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Exercise Physiology

Vörumerki: Lippincott
Vörunúmer: 9781469871523
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Exercise Physiology

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance
    • Cover
    • Title Page
    • Copyright Information
    • Dedication
    • Preface
      • Exhibit 6
      • Exhibit 7
    • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction: A View of the Past
    • Introduction: A View of the Past
      • Exercise Physiology: Roots and Historical Perspectives
    • In the Beginning: Origins of Exercise Physiology from Ancient Greece to America in the Early 1800S
      • Exhibit 11
      • Figure I.1
      • Table I.1: Table of Contents for Books 1 and 2a of Galen’s De Sanitate Tuenda (Hygiene)
      • Figure I.2
      • Figure I.3
      • Figure I.4
    • Renaissance Period to Nineteenth Century
      • Notable Achievements by European Scientists
        • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)
        • Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528)
        • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564)
        • Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564)
        • Santorio Santorio (1561–1636)
        • William Harvey (1578–1657)
        • Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608–1679)
        • Robert Boyle (1627–1691)
        • Stephen Hales (1677–1761)
        • James Lind (1716–1794)
        • Joseph Black (1728–1799)
        • Joseph Priestley (1733–1804)
        • Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786)
        • Henry Cavendish (1731–1810)
        • Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794)
        • Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799)
      • Nineteenth Century Metabolism and Physiology
        • Claude Louis Berthollet (1748–1822)
        • Joseph Louis Proust (1755–1826)
        • Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778–1850)
        • William Prout (1785–1850)
        • François Magendie (1783–1855)
        • William Beaumont (1785–1853)
        • Michel Eugene Chevreul (1786–1889)
        • Jean Baptiste Boussingault (1802–1884)
        • Gerardus Johannis Mulder (1802–1880)
        • Justus von Liebig (1803–1873)
        • Henri Victor Regnault (1810–1878)
        • Claude Bernard (1813–1878)
        • Edward Smith (1819–1874)
      • Health and Hygiene Influences in the United States
        • Austin Flint, Jr., MD: American Physician-Physiologist
      • The Amherst College Connection
        • Anthropometric Assessment of Body Build
      • The First Exercise Physiology Laboratory and Degree Program in the United States
        • George Wells Fitz, MD: A Major Influence
      • Exercise Studies in Research Journals
      • The First Textbook in Exercise Physiology: The Debate Continues
      • Other Early Exercise Physiology Research Laboratories
        • Contributions of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory (1927–1946)
      • Research Methodology Textbook Focusing on Physiologic Research
      • Figure I.5
      • Exhibit 19
      • Exhibit 20
      • Exhibit 21
      • Figure I.6
      • Figure I.7
      • Exhibit 24
      • Exhibit 25
      • Figure I.8
      • Exhibit 27
      • Exhibit 28
      • Figure I.9
      • Exhibit 30
      • Exhibit 31
      • Exhibit 32
      • Figure I.10
      • Exhibit 34
      • Exhibit 35
      • Exhibit 36
      • Figure I.11
      • Exhibit 38
      • Figure I.12
      • Exhibit 40
      • Figure I.13
      • Exhibit 42
      • Exhibit 43
      • Exhibit 44
      • Exhibit 45
      • Exhibit 46
      • Exhibit 47
      • Exhibit 48
      • Exhibit 49
      • Exhibit 50
      • Exhibit 51
      • Exhibit 52
      • Figure I.14
      • Figure I.15
      • Exhibit 55
      • Figure I.16
      • Exhibit 57
      • Figure I.17
      • Exhibit 59
      • Figure I.18
      • Exhibit 61
      • Figure I.19
      • Exhibit 63
      • Figure I.20
      • Figure I.21
      • Table I.2: Average and Best Anthropometric and Strength Records of Amherst College from 1861 to 1900 Inclusive
      • Figure I.22
      • Figure I.23
      • Figure I.24
      • Figure I.25
      • Exhibit 71
      • Figure I.26
      • Exhibit 73
      • Figure I.27
      • Exhibit 75
      • Figure I.28
      • Table I.3: Areas of Investigation at the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory that Helped to Establish Exercise Physiology as an Academic Discipline
    • The Nordic Connection (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland)
      • Danish Influence
      • Swedish Influence
      • Norwegian and Finnish Influence
      • Exhibit 79
      • Exhibit 80
      • Exhibit 81
      • Figure I.29
      • Exhibit 83
      • Figure I.30
      • Exhibit 85
      • Exhibit 86
      • Table 1.4: Nordic Researchersa Awarded the ACSM Honor Award and ACSM Citation Award
    • Other Contributors to the Knowledge Base in Exercise Physiology
      • Exhibit 89
      • Exhibit 90
      • Exhibit 91
      • Exhibit 92
      • Exhibit 93
      • Exhibit 94
      • Exhibit 95
      • Exhibit 96
      • Figure I.31
      • Exhibit 98
      • Exhibit 99
      • Exhibit 100
      • Exhibit 101
      • Exhibit 102
    • The Royal Society of London
      • Figure I.32
      • Exhibit 105
    • Contributions of Women to Science at the Dawn of the 20th Century
      • Exhibit 107
    • Concluding Comment
      • Exhibit 109
  • Part One: Exercise Physiology, Section 1: Nutrition: The Base for Human Performance
    • Chapter 1: Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins
      • Section 1: Nutrition: The Base for Human Performance
        • Exhibit 111
      • Chapter 1 Introduction
      • Part 1 Carbohydrates: Kinds and Sources of Carbohydrates
        • Monosaccharides
        • Oligosaccharides
        • Polysaccharides
          • Plant Polysaccharides
          • Glycogen: The Animal Polysaccharide
        • Animation: General Digestion
        • Animation: Digestion of Carbohydrate
        • Figure 1.1
        • Exhibit 117
        • Figure 1.2
        • Animation: Hydrolysis
        • Table 1.1: Recommended Daily Fiber Intake
        • Table 1.2: Fiber Content of Common Foods (Listed in Order of Total Fiber Content)
        • Animation: Glycogen Synthesis
        • Figure 1.3
        • Figure 1.4
      • Recommended Intake of Carbohydrates
      • Role of Carbohydrates in the Body
      • Carbohydrate Dynamics during Physical Activity
        • High-Intensity Exercise
        • Moderate and Prolonged Exercise
          • Effect of Diet on Muscle Glycogen Stores and Endurance
        • Figure 1.5
        • Figure 1.6
        • Figure 1.7
      • Part 2 Lipids: The Nature of Lipids
      • Kinds and Sources of Lipids
        • Simple Lipids
          • Unsaturated Fatty Acids
          • Triacylglycerol Formation
          • Triacylglycerol Breakdown
          • Trans-Fatty Acids: Unwanted at Any Levels
          • Lipids in the Diet
        • Compound Lipids
          • High-Density, Low-Density, and Very Low-Density Lipoproteins
        • Derived Lipids
          • Functions of Cholesterol
          • Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease Risk
        • Figure 1.8
        • Animation: Condensation
        • Figure 1.9
        • Figure 1.10
        • Figure 1.11
        • Figure 1.12
        • Figure 1.13
      • Recommended Lipid Intake
        • Exhibit 141
      • Role of Lipid in the Body
        • Energy Source and Reserve
        • Protection of Vital Organs and Thermal Insulation
        • Vitamin Carrier and Hunger Depressor
        • Figure 1.14
      • Fat Dynamics during Physical Activity
        • Exercise Training and Fat Use
        • Animation: Fat Mobilization and Use
        • Figure 1.15
        • Figure 1.16
        • Figure 1.17
        • Figure 1.18
      • Part 3 Proteins: The Nature of Proteins
        • Figure 1.19
      • Kinds of Protein
        • Protein Sources
          • The Vegan Approach
        • Table 1.3: Common Sources of Dietary Protein Rated for Protein Quality
        • Table 1.4: Good Food Sources of Protein
        • Figure 1.20
      • Recommended Protein Intake
        • The RDA: A Liberal Standard
          • Do Athletes Require a Larger Protein Intake?
