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Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, Global Edition

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Contents in Brief
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • About the Author
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contents
  • UNIT 1 Basic Cell Processes: Integration and Coordination
    • Chapter 1: Introduction to Physiology
      • Physiology Is an Integrative Science
        • RUNNING PROBLEM What to Believe?
        • Emerging Concepts The Changing World of Omics
      • Function and Mechanism
      • Themes in Physiology
        • Focus on . . . Mapping
        • Theme 1: Structure and Function Are Closely Related
        • Theme 2: Living Organisms Need Energy
        • Theme 3: Information Flow Coordinates Body Functions
        • Theme 4: Homeostasis Maintains Internal Stability
      • Homeostasis
        • What Is the Body’s Internal Environment?
        • Homeostasis Depends on Mass Balance
        • Excretion Clears Substances from the Body
        • Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium
      • Control Systems and Homeostasis
        • Local Control Is Restricted to a Tissue
        • Reflex Control Uses Long-Distance Signaling
        • Response Loops Begin with a Stimulus
        • Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop
        • Negative Feedback Loops Are Homeostatic
        • Positive Feedback Loops Are Not Homeostatic
        • Feedforward Control Allows the Body to Anticipate Change
        • Biological Rhythms Result from Changes in a Setpoint
      • The Science of Physiology
        • Good Scientific Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed
        • Focus on . . . Graphing
        • The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Difficult to Interpret
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 2: Molecular Interactions
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Chromium Supplements
      • Molecules and Bonds
        • Most Biomolecules Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
        • Electrons Have Four Important Biological Roles
        • Covalent Bonds between Atoms Create Molecules
        • Noncovalent Bonds Facilitate Reversible Interactions
      • Noncovalent Interactions
        • Hydrophilic Interactions Create Biological Solutions
        • Molecular Shape Is Related to Molecular Function
        • Hydrogen Ions in Solution Can Alter Molecular Shape
      • Protein Interactions
        • Proteins Are Selective about the Molecules They Bind
        • Protein-Binding Reactions Are Reversible
        • Binding Reactions Obey the Law of Mass Action
        • The Dissociation Constant Indicates Affinity
        • Multiple Factors Alter Protein Binding
        • The Body Regulates the Amount of Protein in Cells
        • Reaction Rate Can Reach a Maximum
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 3: Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Pap Tests Save Lives
      • Functional Compartments of the Body
        • The Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside the Body
        • Functionally, the Body Has Three Fluid Compartments
      • Biological Membranes
        • The Cell Membrane Separates Cell from Environment
        • Membranes Are Mostly Lipid and Protein
        • Membrane Lipids Create a Hydrophobic Barrier
        • Membrane Proteins May Be Loosely or Tightly Bound to the Membrane
        • Membrane Carbohydrates Attach to Both Lipids and Proteins
      • Intracellular Compartments
        • Cells Are Divided into Compartments
        • The Cytoplasm Includes Cytosol, Inclusions, Fibers, and Organelles
        • Inclusions Are in Direct Contact with the Cytosol
        • Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Come in Three Sizes
        • Microtubules Form Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
        • Emerging Concepts Single Cilia Are Sensors
        • The Cytoskeleton Is a Changeable Scaffold
        • Motor Proteins Create Movement
        • Organelles Create Compartments for Specialized Functions
        • The Nucleus Is the Cell’s Control Center
      • Tissues of the Body
        • Extracellular Matrix Has Many Functions
        • Cell Junctions Hold Cells Together to Form Tissues
        • Epithelia Provide Protection and Regulate Exchange
        • Connective Tissues Provide Support and Barriers
        • Muscle and Neural Tissues Are Excitable
      • Tissue Remodeling
        • Apoptosis Is a Tidy Form of Cell Death
        • Stem Cells Can Create New Specialized Cells
        • Emerging Concepts Induced Pluripotent Stems Cells
        • Focus on . . . The Skin
        • Organs
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Tay-Sachs Disease: A Deadly Inheritance
      • Energy in Biological Systems
        • Energy Is Used to Perform Work
        • Energy Comes in Two Forms: Kinetic and Potential
        • Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another
        • Thermodynamics Is the Study of Energy Use
      • Chemical Reactions
        • Energy Is Transferred between Molecules during Reactions
        • Activation Energy Gets Reactions Started
        • Energy Is Trapped or Released during Reactions
