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Medical Ethics For Dummies

Vörumerki: Dummies Series
Vörunúmer: 9780470946466
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Medical Ethics For Dummies

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  • Title
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
    • About This Book
    • Where to Go from Here
    • Icons Used in This Book
    • How This Book Is Organized
      • Part I: Medical Ethics, or Doing the Right Thing
      • Part II: A Patient’s Right to Request, Receive, and Refuse Care
      • Part III: Ethics at the Beginning and End of Life
      • Part IV: Advancing Medical Knowledge with Ethical Clinical Research
      • Part V: The Part of Tens
    • Foolish Assumptions
    • What You’re Not to Read
    • Conventions Used in This Book
  • Part I: Medical Ethics, or Doing the Right Thing
    • Chapter 1: What Are Medical Ethics?
      • Defining Medical Ethics
        • What are ethics?
        • The four principles of medical ethics
        • Differences between ethics and legality
        • Reconciling medical ethics and patient care
        • Turning to ethical guideposts and guidelines
      • Looking at the Common Medical Ethics Issues
        • Privacy and confidentiality concerns
        • Reproduction and beginning-of-life issues
        • End-of-life issues
        • Access to care
      • Moving Medicine Forward: The Ethics of Research
    • Chapter 2: Morality in Medicine
      • Distinguishing among Ethics, Morality, and Law
      • Looking at the Hippocratic Oath and Its Modern Descendents
        • Noting why the Oath was updated
        • Taking a new oath at graduation
        • Understanding humanitarian goals: The Declaration of Geneva
      • Rules for Engagement: Today’s Codes of Medical Ethics
        • American Medical Association Code of Ethics
        • American Nursing Association Code of Ethics
      • Bedside Manners: Ethics inside the Hospital
        • Understanding the hospital ethics panel
        • Patient bill of rights
        • Emergency room ethics
      • Bioethics as a Field of Study
    • Chapter 3: The Provider-Patient Relationship
      • Protecting Patient Privacy
        • Understanding confidentiality
        • Balancing privacy with public good
        • Confidentiality in research
      • Clear and Ethical Communications
        • Communicating with the patient
        • Informed consent
      • Understanding Full Disclosure: Telling the Patient What Matters
        • Decoding conflicts of interest
        • Deciding who has access to medical information
        • Choosing not to disclose information to a patient
      • Understanding Appropriate Referrals
        • Considering second opinions
        • Discovering the need for specialist referrals
      • Choosing Whom to Serve
        • Refusing to treat a patient
        • Ending a doctor-patient relationship
        • Giving medical advice to non-patients
      • Patient Rights and Obligations
        • Patient autonomy: Patient as decision-maker
        • Encouraging honesty
        • Balancing treatment and cost
    • Chapter 4: Outside the Examining Room: Running an Ethical Practice
      • Propriety in the Paperwork: Medical Records
        • Complying with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
        • Training staff to handle records
        • Preventing identity theft
        • Releasing medical records
        • Safeguarding anonymity
      • Modern Managed Care and Today’s Office Practice
        • Ethical concerns of managed care
        • Working with midlevel providers
        • Prescribing good care while still getting paid
      • Third-Party Issues
        • Dealing with insurance companies and HMOs
        • Perks and freebies
        • Targeted advertising and ethics
    • Chapter 5: Learning from Mistakes: Disclosing Medical Errors
      • Types of Medical Errors and Ways to Prevent Them
        • Understanding diagnostic errors
        • Understanding treatment errors
        • Medication errors
        • Communication errors
        • Administrative errors
        • Lab errors
        • Equipment failures
      • Admitting Your Mistakes
        • Understanding truth telling
        • Disclosing an error to a patient
        • Balancing ethics with legal protection
        • Telling a higher-up that you’ve made an error
      • When Colleagues Don’t Disclose: Your Ethical Obligations
      • Healthcare Provider Impairment
        • Knowing the warning signs of impairment
        • Addressing a colleague’s impairment
        • Testifying before a medical board