        • Table 1.5: Protein Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Adolescent and Adult Men and Women
      • Protein’s Role in the Body
      • Dynamics of Protein Metabolism
        • Figure 1.21
        • In a Practical Sense: Reading and Understanding the Food Label (Nutrition Panel)
          • Exhibit 162
        • Animation: Transamination
        • Figure 1.22
      • Nitrogen Balance
        • Figure 1.23
      • Protein Dynamics during Physical Activity
        • Some Modification Required for Recommended Protein Intake
        • The Alanine–Glucose Cycle
        • Figure 1.24
        • Figure 1.25
        • Animation: Alanine-Glucose Cycle
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 2: Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
      • Chapter 2 Introduction
      • Part 1 Vitamins: The Nature of Vitamins
      • Kinds of Vitamins
        • Fat-Soluble Vitamins
        • Water-Soluble Vitamins
      • Role of Vitamins
        • Figure 2.1
        • Table 2.1: Food Sources, Major Bodily Functions, and Symptoms of Deficiency or Excess of the Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins for Healthy Adults (19–50 Years)
      • Defining Nutrient Needs
        • Dietary Reference Intakes
        • Antioxidant Role of Vitamins
          • Protection from Disease
        • Figure 2.2
        • Table 2.2: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Vitamin Intakes
        • Table 2.3: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULsa)
        • Animation: Vitamin C as an Antioxidant
        • Exhibit 183
      • Physical Activity, Free Radicals, and Antioxidants
        • Increased Metabolism in Exercise and Free-Radical Production
        • Important Questions
        • Figure 2.3
      • Does Vitamin Supplementation Provide a Competitive Edge?
        • Vitamins and Exercise Performance
        • Figure 2.4
        • Figure 2.5
      • Part 2 Minerals: The Nature of Minerals
        • Table 2.4: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Mineral Intakes
        • Table 2.5: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULsa)
        • Table 2.6: The Important Major and Trace Minerals for Healthy Adults (Age 19–50 Years) and Their Food Sources, Functions, and the Effects of Deficiencies and Excesses
      • Role of Minerals in the Body
        • Figure 2.6
      • Calcium
        • Osteoporosis: Calcium, Estrogen, and Exercise
          • A Progressive Disease
          • Prevention of Bone Loss Through Diet
        • Animation: Calcium in Muscles
        • Figure 2.7
        • Exhibit 198
        • Figure 2.8
        • Exhibit 200
        • Figure 2.9
        • Figure 2.10
      • The Female Athlete Triad: An Unexpected Problem for Women Who Train Intensely
        • Figure 2.11
        • Figure 2.12
      • Phosphorus
      • Magnesium
      • Iron
        • Females: A Population at Risk
        • Exercise-Induced Anemia: Fact or Fiction?
        • Real Anemia or Pseudoanemia?
          • Should Athletes Take an Iron Supplement?
          • Importance of Iron Source
          • Functional Anemia
        • Table 2.7: Recommended Dietary Allowances for Iron
        • Figure 2.13
        • Figure 2.14
      • Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorine
        • Optimal Sodium Intake
          • Sodium-Induced Hypertension
        • Table 2.8: Electrolyte Concentrations in Blood Serum and Sweat, and Carbohydrate and Electrolyte Concentrations of Some Popular Beverages
      • Minerals and Exercise Performance
        • Mineral Loss in Sweat
        • Defense Against Mineral Loss
        • Trace Minerals and Physical Activity
        • In a Practical Sense: Lowering High Blood Pressure with Dietary Intervention: The DASH Diet
          • Exhibit 216
          • Table 1: Daily Nutrient Goals Used in the DASH Studies (for a 2100-Calorie Eating Plan)
          • Table 2: Sample DASH Diet (2100 kcal)
      • Part 3 Water: The Body’s Water Content
        • Functions of Body Water
        • Figure 2.15
      • Water Balance: Intake versus Output
        • Water Intake
          • Water in Foods
          • Water from Liquids
          • Metabolic Water
        • Water Output
          • Water Loss in Urine
          • Water Loss Through the Skin
          • Water Loss as Vapor
          • Water Loss in Feces
        • Figure 2.16
        • Animation: Water Balance
        • Animation: Renal Function
      • Water Requirement in Physical Activity
        • Hyponatremia
        • Figure 2.17
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 3: Optimal Nutrition for Physical Activity
      • Chapter 3 Introduction
      • Nutrient Intake among the Physically Active
        • Recommended Nutrient Intake
          • Protein
          • Lipid
          • High-Fat Versus Low-Fat Diets for Exercise Training and Performance
          • Carbohydrate
        • Table 3.1: Average Values for Nutrient Intake Based on 3-Day Diet Records by Levels of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7059 Men and 2453 Women
        • Figure 3.1
        • Animation: Fat Mobilization and Use
        • Figure 3.2
        • Animation: Digestion of Carbohydrate
        • Figure 3.3
        • Animation: Glycogen Synthesis
        • In a Practical Sense: Nutrition to Prevent Chronic Athletic Fatigue
      • The Essentials of Good Nutrition
      • Myplate: The Healthy Eating Guide
        • Figure 3.4
        • Exhibit 241
        • Exhibit 242
      • Physical Activity and Food Intake
        • Physical Activity Makes a Difference
        • Tour de France and Other Endurance Activities
        • Ultra-Endurance Running Competition
        • Extreme Ultra-Endurance Sports
          • High-Risk Sports for Marginal Nutrition
        • Eat More and Weigh Less
        • Figure 3.5
        • Figure 3.6
        • Figure 3.7
        • Table 3.2: Race Conditions, Distance Covered, Average Daily Speed, Rest and Sleep Patterns, and Nutrient Balance During an Elite Ultraendurance Performance Racea
        • Table 3.3: Daily and Total Energy Balance, Nutrient Distributions in Food, and Water Intake During an Elite Ultraendurance Performance Racea
        • Figure 3.8
        • Figure 3.9
      • Precompetition Meal
        • Liquid and Prepackaged Bars, Powders, and Meals
        • Liquid Meals
        • Nutrition Bars
        • Nutrition Powders and Drinks
        • Exhibit 252
      • Carbohydrate Feedings Prior to, during, and in Recovery from Physical Activity
        • Prior to Physical Activity
          • Debate Concerning Fructose
        • During Physical Activity
        • Replenishing Glycogen Reserves: Refueling for the Next Bout of Intense Training or Competition
          • Practical Recommendations
          • Glycogen Replenishment Takes Time
          • Cellular Uptake of Glucose
        • The Glycemic Index and Pre-exercise Feedings
        • Figure 3.10
        • Figure 3.11
        • Figure 3.12
        • Figure 3.13
      • Glucose Feedings, Electrolytes, and Water Uptake
        • Important Considerations
          • Particles in Solution
        • Recommended Oral Rehydration Beverage
        • Figure 3.14
        • Figure 3.15
      • Additional References
  • Section 2: Energy for Physical Activity
    • Chapter 4: Energy Value of Food
      • Section 2: Energy for Physical Activity
        • Exhibit 263
      • Chapter 4 Introduction
      • Measurement of Food Energy
        • The Calorie as a Measurement Unit
        • Gross Energy Value of Foods