        • Net Free Energy Change Determines Reaction Reversibility
      • Enzymes
        • Enzymes Are Proteins
        • Reaction Rates Are Variable
        • Enzymes May Be Activated, Inactivated, or Modulated
        • Enzymes Lower Activation Energy of Reactions
        • Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Categorized
      • Metabolism
        • Cells Regulate Their Metabolic Pathways
        • Catabolic Pathways Produce ATP
        • One Glucose Molecule Can Yield 30–32 ATP
        • Anaerobic Metabolism Makes Two ATP
        • Proteins Are the Key to Cell Function
        • DNA Guides the Synthesis of RNA
        • Alternative Splicing Creates Multiple Proteins from One DNA Sequence
        • mRNA Translation Links Amino Acids
        • Emerging Concepts Purple Petunias and RNAi
        • Protein Sorting Directs Proteins to Their Destination
        • Proteins Undergo Posttranslational Modification
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 5: Membrane Dynamics
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Cystic Fibrosis
      • Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium
      • Osmosis and Tonicity
        • The Body Is Mostly Water
        • The Body Is in Osmotic Equilibrium
        • Osmolarity Describes the Number of Particles in Solution
        • Tonicity Describes the Volume Change of a Cell
      • Transport Processes
        • Cell Membranes Are Selectively Permeable
      • Diffusion
        • Lipophilic Molecules Cross Membranes by Simple Diffusion
      • Protein-Mediated Transport
        • Membrane Proteins Have Four Major Functions
        • Channel Proteins Form Open, Water-Filled Passageways
        • Carrier Proteins Change Conformation to Move Molecules
        • Facilitated Diffusion Uses Carrier Proteins
        • Active Transport Moves Substances against Their -Concentration Gradients
        • Carrier-Mediated Transport Exhibits Specificity, Competition, and Saturation
      • Vesicular Transport
        • Phagocytosis Creates Vesicles Using the Cytoskeleton
        • Endocytosis Creates Smaller Vesicles
        • CLINICAL FOCUS LDL: The Lethal Lipoprotein
        • Exocytosis Releases Molecules Too Large for Transport Proteins
      • Epithelial Transport
        • Epithelial Transport May Be Paracellular or Transcellular
        • Transcellular Transport of Glucose Uses Membrane Proteins
        • Transcytosis Uses Vesicles to Cross an Epithelium
      • The Resting Membrane Potential
        • Electricity Review
        • The Cell Membrane Enables Separation of Electrical Charge in the Body
        • All Living Cells Have a Membrane Potential
        • The Resting Membrane Potential Is Due Mostly to Potassium
        • Changes in Ion Permeability Change the Membrane Potential
      • Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin Secretion
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 6: Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis
      • Cell-to-Cell Communication
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Diabetes Mellitus: A Growing Epidemic
        • Gap Junctions Create Cytoplasmic Bridges
        • Contact-Dependent Signals Require Cell-to-Cell Contact
        • Local Communication Uses Paracrine and Autocrine Signals
        • Long-Distance Communication May Be Electrical or Chemical
        • Cytokines May Act as Both Local and Long-Distance Signals
      • Signal Pathways
        • Receptor Proteins Are Located Inside the Cell or on the Cell Membrane
        • Membrane Proteins Facilitate Signal Transduction
        • The Most Rapid Signal Pathways Change Ion Flow through Channels
        • Most Signal Transduction Uses G Proteins
        • Many Lipophobic Hormones Use GPCR-cAMP Pathways
        • G Protein-Coupled Receptors Also Use Lipid-Derived Second Messengers
        • Catalytic Receptors Have Enzyme Activity
        • Integrin Receptors Transfer Information from the Extracellular Matrix
      • Novel Signal Molecules
        • Calcium Is an Important Intracellular Signal
        • Gases Are Ephemeral Signal Molecules
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY Calcium Signals Glow in the Dark
        • CLINICAL FOCUS From Dynamite to Medicine
        • Some Lipids Are Important Paracrine Signals
      • Modulation of Signal Pathways
        • Receptors Exhibit Saturation, Specificity, and Competition
        • One Ligand May Have Multiple Receptors
        • Up and Down-Regulation Enable Cells to Modulate Responses
        • Cells Must Be Able to Terminate Signal Pathways
        • Many Diseases and Drugs Target the Proteins of Signal Transduction
      • Homeostatic Reflex Pathways
        • Cannon’s Postulates Describe Regulated Variables and -Control Systems
        • Long-Distance Pathways Maintain Homeostasis
        • Control Systems Vary in Their Speed and Specificity
        • Complex Reflex Control Pathways Have Several Integrating Centers
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • UNIT 2 Homeostasis and Control
    • Chapter 7: Introduction to the Endocrine System
      • Hormones
        • RUNNING PROBLEM Graves’ Disease
        • Hormones Have Been Known Since Ancient Times
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: The Discovery of Insulin
        • What Makes a Chemical a Hormone?
        • Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors
        • Hormone Action Must Be Terminated
      • The Classification of Hormones
        • Most Hormones Are Peptides or Proteins
        • Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Cholesterol
        • Some Hormones Are Derived from Single Amino Acids
      • Control of Hormone Release
        • The Endocrine Cell Is the Sensor in Simple Endocrine Reflexes
        • Many Endocrine Reflexes Involve the Nervous System
        • Neurohormones Are Secreted into the Blood by Neurons
        • The Pituitary Gland Is Actually Two Fused Glands
        • The Posterior Pituitary Stores and Releases Two Neurohormones
        • The Anterior Pituitary Secretes Six Hormones
        • A Portal System Connects the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary
        • Anterior Pituitary Hormones Control Growth, Metabolism, and Reproduction
        • Feedback Loops Are Different in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Pathway
      • Hormone Interactions
        • In Synergism, the Effect of Interacting Hormones Is More than Additive
        • A Permissive Hormone Allows Another Hormone to Exert Its Full Effect
        • Antagonistic Hormones Have Opposing Effects
      • Endocrine Pathologies
        • Hypersecretion Exaggerates a Hormone’s Effects
        • Hyposecretion Diminishes or Eliminates a Hormone’s Effects
        • Receptor or Second Messenger Problems Cause Abnormal Tissue Responsiveness
        • Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathologies Depends on the -Complexity of the Reflex
      • Hormone Evolution
        • Focus on . . . The Pineal Gland
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 8: Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Mysterious Paralysis
      • Organization of the Nervous System
      • Cells of the Nervous System
        • Neurons Carry Electrical Signals
        • Establishing Synapses Depends on Chemical Signals
        • Glial Cells Provide Support for Neurons
        • Can Stem Cells Repair Damaged Neurons?
      • Electrical Signals in Neurons
        • The Nernst Equation Predicts Membrane Potential for a Single Ion
        • The GHK Equation Predicts Membrane Potential Using -Multiple Ions
        • Ion Movement Creates Electrical Signals
        • Gated Channels Control the Ion Permeability of the Neuron
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Mutant Channels
        • Current Flow Obeys Ohm’s Law
        • Graded Potentials Reflect Stimulus Strength
        • Action Potentials Travel Long Distances
        • Na+ and K+ Move across the Membrane during Action Potentials
        • One Action Potential Does Not Alter Ion Concentration Gradients
        • Axonal Na+ Channels Have Two Gates
        • Action Potentials Will Not Fire during the Absolute Refractory Period
        • Action Potentials Are Conducted
        • Larger Neurons Conduct Action Potentials Faster
        • Conduction Is Faster in Myelinated Axons
        • Chemical Factors Alter Electrical Activity
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY The Body’s Wiring
      • Cell-To-Cell Communication in the Nervous System
        • Neurons Communicate at Synapses
        • Neurons Secrete Chemical Signals
        • Neurotransmitters Are Highly Varied
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Myasthenia Gravis
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY Of Snakes, Snails, Spiders, and Sushi
        • Neurotransmitters Are Released from Vesicles
        • Stronger Stimuli Release More Neurotransmitter
      • Integration of Neural Information Transfer
        • Postsynaptic Responses May Be Slow or Fast
        • Pathways Integrate Information from Multiple Neurons
        • Synaptic Activity Can Be Modified
        • Long-Term Potentiation Alters Synapses
        • Disorders of Synaptic Transmission Are Responsible for Many Diseases
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 9: The Central Nervous System
      • Emergent Properties of Neural Networks
        • RUNNING PROBLEM Infantile Spasms
      • Evolution of Nervous Systems
      • Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
        • The CNS Develops from a Hollow Tube
        • The CNS Is Divided into Gray Matter and White Matter
        • Bone and Connective Tissue Support the CNS
        • The Brain Floats in Cerebrospinal Fluid
        • The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain
        • Neural Tissue Has Special Metabolic Requirements
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Hypoglycemia and the Brain
      • The Spinal Cord
      • The Brain
        • The Brain Stem Is the Oldest Part of the Brain
        • The Cerebellum Coordinates Movement
        • The Diencephalon Contains the Centers for Homeostasis
        • The Cerebrum Is the Site of Higher Brain Functions
      • Brain Function
        • The Cerebral Cortex Is Organized into Functional Areas
        • The Spinal Cord and Brain Integrate Sensory Information
        • Sensory Information Is Processed into Perception
        • The Motor System Governs Output from the CNS
        • The Behavioral State System Modulates Motor Output
        • Why Do We Sleep?
