curve
      • The IEPR Applies Not Only to Monopolists
      • Quantifying Market Power: The Lerner Index
    • 11.3 Comparative Statics for Monopolists
      • Shifts in Market Demand
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.4
      • Shifts in Marginal Cost
    • 11.4 Monopoly with Multiple Plants and Markets
      • Output Choice with Two Plants
      • Output Choice with Two Markets
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.5
      • Profit Maximization by a Cartel
    • 11.5 The Welfare Economics of Monopoly
      • The Monopoly Equilibrium Differs from the Perfectly Competitive Equilibrium
      • Monopoly Deadweight Loss
      • Rent-Seeking Activities
    • 11.6 Why Do Monopoly Markets Exist?
      • Natural Monopoly
      • Barriers to Entry
    • 11.7 Monopsony
      • The Monopsonist’s Profit-Maximization Condition
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.6
      • An Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule for Monopsony
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 11.7
      • Monopsony Deadweight Loss
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 12 Capturing Surplus
    • 12.1 Capturing Surplus
    • 12.2 First-Degree Price Discrimination: Making the Most from Each Consumer
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 12.1
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 12.2
    • 12.3 Second-Degree Price Discrimination: Quantity Discounts
      • Block Pricing
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 12.3
      • Subscription and Usage Charges
    • 12.4 Third-Degree Price Discrimination: Different Prices for Different Market Segments
      • Two Different Segments, Two Different Prices
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 12.4
      • Screening
      • Third-Degree Price Discrimination with Capacity Constraints
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 12.5
      • Implementing the Scheme of Price Discrimination: Building “Fences”
    • 12.5 Tying (Tie-in Sales)
      • Bundling
      • Mixed Bundling
    • 12.6 Advertising
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 12.6
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 13 Market Structure and Competition
    • 13.1 Describing and Measuring Market Structure
    • 13.2 Oligopoly with Homogeneous Products
      • The Cournot Model of Oligopoly
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 13.1
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 13.2
      • The Bertrand Model of Oligopoly
      • Why Are the Cournot and Bertrand Equilibria Different?
      • The Stackelberg Model of Oligopoly
    • 13.3 Dominant Firm Markets
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 13.3
    • 13.4 Oligopoly with Horizontally Differentiated Products
      • What Is Product Differentiation?
      • Bertrand Price Competition with Horizontally Differentiated Products
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 13.4
    • 13.5 Monopolistic Competition
      • Short-Run and Long-Run Equilibrium in Monopolistically Competitive Markets
      • Price Elasticity of Demand, Margins, and Number of Firms in the Market
      • Do Prices Fall When More Firms Enter?
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix: The Cournot Equilibrium and the Inverse Elasticity Pricing Rule
  • Chapter 14 Game Theory and Strategic Behavior
    • 14.1 The Concept of Nash Equilibrium
      • A Simple Game
      • The Nash Equilibrium
      • The Prisoners’ Dilemma
      • Dominant and Dominated Strategies
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 14.1
      • Games With More Than One Nash Equilibrium
      • Mixed Strategies
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 14.2
      • Summary: How to Find All the Nash Equilibria in a Simultaneous-Move Game with Two Players
    • 14.2 The Repeated Prisoners’ Dilemma
    • 14.3 Sequential-Move Games and Strategic Moves
      • Analyzing Sequential-Move Games
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 14.3
      • The Strategic Value of Limiting One’s Options
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 15 Risk and Information
    • 15.1 Describing Risky Outcome
      • Lotteries and Probabilities
      • Expected Value
      • Variance
    • 15.2 Evaluating Risky Outcomes
      • Utility Functions and Risk Preferences
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 15.1
      • Risk-Neutral and Risk-Loving Preferences
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 15.2
    • 15.3 Bearing and Eliminating Risk
      • Risk Premium
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 15.3
      • When Would a Risk-Averse Person Choose to Eliminate Risk? The Demand for Insurance
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 15.4
      • Asymmetric Information: Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection
    • 15.4 Analyzing Risky Decisions
      • Decision Tree Basics
      • Decision Trees with a Sequence of Decisions
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 15.5
      • The Value of Information
    • 15.5 Auctions
      • Types of Auctions and Bidding Environments
      • Auctions When Bidders Have Private Values
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 15.6
      • Auctions When Bidders Have Common Values: The Winner’s Curse
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Chapter 16 General Equilibrium Theory
    • 16.1 General Equilibrium Analysis: Two Market
      • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 16.1
    • 16.2 General Equilibrium Analysis: Many Market
      • The Origins of Supply and Demand in a Simple Economy
      • The General Equilibrium in Our Simple Economy
      • Walras’ Law
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 16.2
    • 16.3 General Equilibrium Analysis: Comparative Statics
    • 16.4 The Efficiency of Competitive Markets
      • What Is Economic Efficiency?
      • Exchange Efficiency
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 16.3
      • Input Efficiency
      • Substitution Efficiency
      • Pulling the Analysis Together: The Fundamental Theorems of Welfare Economics
    • 16.5 Gains from Free Trade
      • Free Trade Is Mutually Beneficial
      • Comparative Advantage
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
      • Appendix: Deriving the Demand and Supply Curves for General Equilibrium in Figure 16.10 and Learning
        • Deriving the Household and Market Demand Curves for Energy and Food
        • Deriving the Market Demand Curves for Labor and Capital
        • Deriving the Market Supply Curves for Energy and Food
  • Chapter 17 Externalities and Public Goods
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Externalities
      • Negative Externalities and Economic Efficiency
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 17.1
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 17.2
      • Positive Externalities and Economic Efficiency
      • Property Rights and the Coase Theorem
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 17.3
    • 17.3 Public Goods
      • Efficient Provision of a Public Good
      • The Free-Rider Problem
        • Learning-By-Doing Exercise 17.4
      • Chapter Summary
      • Problems
  • Mathematical Appendix
  • Solutions to Selected Problems
  • Glossary
  • Index

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Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 9781118716533
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Microeconomics, International Student Version

Vörumerki: John Wiley
Vörunúmer: 9781118716533
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