      • How Reporting Errors Helps Medicine as a Whole
        • Creating a no-blame system for reporting errors
        • Understanding how to reduce errors
  • Part II: A Patient’s Right to Request, Receive, and Refuse Care
    • Chapter 6: The Ethical Challenges in Distributing Basic Healthcare
      • Ethics of Healthcare Distribution
      • Exploring Healthcare Rationing
        • How services are rationed
        • The ethics of rationing
      • Looking at Healthcare in the United States
        • The current system and its ethical challenges
        • The reformed system and potential ethical speed bumps
        • Examining universal healthcare
    • Chapter 7: When Spirituality and Cultural Beliefs Affect Care
      • Accommodating Religious Beliefs
        • Religions that limit or ban medical care
        • Discussing religion and understanding objections
        • Offering alternatives to care
      • Respecting Cultural Diversity
        • Attitudes and beliefs that affect care
        • Communicating with non-English-speaking patients
        • Discussing cultural beliefs
      • When the Patient Refuses Treatment
        • Determining competency
        • Making sure the patient understands
        • Validating concerns and assuaging fears
        • Accepting refusals
    • Chapter 8: Parental Guidance and Responsibilities
      • Acknowledging Parental Rights to Choose or Refuse Care
        • Responsibilities of a parent
        • Weighing parental choice against a child’s best interest
        • Caring for a child when parents disagree with you
        • Knowing when and how to treat impaired infants
      • Vaccination: The Evidence and the Ethics
        • Understanding vaccination as a public health issue
        • Considering risk-benefit analysis
        • Understanding full disclosure
        • Addressing parent opposition to vaccines
      • Child Endangerment: The Healthcare Provider’s Role
        • Discovering signs of abuse and neglect
        • Reporting abuse and workingwith Child Protective Services
      • Confidentiality, Care, and the Adolescent Patient
        • Understanding adolescent patients’ rights
        • Balancing privacy and patient’s rights
        • Talking to teens about informed consent
        • Mature minors and emancipated minors
  • Part III: Ethics at the Beginning and End of Life
    • Chapter 9: Two Lives, One Patient: Pregnancy Rights and Issues
      • Medical Intervention: Rights of the Mother versus Rights of the Fetus
        • Setting forth rights with the Fourteenth Amendment
        • Understanding self-determination
        • Balancing treatments for a woman and fetus
        • The role of technology
      • Considering a Father’s Rights
      • Birth Control
        • Educating your patient about birth control
        • Balancing your beliefs about birthcontrol with a patient’s rights
        • Understanding religious ethics and birth control
      • Fetal Abuse
        • Maternal drug abuse or neglect: Crimes against the fetus
        • Detecting fetal abuse: Ethical and legal obligations
        • Limiting maternal freedom for fetal well-being
      • Seeing into the Future: Prenatal and Genetic Testing
        • Understanding the ethical use of prenatal testing
        • Understanding tests and accuracy issues
        • Genetic counseling and sharing results with parents
    • Chapter 10: When Science Supersedes Sex: Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy
      • In Vitro Fertilization
        • Understanding acceptableversus unacceptable harm
        • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: Choosing which embryos to implant
        • Multiple pregnancy reduction: When IVF works too well
        • Decoding embryo storage and destruction
      • Artificial Insemination
        • Understanding safe, anonymous,and consensual sperm donation
        • Sex selection: Is it ever ethical?
      • Surrogacy: Carrying Someone Else’s Child
        • Paying for pregnancy: The ethics of commercial surrogacy
        • Considering the emotional and physical health of the surrogate
        • Looking at the contract and surrogate responsibilities
        • Understanding rights of the child
        • The doctor’s responsibilities
      • Sterilization: Preventing Reproduction
        • Voluntary sterilization as birth control
        • The ethics of involuntary birth control
        • Understanding eugenics: Social engineering
    • Chapter 11: Walking a Fine Line: Examining the Ethics of Abortion
      • When Does Personhood Begin?
        • What, and who, is a person?
