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Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology E-Book

Vörumerki: Elsevier
Vörunúmer: 9780323640039
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Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology E-Book

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Instructions for online access
  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Note To Instructors
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Unit I. Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
    • Chapter 1. Functional Organization of the Human Body and Control of the “Internal Environment”
      • Cells are the Living Units of the Body
      • Extracellular Fluid—the “Internal Environment”
      • Homeostasis—Maintenance of a Nearly Constant Internal Environment
      • Control Systems of the Body
      • Summary—Automaticity of the Body
    • Chapter 2. The Cell and Its Functions
      • Organization of the Cell
      • Cell Structure
      • Comparison of the Animal Cell With Precellular Forms of Life
      • Functional Systems of the Cell
      • Locomotion of Cells
    • Chapter 3. Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and Cell Reproduction
      • Cell Nucleus Genes Control Protein Synthesis
      • Transcription—Transfer of Cell Nucleus Dna Code to Cytoplasm Rna Code
      • Translation—Formation of Proteins on the Ribosomes
      • Synthesis of Other Substances in the Cell
      • Control of Gene Function and Biochemical Activity in Cells
      • The dna–Genetic System Controls Cell Reproduction
      • Cell Differentiation
      • Apoptosis—Programmed Cell Death
      • Cancer
  • Unit II. Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
    • Chapter 4. Transport of Substances Through Cell Membranes
      • The Cell Membrane is a Lipid Bilayer With Cell Membrane Transport Proteins
      • Diffusion
      • Active Transport of Substances Through Membranes
    • Chapter 5. Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials
      • Basic Physics of Membrane Potentials
      • Resting Membrane Potential of Neurons
      • Neuron Action Potential
      • Propagation of the Action Potential
      • Re-Establishing Sodium and Potassium Ionic Gradients After Action Potentials are Completed—Importance of Energy Metabolism
      • Plateau in Some Action Potentials
      • Rhythmicity of Some Excitable Tissues—Repetitive Discharge
      • Special Characteristics of Signal Transmission in Nerve Trunks
      • Excitation—The Process of Eliciting the Action Potential
      • Refractory Period After an Action Potential, During Which a new Stimulus Cannot be Elicited
    • Chapter 6. Contraction of Skeletal Muscle
      • Physiological Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
      • General Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
      • Molecular Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
      • Energetics of Muscle Contraction
      • Characteristics of Whole Muscle Contraction
    • Chapter 7. Excitation of Skeletal Muscle: Neuromuscular Transmission and Excitation-Contraction Coupling
      • Neuromuscular Junction and Transmission of Impulses from Nerve Endings to Skeletal Muscle Fibers
      • Muscle Action Potential
      • Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    • Chapter 8. Excitation and Contraction of Smooth Muscle
      • Contraction of Smooth Muscle
      • Regulation of Contraction by Calcium Ions
      • Nervous and Hormonal Control of Smooth Muscle Contraction
  • Unit III. The Heart
    • Chapter 9. Cardiac Muscle; The Heart as a Pump and Function of the Heart Valves
      • Physiology of Cardiac Muscle
      • Cardiac Cycle
      • Regulation of Heart Pumping
    • Chapter 10. Rhythmical Excitation of the Heart
      • Specialized Excitatory and Conductive System of the Heart
      • Control of Excitation and Conduction in the Heart
    • Chapter 11. Fundamentals of Electrocardiography
      • Waveforms of the Normal Electrocardiogram
      • Flow of Current Around the Heart During the Cardiac Cycle
      • Electrocardiographic Leads
    • Chapter 12. Electrocardiographic Interpretation of Cardiac Muscle and Coronary Blood Flow Abnormalities: Vectorial Analysis
      • Vectorial Analysis of Electrocardiograms
      • Vectorial Analysis of the Normal Electrocardiogram
      • Mean Electrical Axis of the Ventricular qrs and its Significance
      • Conditions That Cause Abnormal Voltages of the Qrs Complex
      • Prolonged and Bizarre Patterns of the Qrs Complex
      • Current of Injury
      • Abnormalities in the T Wave