          • Heat of Combustion: Lipids
          • Heat of Combustion: Carbohydrates
          • Heat of Combustion: Proteins
          • Comparing the Energy Value of Macronutrients
        • Net Energy Value of Foods
          • Coefficient of Digestibility
          • Use of Tabled Values
        • Exhibit 266
        • Figure 4.1
        • Table 4.1: Factors for Digestibility, Heats of Combustion, and Net Physiologic Energy Valuesa of Protein, Lipid, and Carbohydrate
        • Exhibit 269
        • Animation: General Digestion
        • Animation: Hydrolysis
        • In a Practical Sense: Determining a Food’s Macronutrient Composition and Energy Contribution
          • Macronutrient Energy Content and Percentage Composition of McDonald’s French Fries, Large (Total Weight, 122.3 g [4.3 oz])
      • Suggested Readings
        • Chapter 4
          • Energy Value of Food
    • Chapter 5: Introduction to Energy Transfer
      • Chapter 5 Introduction
      • Energy—The Capacity for Work
        • Potential and Kinetic Energy
        • Energy-Releasing and Energy-Conserving Processes
        • Figure 5.1
        • Figure 5.2
      • Interconversions of Energy
        • Forms of Energy
          • Examples of Energy Conversions
        • Figure 5.3
        • Figure 5.4
        • Figure 5.5
      • Biologic Work in Humans
        • Mechanical Work
        • Chemical Work
        • Transport Work
        • In a Practical Sense: Measurement of Work on a Treadmill, Cycle Ergometer, and Step Bench
          • Exhibit 285
          • Exhibit 286
          • Exhibit 287
          • Exhibit 288
      • Enzymes and Coenzymes Alter the Rate of Energy Release
        • Enzymes as Biologic Catalysts
          • Enzymes Alter Reaction Rates
          • Enzyme Mode of Action
        • Coenzymes
          • Enzyme Inhibition
        • Exhibit 290
        • Figure 5.6
        • Figure 5.7
      • Hydrolysis and Condensation: The Basis for Digestion and Synthesis
        • Hydrolysis Reactions
        • Condensation Reactions
        • Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
        • Measuring Energy Transfer in Humans
        • Animation: Hydrolysis
        • Figure 5.8
        • Animation: Condensation
        • Figure 5.9
        • Figure 5.10
      • Suggested Readings
        • Chapter 5
          • Introduction to Energy Transfer
    • Chapter 6: Energy Transfer in the Body
      • Chapter 6 Introduction
      • Part 1 Phosphate Bond Energy: Adenosine Triphosphate: The Energy Currency
        • ATP: A Limited Currency
        • Figure 6.1
        • Animation: ATPase
        • Figure 6.2
        • Figure 6.3
      • Phosphocreatine: The Energy Reservoir
        • Figure 6.4
      • Cellular Oxidation
        • Electron Transport
        • Oxidative Phosphorylation
        • Efficiency of Electron Transport–Oxidative Phosphorylation
        • Figure 6.5
        • Animation: Electron Transfer Chain
        • Figure 6.6
        • Figure 6.7
      • Oxygen’s Role in Energy Metabolism
      • Part 2 Energy Release from Macronutrients
        • Figure 6.8
        • Figure 6.9
      • Energy Release from Carbohydrate
        • Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Glycolysis
        • Anaerobic Energy Release From Glucose: Rapid Glycolysis
        • Metabolism of Glucose to Glycogen and Glycogen to Glucose
          • Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism
          • Substrate-Level Phosphorylation in Glycolysis
          • Regulation of Glycolysis
          • Hydrogen Release in Glycolysis
          • More About Lactate
        • Aerobic (Slow) Glycolysis: The Citric Acid Cycle
        • Total Energy Transfer From Glucose Catabolism
          • What Regulates Energy Metabolism?
        • Figure 6.10
        • Figure 6.11
        • Figure 6.12
        • Figure 6.13
        • Animation: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
        • Figure 6.14
        • Figure 6.15
      • Energy Release from Fat
        • Adipocytes: The Site of Fat Storage and Mobilization
        • Hormonal Effects
        • Catabolism of Glycerol and Fatty Acids
          • Glycerol
          • Fatty Acids
        • Total Energy Transfer From Fat Catabolism
        • Figure 6.16
        • Figure 6.17
        • In a Practical Sense: Potential for Glucose Synthesis from Triacylglycerol Components
          • Exhibit 329
      • Energy Release from Protein
        • Protein Breakdown Facilitates Water Loss
        • Animation: Metabolism of Amino Acids
        • Animation: Protein Synthesis Overview
      • The Metabolic Mill: Interrelationships among Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism
        • Glucose Conversion to Fat
        • Protein Conversion to Fat
        • Fats Burn in a Carbohydrate Flame
        • A Slower Rate of Energy Release From Fat
        • Figure 6.18
      • Suggested Readings
    • Chapter 7: Energy Transfer During Physical Activity
      • Chapter 7 Introduction
      • Immediate Energy: The ATP–PCr System
      • Short-term Glycolytic (Lactate-forming) Energy System
        • Lactate Accumulation
        • Lactate-Producing Capacity
        • Figure 7.1
      • Long-term Energy: The Aerobic System
        • Oxygen Consumption During Exercise
        • Oxygen Deficit
        • Oxygen Deficit in the Trained and Untrained
        • Maximal Oxygen Consumption
        • Fast- and Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers Generate ATP Differently
        • Figure 7.2
        • Figure 7.3
        • Figure 7.4
        • Figure 7.5
        • Figure 7.6
        • In a Practical Sense: Interpreting V?O2MAX—Establishing Cardiovascular Fitness Categories
          • Cardiovascular Fitness Classifications
      • Energy Spectrum of Physical Activity
        • Figure 7.7
        • Table 7.1: Estimate of the Percent Contribution of Different Fuels to ATP Generation in Various Running Events (Assumes 70-kg Male)
      • Oxygen Consumption During Recovery
        • Metabolic Dynamics of Recovery Oxygen Consumption
          • Early Theories About Postexercise Oxygen Consumption (the So-Called “Oxygen Debt”)
        • Contemporary Concepts
        • Implications of EPOC for Exercise and Recovery
        • Optimal Recovery from Steady-Rate Physical Activity
        • Optimal Recovery from Non-Steady-Rate Physical Activity
        • Intermittent (Interval) Physical Activity
        • Figure 7.8
        • Figure 7.9
        • Figure 7.10
        • Figure 7.11
        • Table 7.2: Classic Study Results with Intermittent Physical Activity
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 8: Measurement of Human Energy Expenditure
      • Chapter 8 Introduction
      • Measuring the Body’s Heat Production
        • Direct Calorimetry
        • Indirect Calorimetry
          • Closed-Circuit Spirometry
          • Open-Circuit Spirometry
          • Portable Spirometry
          • Bag Technique
          • Computerized Instrumentation
        • Direct Versus Indirect Calorimetry
        • Figure 8.1
        • Figure 8.2
        • Figure 8.3
        • Figure 8.4
        • Figure 8.5
        • Figure 8.6
        • In a Practical Sense: Calculating Oxygen Consumption (V?O2), Carbon Dioxide Production (V?CO2), and the Respiratory Quotient (RQ) Using Open-Circuit Spirometry
        • Figure 8.7
      • Doubly Labeled Water Technique
      • Respiratory Quotient
        • RQ for Carbohydrate
        • RQ for Fat
        • RQ for Protein
        • Nonprotein RQ
        • How Much Food Metabolizes for Energy?