        • Emerging Concepts Brain Glymphatics
        • Physiological Functions Exhibit Circadian Rhythms
        • Emotion and Motivation Involve Complex Neural Pathways
        • Moods Are Long-Lasting Emotional States
        • Learning and Memory Change Synaptic Connections in the Brain
        • Learning Is the Acquisition of Knowledge
        • Memory Is the Ability to Retain and Recall Information
        • Language Is the Most Elaborate Cognitive Behavior
        • Personality Is a Combination of Experience and Inheritance
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 10: Sensory Physiology
      • RUNNING PROBLEM MÉniÈre’s Disease
      • General Properties of Sensory Systems
        • Receptors Are Sensitive to Particular Forms of Energy
        • Sensory Transduction Converts Stimuli into Graded Potentials
        • A Sensory Neuron Has a Receptive Field
        • The CNS Integrates Sensory Information
        • Coding and Processing Distinguish Stimulus Properties
      • Somatic Senses
        • Pathways for Somatic Perception Project to the Cortex and Cerebellum
        • Touch Receptors Respond to Many Different Stimuli
        • Skin Temperature Receptors Are Free Nerve Endings
        • Nociceptors Initiate Protective Responses
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Natural Painkillers
      • Chemoreception: Smell and Taste
        • Olfaction Is One of the Oldest Senses
        • Taste Is a Combination of Five Basic Sensations
        • Taste Transduction Uses Receptors and Channels
      • The Ear: Hearing
        • Hearing Is Our Perception of Sound
        • Sound Transduction Is a Multistep Process
        • The Cochlea Is Filled with Fluid
        • Sounds Are Processed First in the Cochlea
        • Auditory Pathways Project to the Auditory Cortex
        • Hearing Loss May Result from Mechanical or Neural Damage
      • The Ear: Equilibrium
        • The Vestibular Apparatus Provides Information about -Movement and Position
        • The Semicircular Canals Sense Rotational Acceleration
        • The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position
        • Equilibrium Pathways Project Primarily to the Cerebellum
      • The Eye and Vision
        • The Skull Protects the Eye
        • Light Enters the Eye through the Cornea
        • The Lens Focuses Light on the Retina
        • Phototransduction Occurs at the Retina
        • Emerging Concepts Melanopsin
        • Photoreceptors Transduce Light into Electrical Signals
        • Signal Processing Begins in the Retina
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 11: Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control
      • RUNNING PROBLEM A Powerful Addiction
      • The Autonomic Division
        • Autonomic Reflexes Are Important for Homeostasis
        • Antagonistic Control Is a Hallmark of the Autonomic Division
        • Autonomic Pathways Have Two Efferent Neurons in Series
        • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches Originate in Different Regions
        • The Autonomic Nervous System Uses a Variety of Chemical Signals
        • Autonomic Pathways Control Smooth and Cardiac Muscle and Glands
        • Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Synthesized in the Axon
        • Autonomic Receptors Have Multiple Subtypes
        • The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Catecholamines
        • Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists Are Important Tools in Research and Medicine
        • Primary Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Are Relatively Uncommon
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Autonomic Neuropathy
        • Summary of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches
      • The Somatic Motor Division
        • A Somatic Motor Pathway Consists of One Neuron
        • The Neuromuscular Junction Contains Nicotinic Receptors
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 12: Muscles
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Periodic Paralysis
      • Skeletal Muscle
        • Skeletal Muscles Are Composed of Muscle Fibers
        • Myofibrils Are Muscle Fiber Contractile Structures
        • Muscle Contraction Creates Force
        • Actin and Myosin Slide Past Each Other during Contraction
        • Myosin Crossbridges Move Actin Filaments
        • Calcium Signals Initiate Contraction
        • Myosin Heads Step along Actin Filaments
        • Acetylcholine Initiates Excitation-Contraction Coupling
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY Watching Myosin Work
        • Skeletal Muscle Contraction Requires a Steady Supply of ATP
        • Fatigue Has Multiple Causes
        • Skeletal Muscle Is Classified by Speed and Fatigue Resistance
        • Resting Fiber Length Affects Tension
        • Force of Contraction Increases with Summation
        • A Motor Unit Is One Motor Neuron and Its Muscle Fibers
        • Contraction Force Depends on the Types and Numbers of Motor Units
      • Mechanics of Body Movement
        • Isotonic Contractions Move Loads; Isometric Contractions Create Force without Movement
        • Bones and Muscles around Joints Form Levers and Fulcrums
        • Muscle Disorders Have Multiple Causes
      • Smooth Muscle
        • Smooth Muscle Is More Variable Than Skeletal Muscle
        • Smooth Muscle Lacks Sarcomeres
        • Myosin Phosphorylation Controls Contraction
        • MLCP Controls Ca2+ Sensitivity
        • Calcium Initiates Smooth Muscle Contraction
        • Some Smooth Muscles Have Unstable Membrane Potentials
        • Chemical Signals Influence Smooth Muscle Activity
      • Cardiac Muscle
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 13: Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement
      • Neural Reflexes
        • Neural Reflex Pathways Can Be Classified in Different Ways
        • RUNNING PROBLEM: Tetanus