    • Chapter 13. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Their Electrocardiographic Interpretation
      • Abnormal Sinus Rhythms
      • Heart Block Within the Intracardiac Conduction Pathways
      • Premature Contractions
      • Paroxysmal Tachycardia
      • Ventricular Fibrillation
      • Atrial Fibrillation
      • Atrial Flutter
      • Cardiac Arrest
  • Unit IV. The Circulation
    • Chapter 14. Overview of the Circulation: Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
      • Physical Characteristics of the Circulation
      • Basic Principles of Circulatory Function
      • Interrelationships of Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
    • Chapter 15. Vascular Distensibility and Functions of the Arterial and Venous Systems
      • Vascular Distensibility
      • Arterial Pressure Pulsations
      • Veins and Their Functions
      • Clinical Estimation of Venous Pressure
      • Direct Measurement of Venous Pressure and Right Atrial Pressure
      • Pressure Reference Level for Measuring Venous and Other Circulatory Pressures
      • Blood-Cleansing Function of the Spleen—Removal of Old Cells
      • Reticuloendothelial Cells of the Spleen
    • Chapter 16. The Microcirculation and Lymphatic System: Capillary Fluid Exchange, Interstitial Fluid, and Lymph Flow
      • Structure of the Microcirculation and Capillary System
      • Flow of Blood in the Capillaries—Vasomotion
      • Exchange of Water, Nutrients, and Other Substances Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid
      • Interstitium and Interstitial Fluid
      • Fluid Filtration Across Capillaries
      • Lymphatic System
    • Chapter 17. Local and Humoral Control of Tissue Blood Flow
      • Local Control of Blood Flow in Response to Tissue Needs
      • Mechanisms of Blood Flow Control
      • Humoral Control of the Circulation
    • Chapter 18. Nervous Regulation of the Circulation and Rapid Control of Arterial Pressure
      • Nervous Regulation of the Circulation
      • Special Features of Nervous Control of Arterial Pressure
    • Chapter 19. Role of the Kidneys in Long-Term Control of Arterial Pressure and in Hypertension: The Integrated System for Arterial Pressure Regulation
      • Renal–Body Fluid System for Arterial Pressure Control
      • Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Arterial Pressure Control
      • Summary of Integrated Multifaceted Systems for Arterial Pressure Regulation
    • Chapter 20. Cardiac Output, Venous Return, and Their Regulation
      • Normal Values for Cardiac Output at Rest and During Activity
      • Control of Cardiac Output by Venous Return—Frank-Starling Mechanism of the Heart
      • Methods For Measuring Cardiac Output
    • Chapter 21. Muscle Blood Flow and Cardiac Output During Exercise; the Coronary Circulation and Ischemic Heart Disease
      • Blood Flow Regulation in Skeletal Muscle at Rest and During Exercise
      • Coronary Circulation
    • Chapter 22. Cardiac Failure
      • Circulatory Dynamics in Cardiac Failure
      • Unilateral Left Heart Failure
      • Low-Output Cardiac Failure—Cardiogenic Shock
      • Edema in Patients With Cardiac Failure
      • Cardiac Reserve
      • Quantitative Graphic Analysis of Cardiac Failure
      • Heart Failure With Diastolic Dysfunction and Normal Ejection Fraction
      • High-Output Cardiac Failure
    • Chapter 23. Heart Valves and Heart Sounds; Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects
      • Heart Sounds
      • Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Valvular Heart Disease
      • Abnormal Circulatory Dynamics in Congenital Heart Defects
      • Use of Extracorporeal Circulation During Cardiac Surgery
      • Hypertrophy of the Heart in Valvular and Congenital Heart Disease
    • Chapter 24. Circulatory Shock and Its Treatment
      • Physiological Causes of Shock
      • Shock Caused by Hypovolemia—Hemorrhagic Shock
      • Neurogenic Shock—Increased Vascular Capacity
      • Anaphylactic Shock and Histamine Shock
      • Septic Shock
      • Physiology of Treatment in Shock
      • Circulatory Arrest
  • Unit V. The Body Fluids and Kidneys
    • Chapter 25. Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids; Edema
      • Fluid Intake and Output ARE Balanced During Steady-State Conditions
      • Body Fluid Compartments
      • Constituents of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
      • Measurement of Body Fluid Compartment Volumes—Indicator-Dilution Principle
      • Fluid Exchange and Osmotic Equilibrium Between Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