        • RQ for a Mixed Diet
        • Table 8.1: Thermal Equivalents of Oxygen for the Nonprotein RQ, Including Percentage Kilocalories and Grams Derived from Carbohydrate and Fat
        • In a Practical Sense: The Weir Method to Calculate Energy Expenditure
          • Weir Factors
      • Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 9: Human Energy Expenditure During Rest and Physical Activity
      • Chapter 9 Introduction
        • Figure 9.1
      • Part 1 Energy Expenditure at Rest: Basal and Resting Metabolic Rate
      • Metabolic Size Concept
        • Figure 9.2
      • Metabolic Rates of Humans: Age and Gender Comparisons
        • Effects of Regular Physical Activity
          • “Normalcy” of BMR Values
        • Estimating Resting Daily Energy Expenditure
          • Contribution of Diverse Tissues to Human Metabolism
        • Figure 9.3
        • Figure 9.4
        • Table 9.1: Standard Basal Metabolic Rates
        • Table 9.2: Estimation of Resting Daily Energy Expenditure (RDEE) Based on Fat-Free Body Mass (FFM)
        • Table 9.3: Oxygen Consumption of Various Body Tissues at Rest for a 65-kg Man
      • Five Factors That Affect Total Daily Energy Expenditure
        • Physical Activity
        • Diet-Induced Thermogenesis
        • Calorigenic Effect of Food on Exercise Metabolism
        • Climate
        • Pregnancy
        • In a Practical Sense: Estimating Resting Daily Energy Expenditure from Body Mass, Stature, and Age
        • In a Practical Sense: Predicting V?O2max During Pregnancy from Submaximum Exercise Heart Rate and Oxygen Consumption
      • Part 2 Energy Expenditure during Physical Activity: Classification of Physical Activities by Energy Expenditure
      • The MET
        • Table 9.4: Five-Level Classification of Physical Activity Based on Energy Expenditure
        • Table 9.5: Characterization of the Intensity of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Related to Age
      • Daily Rates of Average Energy Expenditure
        • Table 9.6: Reference Heights, Weights, and Energy Expenditures of Children and Adults Living in the United States
      • Energy Cost of Household, Industrial, and Recreational Activities
        • Influence of Body Mass
        • Figure 9.5
      • Heart Rate to Estimate Energy Expenditure
        • Figure 9.6
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 10: Energy Expenditure During Walking, Jogging, Running, and Swimming
      • Chapter 10 Introduction
      • Gross versus Net Energy Expenditure
      • Economy of Human Movement
        • Economy of Movement
        • Mechanical Efficiency
          • Delta Efficiency
        • Exhibit 403
        • Figure 10.1
      • Energy Expenditure during Walking
        • Influence of Body Mass
        • Terrain and Walking Surface
          • Downhill Walking
        • Footwear and Other Distal Leg Loads
          • Walking
          • Running
          • Competition Walking
        • Figure 10.2
        • Table 10.1: Prediction of Energy Expenditure (kcal · min-1) from Speed of Level Walking and Body Massa
        • Table 10.2: Effect of Different Terrain on the Energy Expenditure of Walking Between 5.2 and 5.6 km · hr -1
        • Figure 10.3
        • Exhibit 410
        • Figure 10.4
        • Figure 10.5
      • Energy Expenditure during Running
        • Economy of Running Fast or Slow
        • Net Energy Expenditure Values
        • Stride Length, Stride Frequency, and Speed
          • Running
          • Competition Walking
          • Optimum Stride Length
        • Running Economy: Children and Adults, Trained and Untrained
        • Air Resistance
          • Drafting: Beneficial Outcomes
        • Treadmill Versus Track Running
        • Marathon Running
        • Exhibit 414
        • In a Practical Sense: Predicting Energy Expenditure During Treadmill Walking and Running
        • Table 10.3: Net Energy Expenditure Per Hour of Horizontal Running Related to Velocity and Body Massa
        • Table 10.4: Energy Requirements (METs) for Horizontal and Grade Walking and Running on a Solid Surface
        • Figure 10.6
        • Figure 10.7
        • Exhibit 420
        • Figure 10.8
        • Figure 10.9
        • Figure 10.10
        • Table 10.5: Comparison of Average Metabolic Responses During Treadmill and Track Running
        • Exhibit 425
      • Swimming
        • Methods of Measurement
        • Energy Expenditure and Drag
          • Ways to Reduce Drag Force Effects
        • Energy Expenditure, Swimming Velocity, and Skill
        • Effects of Water Temperature
        • Effects of Buoyancy: Men Versus Women
        • Endurance Swimmers
        • Figure 10.11
        • Figure 10.12
        • Figure 10.13
        • Figure 10.14
        • Table 10.6: Comparisons of English Channel World Record Swimming Times Between Men and Women
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 11: Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacities
      • Chapter 11 Introduction
      • Specificity versus Generality of Metabolic Capacity and Exercise Performance
        • Figure 11.1
      • Overview of Energy-Transfer Capacity during Exercise
        • Figure 11.2
      • Anaerobic Energy Transfer: The Immediate and Short-Term Energy Systems
        • Performance Tests to Evaluate the Immediate Energy System
          • Stair-Sprinting Power Tests
          • Jumping-Power Tests
          • Other Power Performance Tests
          • Interrelationships Among Power Performance Tests
        • Tests to Evaluate the Immediate Energy System
        • Performance Test Evaluation of the Short-Term Energy System
          • Maximally Accumulated Oxygen Deficit
        • Assessing the Short-Term Energy System
          • Blood Lactate Levels
          • Glycogen Depletion
        • Individual Differences in Short-Term Energy-Transfer Capacity
          • Effects of Training
          • Buffering of Acid Metabolites
          • Motivation
        • Figure 11.3
        • Table 11.1: Correlations Among Measures of Immediate Anaerobic Power Output
        • Table 11.2: Wingate Percentile Norms for Average Power and Peak Power for Physically Active Young Adult Men and Women
        • Exhibit 442
        • Figure 11.4
        • In a Practical Sense: Determining Anaerobic Power and Capacity: The Wingate Cycle Ergometer Test
          • Exhibit 445
        • Figure 11.5
      • Aerobic Energy: The Long-Term Energy System
        • Physiologic Tests to Evaluate the Long-Term Aerobic Energy System Assessment of Maximal Oxygen Consumption
        • Criteria for Maximal Oxygen Consumption
        • Maximal Oxygen Consumption Tests
          • Test Comparisons
        • Factors That Affect Maximal Oxygen Consumption
          • Mode of Activity
          • Heredity
          • State of Training
          • Gender
          • Body Size and Composition
          • Age
          • Prediction Test Evaluation of the Long-Term Aerobic Energy System
          • A Word of Caution About Predictions
          • Walking Tests
        • Endurance Runs
          • Limitations for Use with Children
        • Predictions Based on Heart Rate
        • The Step Test
        • A Novel Approach to Predicting V?O2max from Nonexercise Data
          • Equation
          • Example
          • Computation
        • Figure 11.6
        • Figure 11.7
        • Table 11.3: Average V?O2maxfor 15 Male College Students During Continuous and Discontinuous Tests on the Treadmill and Bicycle Ergometera
        • Figure 11.8
        • Figure 11.9
        • Table 11.4: Different Ways to Express Oxygen Consumption
        • Figure 11.10
        • Figure 11.11
        • Figure 11.12
        • Table 11.5: Input Information on Level of Physical Activity and Perceived Functional Capacity for Predicting V?O2max from Nonexercise Data
      • Additional References
  • Section 3: Aerobic Systems of Energy Delivery and Utilization
    • Chapter 12: Pulmonary Structure and Function
      • Chapter 12 Aerobic Systems of Energy Delivery and Utilization
        • Exhibit 460
      • Chapter 12 Introduction
      • Surface Area and Gas Exchange
        • Figure 12.1
      • Anatomy of Ventilation
        • The Lungs
        • The Alveoli
        • Animation: The Respiratory System
        • Figure 12.2
      • Mechanics of Ventilation
        • Inspiration
        • Expiration
        • Surfactant
        • Figure 12.3
        • Figure 12.4
        • Figure 12.5
      • Lung Volumes and Capacities
        • Static Lung Volumes
          • Residual Lung Volume
        • Dynamic Lung Volumes
          • FEV-to-FVC Ratio
          • Maximum Voluntary Ventilation
        • Physical Activity Implications of Gender Differences in Static and Dynamic Lung Function Measures
        • Figure 12.6
        • Animation: Perform a Pulmonary Function Test
        • Figure 12.7
        • Animation: Asthma
      • Lung Function, Aerobic Fitness, and Physical Performance