        • Applying ethical principles to personhood
      • Looking at Each Side’s Point of View
        • Understanding the pro-life stance
        • Understanding the pro-choice stance
      • Therapeutic Abortion: To Protect Maternal Health and Life
        • Reasons for therapeutic abortion
        • Informing the patient
        • Counseling for the family
        • When a patient refuses medical advice
      • Abortion Due to Fetal Defect
        • Reasons for abortion because of fetal defect
        • Weighing the ethics of selective abortion
      • Voluntary Abortion
        • Legal definition and limitations
        • A less invasive option: RU-486
      • Roe v Wade: Legal Status of Abortion and Ethical Implications
        • Looking at changes on the state level
        • Accurate medical counseling
      • The Religious Divide
      • Toward Common Ground
    • Chapter 12: Determining Death: Not an Event, but a Process
      • Defining Death
        • Using heart and lung function to define death
        • Adding brain function to the definition of death
      • Examining Brain Death
        • A quick look at how the brain works
        • Looking at the types of brain death
        • Current standards of brain death
        • Declaring a patient brain dead
      • Understanding Cases That Defined Brain Death
        • Karen Ann Quinlan
        • Nancy Cruzan
      • Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment
        • Weighing the benefits of further treatment
        • Counseling the family
      • Examining Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide
        • Relieving suffering with mercy-killing
        • Understanding the history of physician-assisted suicide
        • When a doctor aids in death
    • Chapter 13: Death with Dignity: The Right to Appropriate End-of-Life Care
      • Roadmaps for the End of Life
        • Understanding advance directives
        • Looking at living wills
        • Looking at Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care
        • Do Not Resuscitate and Do Not Intubate orders
        • Physician’s Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST)
      • Of Sound Mind: Establishing Mental Capacity
        • Understanding informed consent and a patient’s ability to give it
        • Assessing decision-making capacity
        • Substitute decision-makers: When a patient is declared incompetent
      • Relief of Pain and Suffering
        • Understanding palliative care
        • Walking a fine line: The double-effect rule
        • Easing pain with terminal sedation
      • Organ Donation and Allocation for Transplants
        • Legality of organ donation
        • Sustaining life for organ harvesting
        • Looking at living donation
        • The financial inequities of transplant eligibility
        • Compensation for donation: The ethical challenges
        • Xenotransplantation, or animal to human transplant
  • Part IV Advancing MedicalKnowledge withEthical ClinicalResearch
    • Chapter 14: Toward Trials without Error: The Evolution of Ethics in Clinical Research
      • An Introduction to Medical Research
        • Moving from lab experimentsto research on humans
        • Understanding the importance ofinformed consent in clinical trials
      • Turning Points in MedicalResearch in America
        • The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Theethics of withholding treatment
        • The establishment of the Office for HumanResearch Protections and IRBs
      • Guiding Principles of Ethical Studies
        • The Nuremberg Code: New researchstandards in the wake of World War II
        • The Declaration of Helsinki: A globalroadmap for ethical clinical research
        • Good Clinical Practice Guidelines:Replacing the Declaration of Helsinki
        • The Belmont Report: Best ethicalpractices in U.S. research
    • Chapter 15: Beyond Guinea Pigs: Anatomy of an Ethical Clinical Trial
      • Elements of a Valid Trial: Leveling the Playing Field Ethically
        • Collective clinical equipoise: Asking whether a trial is needed
        • Understanding basic trial design
        • Choosing ethical controls
        • Preventing bias with blind studies and randomization
        • Minimizing any risk of harm
      • The Institutional Review Board: Ethical Gatekeepers of Clinical Research
        • Looking at the role of the IRB
        • Evaluating and green-lighting a clinical trial
      • Recruiting Study Participants
        • Deciding to ask patients to participate
        • Laying out all the risks and benefits with informed consent
        • Full disclosure: Explaining financial and institutional conflicts of interest
      • Ending a Trial Early
        • Remembering obligations to patients
        • Looking at implications for research
        • Publicizing preliminary results
    • Chapter 16: Research in Special Populations
      • Animal Research
        • Understanding why animals are used
        • Ethical treatment of research animals
      • Psychiatric Research and Consent
        • Assessing decision-making ability in psychiatric patients
        • Protecting the patient: Risk versus benefit
      • Pregnancy and Pediatrics
        • Understanding research with pregnant women
        • Why risk may outweigh the benefits
        • Research on children: Surrogate consent
    • Chapter 17: It’s All in the Genes: The Ethics of Stem Cell and Genetic Research
      • Understanding Stem Cell Research
        • Who will benefit? The case for stem cell research
        • The ethical debate over embryonic stem cell lines
        • Focusing on adult stem cells
      • Genetic Testing: Looking for Problems in DNA
        • Knowing what we can and can’t change
        • Weighing the risks and benefits
        • Offering emotional counseling for patients
      • Genome Sequencing: Mapping DNA
        • Gene patents: Deciding who owns what
        • Looking at ethical problems with patents
        • Deciding who can use the human genome
      • Gene Therapy: Changing the Code
        • Weighing the risks and benefits of gene therapy
        • Designer genes: Going beyond therapy
      • Cloning: Making Copies
        • Cloning as a reproductive option
        • Growing tissues with therapeutic cloning
  • Part V: The Part of Tens
    • Chapter 18: Ten Ethical Issues to Address with Your Patients
    • Chapter 19: Ten High-Profile Medical Ethics Cases
    • Chapter 20: Almost Ten Ethical Issues for the Future
  • Index


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Vörumerki: Dummies Series
Vörunúmer: 9780470946466
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