      • Volume and Osmolality of Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids in Abnormal States
      • Glucose and Other Solutions Administered For Nutritive Purposes
      • Clinical Abnormalities of Fluid Volume Regulation: Hyponatremia and Hypernatremia
      • Edema: Excess Fluid in the Tissues
      • Fluids in Potential Spaces of the Body
    • Chapter 26. The Urinary System: Functional Anatomy and Urine Formation by the Kidneys
      • Multiple Functions of the Kidneys
      • Physiologic Anatomy of the Kidneys
      • Micturition
      • Urine Formation Results from Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption, and Tubular Secretion
    • Chapter 27. Glomerular Filtration, Renal Blood Flow, and Their Control
      • Glomerular Filtration—The First Step in Urine Formation
      • Determinants of the Glomerular Filtration Rate
      • Renal Blood Flow
      • Physiological Control of Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
      • Autoregulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Blood Flow
    • Chapter 28. Renal Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
      • Tubular Reabsorption is Quantitatively Large and Highly Selective
      • Tubular Reabsorption Includes Passive and Active Mechanisms
      • Reabsorption and Secretion Along Different Parts of the Nephron
      • Regulation of Tubular Reabsorption
      • Use of Clearance Methods to Quantify Kidney Function
    • Chapter 29. Urine Concentration and Dilution; Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
      • Kidneys Excrete Excess Water by Forming Dilute Urine
      • Kidneys Conserve Water by Excreting Concentrated Urine
      • Countercurrent Multiplier Mechanism Produces Hyperosmotic Renal Medullary Interstitium
      • Loop of Henle Characteristics That Cause Solutes to be Trapped in the Renal Medulla
      • Control of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
      • Osmoreceptor-ADH Feedback System
      • Importance of Thirst in Controlling Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Sodium Concentration
    • Chapter 30. Renal Regulation of Potassium, Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium; Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
      • Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Potassium Concentration and Potassium Excretion
      • Regulation of Renal Calcium Excretion and Extracellular Calcium Ion Concentration
      • Regulation of Renal Phosphate Excretion
      • Regulation of Renal Magnesium Excretion and Extracellular Magnesium Ion Concentration
      • Integration of Renal Mechanisms for Control of Extracellular Fluid
      • Importance of Pressure Natriuresis and Pressure Diuresis in Maintaining Body Sodium and Fluid Balance
      • Distribution of Extracellular Fluid Between Interstitial Spaces and Vascular System
      • Nervous and Hormonal Factors Increase Effectiveness of Renal–Body Fluid Feedback Control
      • Integrated Responses to Changes in Sodium Intake
      • Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Blood Volume and Extracellular Fluid Volume
      • Conditions That Cause Large Increases in Extracellular Fluid Volume With Normal or Reduced Blood Volume
    • Chapter 31. Acid–Base Regulation
      • Hydrogen Ion Concentration is Precisely Regulated
      • Acids and Bases—Definitions and Meanings
      • Defending Against Changes in H+ Concentration: Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
      • Buffering of H+ in the Body Fluids
      • Bicarbonate Buffer System
      • Phosphate Buffer System
      • Proteins are Important Intracellular Buffers
      • Respiratory Regulation of Acid–Base Balance
      • Renal Control of Acid–Base Balance
      • Secretion of H+ and Reabsorption of HCO3- by the Renal Tubules
      • Combination of Excess H+ with Phosphate and Ammonia Buffers In the Tubule Generates “New” HCO3-
      • Quantifying Renal Acid–Base Excretion
      • Regulation of Renal Tubular H+ Secretion
      • Renal Correction of Acidosis—Increased Excretion of H+ and Addition of HCO3- to the Extracellular Fluid
      • Renal Correction of Alkalosis—Decreased Tubular Secretion of H+ and Increased Excretion of HCO3-
    • Chapter 32. Diuretics and Kidney Diseases
      • Diuretics and Their Mechanisms of Action
      • Kidney Diseases
      • Acute Kidney Injury
      • Chronic Kidney Disease is Often Associated With Irreversible Loss of Functional Nephrons
  • Unit VI. Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Coagulation
    • Chapter 33. Red Blood Cells, Anemia, and Polycythemia
      • Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
      • Anemias
      • Polycythemia