        • Table 12.1: Anthropometric Data, Pulmonary Function, and Resting Minute Ventilation in 20 Marathon Runners and Healthy Controls
      • Pulmonary Ventilation
        • Minute Ventilation
        • Alveolar Ventilation
          • Dead Space Versus Tidal Volume
          • Ventilation–Perfusion Ratio
          • Physiologic Dead Space
          • Breathing Rate Versus Tidal Volume
        • Animation: Pulmonary Ventilation
        • In a Practical Sense: Predicting Pulmonary Function Variables in Men and Women
          • Equations to Predict Pulmonary Function Variables by Age and Gender
        • Exhibit 482
        • Table 12.2: Relationships Among Tidal Volume, Breathing Rate, and Both Total and Alveolar Minute Ventilation
        • Exhibit 484
        • Figure 12.8
        • Figure 12.9
      • Variations from Normal Breathing Patterns
        • Hyperventilation
        • Dyspnea
        • Valsalva Maneuver
          • Physiologic Consequences of Performing the Valsalva Maneuver
        • Figure 12.10
      • The Respiratory Tract during Cold-Weather Physical Activity
        • Postexercise Coughing
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 13: Gas Exchange and Transport
      • Chapter 13 Introduction
      • Part 1 Gaseous Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Concentrations and Partial Pressures of Respired Gases
        • Ambient Air
        • Tracheal Air
        • Alveolar Air
        • Table 13.1: Partial Pressure and Volume of Gases in Dry Ambient Air at Sea Level
        • Table 13.2: Partial Pressure and Volume of Dry Alveolar Gases at Sea Level (98.6°F [37°C])
      • Gas Movement in Air and Fluids
        • Pressure Differential
        • Solubility—The Dissolving Power of a Gas
        • Figure 13.1
      • Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues
        • Gas Exchange in the Lungs
          • Impaired Alveolar Gas Transfer
        • Gas Transfer in Tissues
        • Figure 13.2
        • Animation: Oxygen Transport
        • Exhibit 500
        • Animation: Gas Exchange in Alveoli
      • Part 2 Oxygen Transport: Oxygen Transport in Blood
        • Oxygen in Physical Solution
        • Oxygen Combined with Hemoglobin
          • Oxygen-Carrying Capacity of Hemoglobin
          • Po2 and Hemoglobin Saturation
        • Po2 in the Lungs
          • The Bohr Effect
        • Po2 in the Tissues
          • Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference
          • Red Blood Cell 2,3-DPG
        • Myoglobin, the Muscle’s Oxygen Storage
          • Oxygen Released at Low Pressures
        • Figure 13.3
        • In a Practical Sense: Factors that Contribute to the Smoking Habit
          • Exhibit 505
          • Exhibit 506
        • Table 13.3: Hemoglobin (Hb) Levels and Exercise Heart Rates of Normal and Anemic Subjects Prior to and Following Supplemental Iron Treatment
        • Figure 13.4
        • Figure 13.5
        • Figure 13.6
      • Part 3 Carbon Dioxide Transport: Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
        • Carbon Dioxide in Physical Solution
        • Carbon Dioxide Transport As Bicarbonate
        • Carbon Dioxide Transport as Carbamino Compounds
        • Figure 13.7
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 14: Dynamics of Pulmonary Ventilation
      • Chapter 14 Introduction
      • Part 1 Regulation of Pulmonary Ventilation: Ventilatory Control
        • Neural Factors
        • Humoral Factors
          • Plasma Po2 and Peripheral Chemoreceptors
          • Plasma Pco2 and H+ Concentration
        • Hyperventilation and Breath Holding
        • Figure 14.1
        • Figure 14.2
      • Regulation of Ventilation during Physical Activity
        • Chemical Control
        • Nonchemical Control
          • Neurogenic Factors
          • Influence of Temperature
        • Integrated Regulation
          • During Physical Activity
          • During Recovery
        • Figure 14.3
        • Figure 14.4
      • Part 2 Pulmonary Ventilation during Physical Activity: Ventilation and Energy Demands during Physical Activity
        • Ventilation in Steady-Rate Physical Acctivity
        • Ventilation in Non–Steady-Rate Physical Activity
          • Ventilatory Threshold
          • Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation (OBLA)
        • Figure 14.5
        • Figure 14.6
        • Figure 14.7
        • In a Practical Sense: Determining the Lactate Threshold
          • Exhibit 526
      • Energy Cost of Breathing
        • Respiratory Disease
        • Cigarette Smoking
          • Cigarette Smoking Blunts Exercise Heart Rate Response
        • Figure 14.8
        • Table 14.1: Oxygen Cost of Hyperventilation (HV) in “Smoking” and “Nonsmoking” Exercise at Approximately 80% of V?O2max
      • Does Ventilation Limit Aerobic Power and Endurance Performance?
        • An Important Exception
        • Figure 14.9
      • Part 3 Acid-Base Regulation: Buffering
        • Chemical Buffers
          • Bicarbonate Buffer
          • Phosphate Buffer
          • Protein Buffer
          • Relative Power of Chemical Buffers
        • Figure 14.10
        • Table 14.2: Relative Buffering Power of the Chemical Buffers
      • Physiologic Buffers
        • Ventilatory Buffer
        • Renal Buffer
        • Animation: Renal Function
      • Effects of Intense Physical Activity
        • Figure 14.11
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 15: The Cardiovascular System
      • Chapter 15 Introduction
      • Cardiovascular System Components
        • The Heart
        • The Arterial System
          • Blood Pressure
        • Capillaries
          • Blood Flow in Capillaries
        • The Venous System
          • Venous Return
          • A Question of an Active Vasculature
          • Varicose Veins
          • Venous Pooling
        • Figure 15.1
        • Animation: Blood Circulation
        • Figure 15.2
        • Figure 15.3
        • Figure 15.4
        • In a Practical Sense: Blood Pressure Measurement, Classifications, and Recommended Follow-Up
          • Exhibit 548
          • Classification and Recommended Follow-Up of Initial Blood Pressure Screening in Adultsa
          • Classification of Blood Pressure (BP) for Adults
          • Animation: Measuring Blood Pressure
        • Figure 15.5
        • Figure 15.6
        • Figure 15.7
        • Figure 15.8
      • Hypertension
        • A Prevalent Disorder
          • Effective Treatment Strategies
        • Animation: Hypertension
        • Figure 15.9
        • Exhibit 559
        • Figure 15.10
        • In a Practical Sense: Understanding Hypertension: Effects on Bodily Systems
          • Exhibit 562
      • Blood Pressure Response to Physical Activity
        • Resistance Exercise
        • Steady-Rate Physical Activity
        • Graded Exercise
        • Blood Pressure in Upper-Body Physical Activity
        • Recovery From Physical Activity
        • Table 15.1: Comparison of Peak Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure at Various Percentages of a Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC) During Isometric Exercise and Free-Weight and Hydraulic Bench Press Exercise
        • Figure 15.11
        • Figure 15.12
        • Table 15.2: Comparison of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure During Dynamic Arm and Leg Exercise at Similar Percentages of V?O2max
      • The Heart’s Blood Supply
        • Myocardial Oxygen Supply and Use
          • Effects of Impaired Blood Supply
          • Rate–Pressure Product: An Estimate of Myocardial Work
        • Figure 15.13
        • Animation: Myocardial Blood Flow
        • Figure 15.14
      • Myocardial Metabolism
        • Figure 15.15
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 16: Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration
      • Chapter 16 Introduction
      • Intrinsic Regulation of Heart Rate
        • The Heart’s Electrical Activity
          • Electrocardiogram
        • Figure 16.1
        • Animation: Cardiac Cycle
        • Figure 16.2
        • Animation: Perform a Basic 12-Lead Electrocardiogram
      • Extrinsic Regulation of Heart Rate and Circulation
        • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Neural Input
          • Sympathetic Influence
          • Parasympathetic Influence
        • Central Command: Input from Higher Centers
        • Peripheral Input
          • Carotid Artery Palpation
          • Local Factors
        • Figure 16.3
        • Figure 16.4
        • Figure 16.5
        • Figure 16.6
      • Distribution of Blood
        • Physical Factors Affect Blood Flow
        • Exercise Effect
          • Factors Within Active Muscle
          • Hormonal Factors
        • In a Practical Sense: Electrode Placement for Bipolar and 12-Lead ECG Recordings
          • Exhibit 588
        • Animation: Renal Function
        • Figure 16.7