      • Autonomic Reflexes
      • Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
        • Golgi Tendon Organs Respond to Muscle Tension
        • Muscle Spindles Respond to Muscle Stretch
        • Stretch Reflexes and Reciprocal Inhibition Control Movement around a Joint
        • Flexion Reflexes Pull Limbs Away from Painful Stimuli
      • The Integrated Control of Body Movement
        • Movement Can Be Classified as Reflex, Voluntary, or Rhythmic
        • The CNS Integrates Movement
      • Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
        • Emerging Concepts Visualization Techniques in Sports
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • UNIT 3 Integration of Function
    • Chapter 14: Cardiovascular Physiology
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Myocardial Infarction
      • Overview of the Cardiovascular System
        • The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials throughout the Body
        • The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart, Blood -Vessels, and Blood
      • Pressure, Volume, Flow, and Resistance
        • The Pressure of Fluid in Motion Decreases over Distance
        • Pressure Changes in Liquids without a Change in Volume
        • Blood Flows from Higher Pressure to Lower Pressure
        • Resistance Opposes Flow
        • Velocity Depends on the Flow Rate and the Cross-Sectional Area
      • Cardiac Muscle and the Heart
        • The Heart Has Four Chambers
        • Heart Valves Ensure One-Way Flow in the Heart
        • The Coronary Circulation Supplies Blood to the Heart
        • Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract without Innervation
        • Calcium Entry Is a Feature of Cardiac EC Coupling
        • Cardiac Muscle Contraction Can Be Graded
        • Myocardial Action Potentials Vary
      • The Heart as a Pump
        • Electrical Signals Coordinate Contraction
        • Pacemakers Set the Heart Rate
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Fibrillation
        • The Electrocardiogram Reflects Electrical Activity
        • The Heart Contracts and Relaxes during a Cardiac Cycle
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Gallops, Clicks, and Murmurs
        • Pressure-Volume Curves Represent One Cardiac Cycle
        • Stroke Volume Is the Volume of Blood Pumped per Contraction
        • Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance
        • The Autonomic Division Modulates Heart Rate
        • Multiple Factors Influence Stroke Volume
        • Contractility Is Controlled by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
        • Emerging Concepts Stem Cells for Heart Disease
        • EDV and Arterial Blood Pressure Determine Afterload
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 15: Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Essential Hypertension
      • The Blood Vessels
        • Blood Vessels Contain Vascular Smooth Muscle
        • Arteries and Arterioles Carry Blood Away from the Heart
        • Exchange Takes Place in the Capillaries
        • Blood Flow Converges in the Venules and Veins
        • Angiogenesis Creates New Blood Vessels
      • Blood Pressure
        • Blood Pressure Is Highest in Arteries and Lowest in Veins
        • Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects the Driving Pressure for Blood Flow
        • Blood Pressure Is Estimated by Sphygmomanometry
        • Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure
        • Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure
        • CLINICAL FOCUS SHOCK
      • Resistance in the Arterioles
        • Myogenic Autoregulation Adjusts Blood Flow
        • Paracrine Signals Influence Vascular Smooth Muscle
        • The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle
      • Distribution of Blood to the Tissues
        • Cerebral Blood Flow Stays Nearly Constant
        • Coronary Blood Flow Parallels the Work of the Heart
      • Regulation of Cardiovascular Function
        • The Baroreceptor Reflex Controls Blood Pressure
        • Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Reflex
        • Other Systems Influence Cardiovascular Function
      • Exchange at the Capillaries
        • Velocity of Blood Flow Is Lowest in the Capillaries
        • Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis
        • Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow
      • The Lymphatic System
        • Edema Results from Alterations in Capillary Exchange
      • Cardiovascular Disease
        • Risk Factors for CVD Include Smoking and Obesity
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
        • Atherosclerosis Is an Inflammatory Process
        • Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis
        • Emerging Concepts Inflammatory Markers for Cardiovascular Disease
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 16: Blood
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Blood Doping in Athletes
      • Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood
        • Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix
        • Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
      • Blood Cell Production
        • Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow
        • Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines
        • Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis
        • Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production
        • Erythropoietin Regulates RBC Production
      • Red Blood Cells
        • Mature RBCs Lack a Nucleus
        • Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron
        • RBCs Live about Four Months
        • Focus on . . . Bone Marrow
        • RBC Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Hemoglobin and Hyperglycemia
      • Platelets
      • Hemostasis and Coagulation
        • Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels
        • Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process
        • Coagulation Converts a Platelet Plug into a Clot
        • Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 17: Mechanics of Breathing
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Emphysema
      • The Respiratory System
        • Bones and Muscles of the Thorax Surround the Lungs
        • Pleural Sacs Enclose the Lungs
        • Airways Connect Lungs to the External Environment
        • The Airways Warm, Humidify, and Filter Inspired Air
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Congestive Heart Failure
        • Alveoli Are the Site of Gas Exchange
        • Pulmonary Circulation Is High-Flow, Low-Pressure
      • Gas Laws
        • Air Is a Mixture of Gases
        • Gases Move Down Pressure Gradients
        • Boyle’s Law Describes Pressure-Volume Relationships
      • Ventilation
        • Lung Volumes Change during Ventilation
        • During Ventilation, Air Flows because of Pressure Gradients
        • Inspiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Decreases
        • Expiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Increases
        • Intrapleural Pressure Changes during Ventilation
        • Lung Compliance and Elastance May Change in Disease States
        • Surfactant Decreases the Work of Breathing
        • Airway Diameter Determines Airway Resistance
        • Rate and Depth of Breathing Determine the Efficiency of Breathing
        • Alveolar Gas Composition Varies Little during Normal Breathing
        • Ventilation and Alveolar Blood Flow Are Matched
        • Auscultation and Spirometry Assess Pulmonary Function
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 18: Gas Exchange and Transport
      • RUNNING PROBLEM High Altitude
      • Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues
        • Lower Alveolar Po2 Decreases Oxygen Uptake
        • Diffusion Problems Cause Hypoxia
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY The Pulse Oximeter
        • Gas Solubility Affects Diffusion
      • Gas Transport in the Blood
        • Hemoglobin Binds to Oxygen
        • Oxygen Binding Obeys the Law of Mass Action
        • Hemoglobin Transports Most Oxygen to the Tissues
        • Po2 Determines Oxygen-Hb Binding
        • Emerging Concepts Blood Substitutes
        • Oxygen Binding Is Expressed as a Percentage
        • Several Factors Affect O2-Hb Binding
        • Carbon Dioxide Is Transported in Three Ways
      • Regulation of Ventilation
        • Neurons in the Medulla Control Breathing
        • CO2, Oxygen, and pH Influence Ventilation
        • Protective Reflexes Guard the Lungs
        • Higher Brain Centers Affect Patterns of Ventilation
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 19: The Kidneys
      • Functions of the Kidneys
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Gout
      • Anatomy of the Urinary System
        • The Urinary System Consists of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
        • The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
      • Overview of Kidney Function
        • Kidneys Filter, Reabsorb, and Secrete
        • The Nephron Modifies Fluid Volume and Osmolarity
      • Filtration
        • The Renal Corpuscle Contains Filtration Barriers
        • Emerging Concepts Diabetes: Diabetic Nephropathy
        • Capillary Pressure Causes Filtration
        • GFR Is Relatively Constant
        • GFR Is Subject to Autoregulation
        • Hormones and Autonomic Neurons Also Influence GFR
      • Reabsorption
        • Reabsorption May Be Active or Passive
        • Renal Transport Can Reach Saturation
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY Artificial Kidneys
        • Peritubular Capillary Pressures Favor Reabsorption
      • Secretion
        • Competition Decreases Penicillin Secretion
      • Excretion
        • Clearance Is a Noninvasive Way to Measure GFR
        • Clearance Helps Us Determine Renal Handling
      • Micturition
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 20: Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
      • Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
        • ECF Osmolarity Affects Cell Volume
        • Multiple Systems Integrate Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Hyponatremia
        • Water Balance
        • Daily Water Intake and Excretion Are Balanced
        • The Kidneys Conserve Water
        • The Renal Medulla Creates Concentrated Urine
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Osmotic Diuresis
        • Vasopressin Controls Water Reabsorption
        • Blood Volume and Osmolarity Activate Osmoreceptors
        • The Loop of Henle Is a Countercurrent Multiplier
      • Sodium Balance and ECF Volume
        • Aldosterone Controls Sodium Balance
        • Low Blood Pressure Stimulates Aldosterone Secretion
        • ANG II Has Many Effects
        • Natriuretic Peptides Promote Na+ and Water Excretion
      • Potassium Balance
      • Behavioral Mechanisms in Salt and Water Balance
        • Drinking Replaces Fluid Loss
        • Low Na+ Stimulates Salt Appetite
        • Avoidance Behaviors Help Prevent Dehydration
      • Integrated Control of Volume, Osmolarity, and Blood Pressure
        • Osmolarity and Volume Can Change Independently
        • Dehydration Triggers Homeostatic Responses
        • Kidneys Assist in Blood Pressure Homeostasis
        • Endocrine Problems Disrupt Fluid Balance
      • Acid-Base Balance
        • pH Changes Can Denature Proteins
        • Acids and Bases in the Body Come from Many Sources
        • pH Homeostasis Depends on Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
        • Buffer Systems Include Proteins, Phosphate Ions, and HCO3
        • Ventilation Can Compensate for pH Disturbances
        • Kidneys Use Ammonia and Phosphate Buffers