    • Chapter 34. Resistance of the Body to Infection: I. Leukocytes, Granulocytes, the Monocyte-Macrophage System, and Inflammation
      • Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
      • Neutrophils and Macrophages Defend Against Infections
      • Monocyte-Macrophage Cell System (Reticuloendothelial System)
      • Inflammation: Role of Neutrophils and Macrophages
      • Eosinophils
      • Basophils
      • Leukopenia
      • Leukemias
    • Chapter 35. Resistance of the Body to Infection: II. Immunity and Allergy
      • Acquired (Adaptive) Immunity
      • Allergy and Hypersensitivity
    • Chapter 36. Blood Types; Transfusion; and Tissue and Organ Transplantation
      • Antigenicity Causes Immune Reactions of Blood
      • O-A-B Blood Types
      • Rh Blood Types
      • Transfusion Reactions Resulting From Mismatched Blood Types
      • Transplantation of Tissues and Organs
    • Chapter 37. Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation
      • Hemostasis Events
      • Mechanism of Blood Coagulation
      • Conditions That Cause Excessive Bleeding in Humans
      • Thromboembolic Conditions
      • Anticoagulants for Clinical Use
      • Blood Coagulation Tests
  • Unit VII. Respiration
    • Chapter 38. Pulmonary Ventilation
      • Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation
      • Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities
      • Alveolar Ventilation
    • Chapter 39. Pulmonary Circulation, Pulmonary Edema, and Pleural Fluid
      • Physiological Anatomy of the Pulmonary Circulatory System
      • Pressures in the Pulmonary System
      • Blood Volume of the Lungs
      • Blood Flow Through the Lungs And its Distribution
      • Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients in the Lungs on Regional Pulmonary Blood Flow
      • Pulmonary Capillary Dynamics
      • Fluid in the Pleural Cavity
    • Chapter 40. Principles of Gas Exchange; Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Through the Respiratory Membrane
      • Compositions of Alveolar Air and Atmospheric Air are Different
      • Diffusion of Gases Through the Respiratory Membrane
    • Chapter 41. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Blood and Tissue Fluids
      • Transport of Oxygen from the Lungs to the Body Tissues
      • Transport of Co2 in Blood
      • Respiratory Exchange Ratio
    • Chapter 42. Regulation of Respiration
      • Respiratory Center
      • Chemical Control of Respiration
      • Peripheral Chemoreceptor System—Role of Oxygen in Respiratory Control
      • Regulation of Respiration During Exercise
    • Chapter 43. Respiratory Insufficiency—Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Oxygen Therapy
      • Useful Methods for Studying Respiratory Abnormalities
      • Pathophysiology of Specific Pulmonary Abnormalities
      • Hypoxia and Oxygen Therapy
      • Hypercapnia—Excess Carbon Dioxide in the Body Fluids
      • Artificial Respiration
  • Unit VIII. Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
    • Chapter 44. Aviation, High Altitude, and Space Physiology
      • Effects of Low Oxygen Pressure on the Body
    • Chapter 45. Physiology of Deep-Sea Diving and Other Hyperbaric Conditions
      • Effect of High Partial Pressures of Individual Gases on the Body
      • Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (Scuba) Diving
      • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Unit IX. The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
    • Chapter 46. Organization of the Nervous System, Basic Functions of Synapses, and Neurotransmitters
      • General Design of the Nervous System
      • Major Levels of Central Nervous System Function
      • Comparison of the Nervous System to A Computer
      • Central Nervous System Synapses
      • Special Characteristics of Synaptic Transmission
    • Chapter 47. Sensory Receptors, Neuronal Circuits for Processing Information
      • Types of Sensory Receptors and the Stimuli they Detect
      • Transduction of Sensory Stimuli Into Nerve Impulses
      • Signal Intensity Transmission in Nerve Tracts—Spatial and Temporal Summation
      • Transmission and Processing of Signals in Neuronal Pools
      • Instability and Stability of Neuronal Circuits
    • Chapter 48. Somatic Sensations: I. General Organization, Tactile and Position Senses
      • Sensory Pathways for Transmitting Somatic Signals Into the Central Nervous System
      • Transmission in the Dorsal Column–Medial Lemniscal System
      • Transmission of Sensory Signals in the Anterolateral Pathway
    • CHAPTER 49. Somatic Sensations: II. Pain, Headache, and Thermal Sensations