      • Integrative Response during Physical Activity
      • Physical Activity after Cardiac Transplantation
        • Improved Function but Altered Circulatory Dynamics
          • Sluggish Circulatory Response
        • Figure 16.8
        • Figure 16.9
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 17: Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System
      • Chapter 17 Introduction
      • Cardiac Output
        • Measuring Cardiac Output
          • Direct Fick Method
          • Indicator Dilution Method
          • CO2 Rebreathing Method
        • Animation: Blood Flow
        • Figure 17.1
      • Cardiac Output at Rest
        • Untrained Individuals
        • Endurance Athletes
      • Cardiac Output during Physical Activity
        • Enhancing Stroke Volume: Diastolic Filling Versus Systolic Emptying
          • Enhanced Diastolic Filling
          • Greater Systolic Emptying
          • Cardiovascular Drift: Reduced Stroke Volume and Increased Heart Rate During Prolonged Physical Activity
        • Table 17.1: Maximal Values for Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, Stroke Volume, and Cardiac Output in Three Groups with Very Low, Normal, and High Aerobic Capacities
        • Table 17.2: The Effect of Body Position on Cardiac Output, Stroke Volume, and Heart Rate at Rest and During Exercise in Physically Active Subjectsa
        • Figure 17.2
      • Cardiac Output Distribution
        • Blood Flow at Rest
        • Redistribution of Blood Flow During Physical Activity
          • Blood Flow to the Heart and Brain
        • Figure 17.3
      • Cardiac Output and Oxygen Transport
        • Rest
        • Physical Activity
          • Close Association Between Maximum Cardiac Output and V?O2max
          • Cardiac Output Differences Among Men and Women and Children
        • Oxygen Extraction: The a-v¯O2 Difference
        • a-v¯O2 Difference During Rest
        • a-v¯O2 Difference During Physical Activity
        • Factors That Affect the a-v¯O2 Difference During Physical Activity
        • Animation: Myocardial Blood Flow
        • Figure 17.4
        • Figure 17.5
        • In a Practical Sense: Predicting V?O2max Using Walking and Swimming Tests
          • Table 1: Aerobic Fitness Categories for Men and Women
          • Table 2: 12-Minute Swim Test Fitness Categories (Age 18–29 Years)
      • Cardiovascular Adjustments to Upper-Body Exercise
        • Maximal Oxygen Consumption
        • Submaximal Oxygen Consumption
        • Physiologic Response
        • Figure 17.6
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 18: Skeletal Muscle: Structure and Function
      • Chapter 18 Introduction
        • Exhibit 618
        • Exhibit 619
        • Animation: Muscle Contraction Type
      • Gross Structure of Skeletal Muscle
        • Levels of Organization
        • Muscles’ Chemical Composition
        • Blood Supply
          • Capillarization
        • Figure 18.1
        • Exhibit 623
        • Exhibit 624
        • Exhibit 625
        • Exhibit 626
      • Skeletal Muscle Ultrastructure
        • The Sarcomere
        • Figure 18.2
        • Figure 18.3
        • Table 18.1: Twelve Proteins Associated with a Muscle Fiber’s Sarcomere and Their Proposed Functions
      • Muscle Fiber Alignment
        • Complex Fusiform Arrangement
        • Fiber Length–Muscle Length Ratio
        • Figure 18.4
        • Exhibit 633
        • Figure 18.5
      • Actin–Myosin Orientation
        • Intracellular Tubule Systems
        • Figure 18.6
        • Figure 18.7
        • Figure 18.8
        • Animation: Sliding Filament Theory
      • Chemical and Mechanical Events during Muscle Action and Relaxation
        • Mechanics of Muscle Action: The Sliding-Filament Model
        • Mechanical Action of Crossbridges
          • Sarcomere Length—Isometric Tension Curve in an Isolated Fiber
          • Sarcomere Length—Isometric Tension Curve in Human Muscle Fibers in Vivo
          • Link Between Actin, Myosin, and ATP
        • Excitation–Contraction Coupling
        • Relaxation
        • Sequence of Events in Muscle Action
        • Figure 18.9
        • Figure 18.10
        • Exhibit 643
        • Exhibit 644
        • Exhibit 645
        • Exhibit 646
        • Figure 18.11
        • Figure 18.12
        • Figure 18.13
        • Figure 18.14
      • Muscle Fiber Type
        • Fast-Twitch Fibers (Type II)
        • Slow-Twitch Fibers (Type I)
        • Figure 18.15
        • Table 18.2: Classification of Human Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types
        • In a Practical Sense: A Vertical Jump Test to Predict Peak Anaerobic Power Output
          • Exhibit 655
      • Genes That Define Skeletal Muscle Phenotype
      • Fiber Type Differences among Athletic Groups
        • Figure 18.16
    • Chapter 19: Neural Control of Human Movement
      • Chapter 19 Introduction
      • Neuromotor System Organization
        • Central Nervous System—The Brain
          • Brainstem
          • Cerebellum
          • Diencephalon
          • Telencephalon
          • Limbic System
        • Central Nervous System—The Spinal Cord
          • Ascending Nerve Tracts
          • Descending Nerve Tracts
          • Reticular Formation
        • Peripheral Nervous System
          • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
        • The Reflex Arc
        • Figure 19.1
        • Figure 19.2
        • Exhibit 663
        • Figure 19.3
        • Table 19.1: Common Names Describing Neurons and Axons of the Spinal Cord
        • Figure 19.4
        • Figure 19.5
        • Figure 19.6
        • Animation: Nerve Synapse
      • Nerve Supply to Muscle
        • Motor Unit Anatomy
          • The Anterior Motor Neuron
        • Figure 19.7
        • Animation: Muscle Contraction
        • Figure 19.8
        • Animation: Saltatory Conduction
        • Figure 19.9
        • Animation: Action Potential
        • Animation: Flipping the Membrane Potential
        • Figure 19.10
        • Animation: Nerve Synapse
      • Motor Unit Functional Characteristics
        • Twitch Characteristics
        • Tension Characteristics
          • Gradation of Force
        • Fatigue Resistance
        • Table 19.2: Characteristics and Correspondence Between Motor Units and Muscle Fiber Types
        • Figure 19.11
        • Figure 19.12
      • Receptors in Muscles, Joints, and Tendons: The Proprioceptors
        • Muscle Spindles
          • Structural Organization
          • The Stretch Reflex
        • Golgi Tendon Organs
        • Pacinian Corpuscles
        • In a Practical Sense: How to Determine Upper-Arm Muscle and Fat
          • Exhibit 686
        • Animation: Proprioceptors
        • Figure 19.13
        • Figure 19.14
        • Figure 19.15
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 20: The Endocrine System: Organization and Acute and Chronic Responses to Physical Activity
      • Chapter 20 Introduction
      • Endocrine System Overview
        • Figure 20.1
      • Endocrine System Organization
        • Types of Hormones
        • Hormone–Target Cell Specificity
          • Hormone–Receptor Binding
          • Hormone Effects on Enzymes
        • Factors That Determine Hormone Levels
          • Patterns of Hormone Release
        • Figure 20.2
        • Animation: Endocrine Gland Stimulation
        • Table 20.1: Storage, Synthesis, Release Mechanism, Transport Medium, Receptor Location and Receptor-Ligand Binding, and Target Organ Response of the Peptide, Steroid, and Amine Hormones
        • Table 20.2: Hormones Produced by Organs Other than the Major Endocrine Organs
        • Animation: Hormonal Control
        • Figure 20.3
        • Figure 20.4
      • Resting and Exercise-Induced Endocrine Secretions
        • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
          • Growth Hormone
          • Insulin-Like Growth Factors
          • Thyrotropin
          • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
          • Prolactin
          • Gonadotropic Hormones
        • Posterior Pituitary Hormones
        • Thyroid Hormones
          • Thyroid Hormones Affect Quality of Life
          • Parathyroid Hormones
        • Adrenal Hormones
          • Adrenal Medulla Hormones
          • Adrenocortical Hormones
        • Table 20.3: Endocrine Organs and Their Secretions, Targets, and Main Effects
        • Figure 20.5
        • Figure 20.6
        • Figure 20.7
        • Figure 20.8
        • Figure 20.9
        • Figure 20.10
        • Figure 20.11
        • Figure 20.12
      • Gonadal Hormones
        • Testosterone
        • Pancreatic Hormones
          • Insulin
        • Metabolic Syndrome: A Dangerous Disease of Modern Civilization
        • Insulin Actions and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis
        • Type 1 Diabetes
          • Type 2 Diabetes
          • Glucagon
        • Other Glands and Hormones
        • Figure 20.13