        • The Proximal Tubule Secretes H+ and Reabsorbs HCO3
        • The Distal Nephron Controls Acid Excretion
        • Acid-Base Disturbances May Be Respiratory or Metabolic
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • UNIT 4 Metabolism, Growth, and Aging
    • Chapter 21: The Digestive System
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Cholera in India
      • Anatomy of the Digestive System
        • The Digestive System Is a Tube
        • The GI Tract Wall Has Four Layers
      • Digestive Function and Processes
        • We Secrete More Fluid than We Ingest
        • Digestion and Absorption Make Food Usable
        • Motility: GI Smooth Muscle Contracts Spontaneously
        • GI Smooth Muscle Exhibits Different Patterns of Contraction
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Diabetes: Delayed Gastric Emptying
      • Regulation of GI Function
        • The Enteric Nervous System Can Act Independently
        • GI Peptides Include Hormones, Neuropeptides, and Cytokines
      • Integrated Function: The Cephalic Phase
        • Chemical and Mechanical Digestion Begins in the Mouth
        • Saliva Is an Exocrine Secretion
        • Swallowing Moves Food from Mouth to Stomach
      • Integrated Function: The Gastric Phase
        • The Stomach Stores Food
        • Gastric Secretions Protect and Digest
        • The Stomach Balances Digestion and Defense
      • Integrated Function: The Intestinal Phase
        • Intestinal Secretions Promote Digestion
        • The Pancreas Secretes Enzymes and Bicarbonate
        • The Liver Secretes Bile
        • Most Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine
        • Focus on . . . The Liver
        • Bile Salts Facilitate Fat Digestion
        • Carbohydrates Are Absorbed as Monosaccharides
        • Proteins Are Digested into Small Peptides and Amino Acids
        • Some Larger Peptides Can Be Absorbed Intact
        • Nucleic Acids Are Digested into Bases and Monosaccharides
        • The Intestine Absorbs Vitamins and Minerals
        • The Intestine Absorbs Ions and Water
        • Regulation of the Intestinal Phase
        • The Large Intestine Concentrates Waste
        • Diarrhea Can Cause Dehydration
        • EMERGING CONCEPTS The Human Microbiome Project
      • Immune Functions of the GI Tract
        • M Cells Sample Gut Contents
        • Vomiting Is a Protective Reflex
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 22: Metabolism and Energy Balance
      • Appetite and Satiety
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Eating Disorders
        • BIOTECHNOLOGY Discovering Peptides: Research in Reverse
      • Energy Balance
        • Energy Input Equals Energy Output
        • Oxygen Consumption Reflects Energy Use
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Estimating Fat–The Body Mass Index
        • Many Factors Influence Metabolic Rate
        • Energy Is Stored in Fat and Glycogen
      • Metabolism
        • Ingested Energy May Be Used or Stored
        • Enzymes Control the Direction of Metabolism
      • Fed-State Metabolism
        • Carbohydrates Make ATP
        • Amino Acids Make Proteins
        • Fats Store Energy
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Antioxidants Protect the Body
        • Plasma Cholesterol Predicts Heart Disease
      • Fasted-State Metabolism
        • Glycogen Converts to Glucose
        • Proteins Can Be Used to Make ATP
        • Lipids Store More Energy than Glucose or Protein
      • Homeostatic Control of Metabolism
        • The Pancreas Secretes Insulin and Glucagon
        • The Insulin-to-Glucagon Ratio Regulates Metabolism
        • Insulin Is the Dominant Hormone of the Fed State
        • Insulin Promotes Anabolism
        • Glucagon Is Dominant in the Fasted State
        • Diabetes Mellitus Is a Family of Diseases
        • Type 1 Diabetics Are Prone to Ketoacidosis
        • Type 2 Diabetics Often Have Elevated Insulin Levels
        • Metabolic Syndrome Links Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
        • Multiple Hormones Influence Metabolism
      • Regulation of Body Temperature
        • Body Temperature Balances Heat Production, Gain, and Loss
        • Body Temperature Is Homeostatically Regulated
        • Movement and Metabolism Produce Heat
        • The Body’s Thermostat Can Be Reset
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 23: Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism
      • Review of Endocrine Principles
        • RUNNING PROBLEM Hyperparathyroidism
      • Adrenal Glucocorticoids
        • The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones
        • Cortisol Secretion Is Controlled by ACTH
        • Cortisol Is Essential for Life
        • Cortisol Is a Useful Therapeutic Drug
        • Cortisol Pathologies Result from Too Much or Too Little Hormone
        • CRH and ACTH Have Additional Physiological Functions
      • Thyroid Hormones
        • Thyroid Hormones Contain Iodine
        • TSH Controls the Thyroid Gland
        • Thyroid Pathologies Affect Quality of Life
      • Growth Hormone
        • Growth Hormone Is Anabolic
        • Growth Hormone Is Essential for Normal Growth
        • Genetically Engineered hGH Raises Ethical Questions
      • Tissue and Bone Growth
        • Tissue Growth Requires Hormones and Paracrine Factors
        • Bone Growth Requires Adequate Dietary Calcium
        • CLINICAL FOCUS New Growth Charts
      • Calcium Balance
        • Plasma Calcium Is Closely Regulated
        • Three Hormones Control Calcium Balance
        • Multiple Factors Control Bone Remodeling
        • Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis Are Linked
        • Osteoporosis Is a Disease of Bone Loss
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 24: The Immune System
      • Overview
        • RUNNING PROBLEM HPV: To Vaccinate or Not?