      • Fast Pain and Slow Pain and Their Qualities
      • Pain Receptors and Their Stimulation
      • Dual Pathways for Transmission of Pain Signals Into the Central Nervous System
      • Pain Suppression (Analgesia) System in the Brain and Spinal Cord
      • Referred Pain
      • Thermal Sensations
  • Unit X. The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
    • Chapter 50. The Eye: I. Optics of Vision
      • Physical Principles of Optics
      • Optics of the Eye
      • Fluid System of the Eye—Intraocular Fluid
    • Chapter 51. The Eye: II. Receptor and Neural Function of the Retina
      • Anatomy and Function of the Structural Elements of the Retina
      • Photochemistry of Vision
      • Color Vision
      • Neural Function of the Retina
    • Chapter 52. The Eye: III. Central Neurophysiology of Vision
      • Visual Pathways
      • Organization and Function of the Visual Cortex
      • Neuronal Patterns of Stimulation During Analysis of Visual Images
      • Eye Movements and Their Control
      • Autonomic Control of Accommodation and Pupillary Aperture
    • Chapter 53. The Sense of Hearing
      • Tympanic Membrane and the Ossicular System
      • Cochlea
      • Central Auditory Mechanisms
    • Chapter 54. The Chemical Senses—Taste and Smell
      • Sense of Taste
      • Sense of Smell
  • Unit XI. The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
    • Chapter 55. Spinal Cord Motor Functions; the Cord Reflexes
      • Organization of the Spinal Cord for Motor Functions
      • Muscle Sensory Receptors—Muscle Spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs—and Their Roles in Muscle Control
      • Flexor Reflex and the Withdrawal Reflexes
      • Crossed Extensor Reflex
      • Reciprocal Inhibition and Reciprocal Innervation
      • Reflexes of Posture and Locomotion
    • Chapter 56. Cortical and Brain Stem Control of Motor Function
      • Motor Cortex and Corticospinal Tract
      • Control of Motor Functions by the Brain Stem
      • Vestibular Sensations and Maintenance of Equilibrium
    • Chapter 57. Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Overall Motor Control
      • The Cerebellum and its Motor Functions
      • The Basal Ganglia and Their Motor Functions
      • Integration of the Many Parts of the Total Motor Control System
    • Chapter 58. Cerebral Cortex, Intellectual Functions of the Brain, Learning, and Memory
      • Physiologic Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
      • Functions of Specific Cortical Areas
      • The Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure Transfer Thoughts, Memories, Training, and Other Information Between the Two Cerebral Hemispheres
      • Thoughts, Consciousness, and Memory
    • Chapter 59. The Limbic System and the Hypothalamus—Behavioral and Motivational Mechanisms of the Brain
      • Activating—Driving Systems Of The Brain
      • Limbic System
      • The Hypothalamus, a Major Control Headquarters for the Limbic System
      • Specific Functions Of Other Parts Of The Limbic System
    • Chapter 60. States of Brain Activity—Sleep, Brain Waves, Epilepsy, Psychoses, and Dementia
      • Sleep
      • Brain Waves
      • Roles of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems in Brain Disorders
      • Alzheimer's Disease—Amyloid Plaques and Depressed Memory
    • Chapter 61. The Autonomic Nervous System and the Adrenal Medulla
      • General Organization of the Autonomic Nervous System
      • Basic Characteristics of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Function
      • Selective Stimulation of Target Organs by Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems or “Mass Discharge”
      • Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System
    • Chapter 62. Cerebral Blood Flow, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Brain Metabolism
      • Cerebral Blood Flow
      • Cerebrospinal Fluid System
      • Brain Metabolism
  • Unit XII. Gastrointestinal Physiology
    • Chapter 63. General Principles of Gastrointestinal Function—Motility, Nervous Control, and Blood Circulation
      • General Principles of Gastrointestinal Motility
      • Neural Control of Gastrointestinal Function—Enteric Nervous System
      • Hormonal Control of Gastrointestinal Motility
      • Functional Movements in the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Gastrointestinal Blood Flow—Splanchnic Circulation
    • Chapter 64. Propulsion and Mixing of Food in the Alimentary Tract
      • Ingestion of Food
      • Motor Functions of the Stomach
      • Movements of the Small Intestine