        • Figure 20.14
        • Figure 20.15
        • Exhibit 717
        • Figure 20.16
        • Animation: Insulin Functions
        • Figure 20.17
        • Animation: Diabetes
        • Table 20.4: Data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet
        • In a Practical Sense: How to Reduce Diabetes Risk
        • Exhibit 724
        • Exhibit 725
        • Table 20.5: Thresholds of Percentage Body Fat (%BF) Corresponding to Established Body Mass Index Cutoffs Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Risk
        • Figure 20.18
        • In a Practical Sense: Diabetes, Hypoglycemia, and Physical Activity
          • Exhibit 729
        • Exhibit 730
        • Exhibit 731
        • Exhibit 732
        • Figure 20.19
      • Exercise Training and Endocrine Function
        • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
          • Growth Hormone
          • ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
          • PRL (Prolactin)
          • FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Leuteinizing Hormone), and Testosterone
        • Posterior Pituitary Hormones
          • ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)
        • PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)
        • Thyroid Hormones
        • Adrenal Hormones
          • Aldosterone
          • Cortisol
          • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
        • Pancreatic Hormones
          • Regular Physical Activity and Type 2 Diabetes Risk
        • Table 20.6: Hormones and Their Responses to Endurance Training
        • Figure 20.20
        • Figure 20.21
        • Figure 20.22
        • Exhibit 739
        • Figure 20.23
        • Figure 20.24
      • Resistance Training and Endocrine Function
        • Figure 20.25
      • Opioid Peptides and Physical Activity
      • Physical Activity, Infectious Illness, Cancer, and Immune Response
        • Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
          • Short-Term Physical Activity Effects
          • Long-Term Exercise Effects
          • A General Recommendation to Optimize Immunity
          • The Physical Activity–Cancer Connection
        • Animation: Immune Response
        • Figure 20.26
        • Figure 20.27
        • Table 20.7: Immune System Components that Exhibit Negative Change after Prolonged, Intense Exercise
      • Additional References
  • Part Two: Applied Exercise Physiology, Section 4: Enhancement of Energy Transfer Capacity
    • Chapter 21: Training for Anaerobic and Aerobic Power
      • Section 4: Enhancement of Energy Transfer Capacity
        • Exhibit 752
      • Chapter 21 Introduction
      • Exercise Training Principles
        • Overload Principle
        • Specificity Principle
          • Specificity of V?O2max
          • Specificity of Local Changes
        • Individual Differences Principle
        • Reversibility Principle
        • Figure 21.1
        • Exhibit 756
        • Table 21.1: Changes in Measures of Physiologic and Metabolic Function with Various Durations of Detraininga
      • How Exercise Training Impacts the Anaerobic System
        • Table 21.2: Typical Metabolic and Physiologic Values for Healthy, Endurance-Trained and Untrained Mena
      • Anaerobic System Changes with Training
        • Figure 21.2
        • Table 21.3: Changes in Resting Concentrations of PCr, Creatine, ATP, and Glycogen Following 5 Months of Heavy-Resistance Training in 9 Male Subjects
      • How Training Impacts the Aerobic System
        • Metabolic Adaptations
          • Metabolic Machinery
          • Muscle Fiber Type and Size
        • Cardiovascular Adaptations
          • Cardiac Hypertrophy: The “Athlete’s Heart”
          • Plasma Volume
          • Heart Rate
          • Stroke Volume
          • Cardiac Output
          • Oxygen Extraction (a-v¯O2 Difference)
          • Blood Flow and Distribution
          • Blood Pressure
        • Pulmonary Adaptations With Training
          • Maximal Physical Activity
          • Submaximal Physical Activity
          • Training May Benefit Ventilatory Endurance
        • Blood Lactate Concentration
        • Four Additional Aerobic Training Adaptations
        • Summary View
        • Figure 21.3
        • Figure 21.4
        • Figure 21.5
        • Figure 21.6
        • Table 21.4: Comparative Average Cardiac Dimensions in College Athletes, World-Class Athletes, and Normal Subjects
        • Figure 21.7
        • Figure 21.8
        • Figure 21.9
        • Table 21.5: Maximal Values for Oxygen Consumption, Heart Rate, Stroke Volume, and Cardiac Output in Three Groups with Low, Normal, and High Aerobic Capacities
        • Figure 21.10
        • Figure 21.11
        • Figure 21.12
        • Figure 21.13
        • Figure 21.14
      • Factors That Affect Aerobic Training Responses
        • Initial Level of Aerobic Fitness
        • Training Intensity
          • Train at a Percentage of HRmax
          • Is Strenuous Training More Effective?
          • Determining the “Training-Sensitive Zone”
          • Can Less Intense Training be Effective?
          • Train at a Perception of Effort
          • Train at the Lactate Threshold
        • Training Duration
        • Training Frequency
        • Exercise Mode
          • A Well-Rounded Overall Training Program
        • Table 21.6: Relationship Between Percentage Maximal Heart Rate and Percentage V?O2max
        • Figure 21.15
        • Figure 21.16
        • Figure 21.17
        • Figure 21.18
        • Figure 21.19
      • How Long before Improvements Occur?
        • Trainability and Genes
        • Figure 21.20
        • Table 21.7: Maximum Physiologic Responses During Peak Cycle Ergometer Exercises Before and After 10 Consecutive Days of Aerobic Training
        • Figure 21.21
      • Maintaining Gains in Aerobic Fitness
        • Components Other Than V?O2max
        • Tapering for Peak Performance
      • Training Methods
        • Anaerobic Training
          • The Intramuscular High-Energy Phosphates
          • Lactate-Generating Capacity
        • Aerobic Training
          • Interval Training
          • Continuous Training
          • Fartlek Training
        • Figure 21.22
        • Table 21.8: Guidelines for Determining Interval-Training Exercise Rates for Running and Swimming Different Distances
        • Figure 21.23
      • Overtraining: Too Much of a Good Thing
        • Figure 21.24
        • Table 21.9: Overtraining Syndrome: Symptoms of Staleness
      • Physical Activity during Pregnancy
        • Physical Activity Effects on the Mother
        • Physical Activity Effects on the Fetus
        • Current Opinion Regarding Physical Activity and Pregnancy
        • Figure 21.25
        • Table 21.10: Important Metabolic and Cardiorespiratory Adaptations During Pregnancy
        • Figure 21.26
        • In a Practical Sense: Exercise Prescription During Pregnancy
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 22: Muscular Strength: Training Muscles to Become Stronger
      • Chapter 22 Introduction
      • Part 1 Strength Measurement and Resistance Training
        • Muscular Strength Development: Its Roots in Antiquity
        • Figure 22.1
        • Exhibit 806
        • Exhibit 807
        • Exhibit 808
        • Exhibit 809
        • Exhibit 810
      • Objectives of Resistance Training
      • Measurement of Muscle Strength
        • Cable Tensiometry
        • Dynamometry
        • One-Repetition Maximum
          • Estimate the 1-RM
        • Computer-Assisted, Electromechanical, and Isokinetic Methods
        • Resistance-Training Equipment Categories
        • Strength-Testing Considerations
          • Learning Factors Affect Strength Measurements
        • Figure 22.2
        • Figure 22.3
        • Figure 22.4
        • Table 22.1: International System (SI) of Units for Expressing Muscular Strength and Power During Linear and Angular Motionsa
        • Exhibit 817
        • Figure 22.5
      • Gender Differences in Muscle Strength
        • Muscle Cross-Sectional Area
        • Absolute Muscle Strength as Total Force Exerted
        • Relative Muscle Strength Indexed to Estimates of Body Composition
        • Muscle Strength Indexed Using Allometric Scaling
        • Figure 22.6
        • Figure 22.7
        • Figure 22.8
        • Figure 22.9
      • Training Muscles to Become Stronger
        • Different Muscle Actions
        • Resistance Training
        • Progressive Resistance Exercise
          • Resistance Training Guidelines for Sedentary Adults, the Elderly, and Cardiac Patients: Benefits for Health Enhancement and Disease Prevention
        • Does Resistance Training Plus Aerobic Training Equal Less Strength Improvement?
        • Resistance Training for Children
        • Isometric Strength Training
          • Isometric Training Limitations
          • Isometric Training Benefits
        • Which Method is Better: Static or Dynamic?