      • Anatomy of the Immune System
        • Lymphoid Tissues Are Everywhere
        • Leukocytes Are the Immune Cells
      • Development of Immune Cells
        • Focus on . . . The Thymus Gland
        • Lymphocytes Mediate the Adaptive Immune Response
        • The Immune System Must Recognize “Self”
        • Early Pathogen Exposure Strengthens Immunity
      • Molecules of the Innate Immune Response
        • Many Molecules of the Innate Immune Response Are Always Present
      • Antigen Presentation and Recognition Molecules
        • Major Histocompatibility Complexes, MHC
        • Antigen-Recognition Molecules
        • B Lymphocytes Produce Antibodies
      • Pathogens of the Human Body
        • Bacteria and Viruses Require Different Defense Mechanisms
        • Viruses Can Only Replicate inside Host Cells
      • The Immune Response
        • Barriers Are the Body’s First Line of Defense
        • Innate Immunity Provides Nonspecific Responses
        • Antigen-Presenting Cells Bridge Innate and Adaptive Responses
        • Adaptive Immunity Creates Antigen-Specific Responses
        • Antibody Functions
      • Integrated Immune Responses
        • Bacterial Invasion Causes Inflammation
        • Viral Infections Require Intracellular Defense
        • Specific Antigens Trigger Allergic Responses
        • MHC Proteins Allow Recognition of Foreign Tissue
      • Immune System Pathologies
        • Autoimmune Disease Results from Antibodies against Self-Antigen
        • Immune Surveillance Removes Abnormal Cells
      • Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Interactions
        • Stress Alters Immune System Function
        • Modern Medicine Includes Mind-Body Therapeutics
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 25: Integrative Physiology III: Exercise
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Malignant Hyperthermia
      • Metabolism and Exercise
        • Hormones Regulate Metabolism during Exercise
        • Oxygen Consumption Is Related to Exercise Intensity
        • Several Factors Limit Exercise
      • Ventilatory Responses to Exercise
      • Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
        • Cardiac Output Increases during Exercise
        • Muscle Blood Flow Increases during Exercise
        • Blood Pressure Rises Slightly during Exercise
        • The Baroreceptor Reflex Adjusts to Exercise
      • Feedforward Responses to Exercise
      • Temperature Regulation During Exercise
      • Exercise and Health
        • Exercise Lowers the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
        • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Improve with Exercise
        • Stress and the Immune System May Be Influenced by Exercise
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Chapter 26: Reproduction and Development
      • RUNNING PROBLEM Infertility
      • Sex Determination
        • Sex Chromosomes Determine Genetic Sex
        • Sexual Differentiation Occurs Early in Development
        • CLINICAL FOCUS X-Linked Inherited Disorders
      • Basic Patterns of Reproduction
        • CLINICAL FOCUS Determining Sex
        • Gametogenesis Begins in Utero
        • The Brain Directs Reproduction
        • Environmental Factors Influence Reproduction
      • Male Reproduction
        • Testes Produce Sperm and Hormones
        • Spermatogenesis Requires Gonadotropins and Testosterone
        • Male Accessory Glands Contribute Secretions to Semen
        • Androgens Influence Secondary Sex Characteristics
      • Female Reproduction
        • The Ovary Produces Eggs and Hormones
        • A Menstrual Cycle Lasts about One Month
        • Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle Is Complex
        • Hormones Influence Female Secondary Sex Characteristics
      • Procreation
        • The Human Sexual Response Has Four Phases
        • The Male Sex Act Includes Erection and Ejaculation
        • Sexual Dysfunction Affects Males and Females
        • Contraceptives Are Designed to Prevent Pregnancy
        • Infertility Is the Inability to Conceive
      • Pregnancy and Parturition
        • Fertilization Requires Capacitation
        • The Developing Embryo Implants in the Endometrium
        • The Placenta Secretes Hormones During Pregnancy
        • Pregnancy Ends with Labor and Delivery
        • The Mammary Glands Secrete Milk During Lactation
      • Growth and Aging
        • Puberty Marks the Beginning of the Reproductive Years
        • Menopause and Andropause Are a Consequence of Aging
      • CHAPTER SUMMARY
      • REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A Answers
    • Appendix B Physics and Math
    • Appendix C Genetics
  • Photo Credits
  • Glossary/Index
  • Back Cover

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Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292259628
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Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, Global Edition

Vörumerki: Pearson
Vörunúmer: 9781292259628
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