      • Movements of the Colon
      • Other Autonomic Reflexes That Affect Bowel Activity
    • Chapter 65. Secretory Functions of the Alimentary Tract
      • General Principles of Alimentary Tract Secretion
      • Secretion of Saliva
      • Gastric Secretion
      • Pancreatic Secretion
      • Bile Secretion by the Liver
      • Secretions of the Small Intestine
    • Chapter 66. Digestion and Absorption in the Gastrointestinal Tract
      • Digestion of Various Foods by Hydrolysis
      • Basic Principles of Gastrointestinal Absorption
      • Absorption in the Small Intestine
      • Absorption in the Large Intestine: Formation of Feces
    • Chapter 67. Physiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Unit XIII. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
    • Chapter 68. Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Formation of Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Chapter 69. Lipid Metabolism
      • Basic Chemical Structure of Triglycerides (Neutral Fat)
      • Transport of Lipids in the Body Fluids
    • Chapter 70. Protein Metabolism
    • Chapter 71. The Liver
      • Fat Metabolism
    • Chapter 72. Dietary Balances; Regulation of Feeding; Obesity and Starvation; Vitamins and Minerals
      • Energy Intake And Output Balanced Under Steady-State Conditions
      • Regulation of Food Intake and Energy Storage
    • Chapter 73. Energetics and Metabolic Rate
    • Chapter 74. Body Temperature Regulation and Fever
      • Normal Body Temperatures
      • Body Temperature is Controlled by Balancing Heat Production and Heat Loss
      • Regulation of Body Temperature—Role of the Hypothalamus
      • Abnormalities of Body Temperature Regulation
  • Unit XIV. Endocrinology and Reproduction
    • Chapter 75. Introduction to Endocrinology
      • Coordination of Body Functions by Chemical Messengers
      • Chemical Structure and Synthesis of Hormones
      • Hormone Secretion, Transport, and Clearance from the Blood
      • Mechanisms of Action of Hormones
    • Chapter 76. Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypothalamus
      • Pituitary Gland and its Relation to the Hypothalamus
      • Hypothalamus Controls Pituitary Secretion
      • Physiological Functions of Growth Hormone
      • Posterior Pituitary Gland and its Relation to the Hypothalamus
    • Chapter 77. Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
      • Synthesis and Secretion of the Thyroid Metabolic Hormones
      • Physiological Functions of the Thyroid Hormones
      • Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
    • Chapter 78. Adrenocortical Hormones
      • Corticosteroids: Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Androgens
      • Synthesis and Secretion of Adrenocortical Hormones
      • Functions of Mineralocorticoids—Aldosterone
      • Functions of Glucocorticoids
    • Chapter 79. Insulin, Glucagon, and Diabetes Mellitus
      • Insulin and its Metabolic Effects
      • Glucagon and its Functions
      • Summary of Blood Glucose Regulation
    • Chapter 80. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism, Vitamin D, Bone, and Teeth
      • Overview of Calcium and Phosphate Regulation in Extracellular Fluid and Plasma
      • Bone and its Relationship to Extracellular Calcium and Phosphate
      • Vitamin D
      • Parathyroid Hormone
      • Calcitonin
      • Summary of Control of Calcium ion Concentration
      • Physiology of the Teeth
    • Chapter 81. Reproductive and Hormonal Functions of the Male (and Function of the Pineal Gland)
      • Spermatogenesis
      • Male Sexual Act
      • Testosterone and Other Male Sex Hormones
    • Chapter 82. Female Physiology Before Pregnancy and Female Hormones
      • Physiologic Anatomy of the Female Sexual Organs
      • Oogenesis and Follicular Development in the Ovaries
      • Female Hormonal System
      • Monthly Ovarian Cycle and Function of Gonadotropic Hormones
      • Functions of Ovarian Hormones—Estradiol and Progesterone
      • Regulation of Female Monthly Rhythm—Interplay Between Ovarian and Hypothalamic-Pituitary Hormones
      • Female Sexual Act
    • Chapter 83. Pregnancy and Lactation
      • Maturation and Fertilization of the Ovum
      • Early Nutrition of the Embryo
      • Anatomy and Function of the Placenta
      • Hormonal Factors in Pregnancy
      • Parturition
      • Lactation
    • Chapter 84. Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
  • Unit XV. Sports Physiology
    • Chapter 85. Sports Physiology
  • Index
  • Normal Values for Selected Common Laboratory Measurements

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