          • Specificity of Isometric Training Response
          • Physical Testing in the Occupational Setting: The Role of Specificity
        • Isokinetic Resistance Training
          • Isokinetics Versus Standard Weightlifting
          • Isokinetic Training Experiments
          • Fast- Versus Slow-Speed Isokinetic Training
        • Plyometric Training
          • Practical Application of Plyometrics
        • Body Weight–Loaded Training
        • Concept of the Core
          • Window for Explosive Power Development
        • Figure 22.10
        • Animation: Muscle Contraction Type
        • Table 22.2: Summary of Resistance Training Recommendations: an Overview of Different Program Variables Needed for Progression with Different Fitness Levels
        • Figure 22.11
        • Table 22.3: Strength-Training Guidelines for Sedentary Adults, Elderly Persons, and Cardiac Patients
        • Table 22.4: Guidelines for Resistance-Exercise Training and Progression in Children and Adolescents
        • Figure 22.12
        • Figure 22.13
        • Exhibit 833
        • Figure 22.14
        • Animation: Stretch Shortening Cycle
        • Figure 22.15
        • Figure 22.16
        • In a Practical Sense: Strengthening The Lower Back
          • Exhibit 839
          • Exhibit 840
          • Exhibit 841
          • Exhibit 842
          • Exhibit 843
          • Exhibit 844
          • Exhibit 845
          • Exhibit 846
          • Exhibit 847
          • Exhibit 848
          • Exhibit 849
        • Figure 22.17
      • Part 2 Structural and Functional Adaptations to Resistance Training
        • Figure 22.18
      • Factors That Modify the Expression of Human Strength
        • Psychologic–Neural Factors
        • Muscular Factors
          • Muscle Hypertrophy
        • Specificity of the Hypertrophic Response
        • Significant Metabolic Adaptations Occur
          • Muscle Cell Remodeling: Current Thinking
          • Benefits Regardless of Gender or Age
          • Muscle Hyperplasia: Are New Muscle Fibers Created?
          • Changes in Muscle Fiber Type With Resistance Training
        • Figure 22.19
        • Figure 22.20
        • Table 22.5: Physiologic Adaptations to Resistance Training
        • Figure 22.21
        • Figure 22.22
        • Table 22.6: Effects of Specific Types or Training on Skeletal Muscle
        • Figure 22.23
        • Figure 22.24
      • Comparative Training Responses in Men and Women
        • Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy
        • Does Muscle Strength Relate to Bone Density?
        • Figure 22.25
      • Detraining Effects on Muscle
      • Metabolic Stress of Resistance Training
      • Circuit Resistance Training
        • Specificity of Aerobic Improvement With CRT
        • Energy Cost of Different Resistance-Exercise Methods
        • Table 22.7: Energy Expenditure for Different Modes of Resistance Exercise Compared with Walkinga
      • Muscle Soreness and Stiffness
        • Eccentric Actions Produce Muscle Soreness
        • Cell Damage
          • Altered Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
          • Current DOMS Model
        • Table 22.8: Acute Effects of Concentric-Only and Concentric-Eccentric Exercise on DOMS 25 Hours After Exercisea
        • Figure 22.26
        • Animation: RICE Method
        • Figure 22.27
    • Chapter 23: Special Aids to Exercise Training and Performances
      • Chapter 23 Introduction
      • An Increasing Challenge to Fair Competition
        • Levels of Evidence
        • Table 23.1: Levels of Evidence on Which to Judge Research Findings
        • In a Practical Sense: A Need to Critically Evaluate the Scientific Evidence
          • Exhibit 877
      • On the Horizon
      • Part 1 Pharmacologic Agents for Ergogenic Effects
        • Anabolic Steroids
        • Structure and Action
          • A Drug with a Considerable Following
          • Effectiveness Questioned
          • Steroid Dosage Important
        • Risks Do Exist
        • Clenbuterol and Other ß2-Adrenergic Agonists
          • Potential Negative Effects on Muscle, Bone, and Cardiovascular Function (Animal Studies)
          • Clenbuterol: Not Approved for Human Use in the United States
        • Other Adrenergic Agonists
          • Training State Makes a Difference
        • Growth Hormone: Genetic Engineering Now Common in Sports
          • No Unanimity Among Researchers
        • DHEA
          • An Unregulated Compound with Uncertain Safety
        • Androstenedione: Benign Prohormone Nutritional Supplement or Potentially Harmful Drug?
          • Modified Versions of Androstenedione Available
          • Competitive Athletes Beware
        • Amino Acid Supplementation
        • Specific Timing of Nutrient Intake Can Stimulate an Anabolic Effect
        • Amphetamines
          • Dangers of Amphetamines
          • Amphetamine Use and Exercise Performance
        • Caffeine
          • Ergogenic Effects
          • Proposed Mechanism for Ergogenic Effect
        • Effects on Muscle
          • Warning About Caffeine
        • Ginseng and Ephedrine
          • Ginseng
          • Ephedrine
          • Not Without Risk
        • Buffering Solutions
          • Effect Related to Dosage and Degree of Anaerobiosis
          • High-Intensity Endurance Performance
        • Anticortisol Compounds: Glutamine and Phosphatidylserine
          • Glutamine
          • Phosphatidylserine
        • ß-Hydroxy–ß-Methylbutyrate
        • Table 23.2: Side Effects and Medical Risks of Anabolic Steroid Use
        • Table 23.3: Maximal Force Production of Knee Extensor and Flexor Muscle Groups Before and After Training With or Without Growth Hormone Supplements
        • Figure 23.1
        • Figure 23.2
        • Figure 23.3
        • Figure 23.4
        • Table 23.4: Relationships Between Pre-exercise Testosterone Concentration and Selected Nutritional Variables
        • In a Practical Sense: Nutrient Timing to Optimize Muscle Response to Resistance Training
          • Exhibit 888
        • Table 23.5: Effects of Amphetamines on Athletic Performance
        • Table 23.6: Caffeine Content (mg) of Some Common Foods, Beverages, and Over-the-Counter and Prescription Medications
        • Exhibit 891
        • Figure 23.5
        • Figure 23.6
        • Figure 23.7
        • Table 23.7: Performance Time and Acid-Base Profiles for Subjects Under Control, Placebo, and Induced Pre-exercise Alkalosis Conditions Before and After an 800-M Race
        • Figure 23.8
        • Figure 23.9
      • Part 2 Nonpharmacologic Approaches for Ergogenic Effects
        • Red Blood Cell Reinfusion—Blood Doping
          • How It Works
          • Does Blood Doping Work?
        • A New Twist: Hormonal Blood Boosting
          • Other Means to Enhance Oxygen Transport
        • Warm-Up (Preliminary Exercise)
          • Psychologic Considerations
          • Physiologic and Performance Effects
          • Clinical Considerations: Warm-Up Prior to Sudden Strenuous Physical Activity
        • Oxygen Inhalation (Hyperoxia)
          • Pre-exercise Oxygen Breathing
          • Oxygen Breathing During Exercise
          • Oxygen Breathing During Recovery
        • Modification of Carbohydrate Intake
          • Nutrient-Related Fatigue in Prolonged Physical Activity
          • Classic Loading Procedure
          • Gender Differences in Glycogen Storage and Catabolism During Physical Activity
          • Glycogen Supercompensation Enhanced by Prior Creatine Supplementation
          • Modified Loading Procedures
        • Chromium
          • Numerous Alleged Benefits
          • Excess Chromium Poses Potential Risks
        • Creatine
          • Important Component of High-Energy Phosphates
          • Documented Benefits in Humans
          • Age Effects Uncertain
          • Effects on Body Mass and Body Composition
          • Creatine Loading
          • Some Research Shows No Benefit
        • Lipid Supplementation with Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols
          • Inconclusive Exercise Benefits of MCTs
        • Pyruvate
          • Endurance Performance
          • Body Fat Loss
        • Figure 23.10
        • Table 23.8: Physiologic, Performance, and Hematologic Characteristics Before and 24 Hours After Reinfusion of 750 mL of Packed Red Blood Cells
        • Figure 23.11
        • Figure 23.12
        • Figure 23.13
        • Table 23.9: Two-Stage Dietary Plan to Increase Muscle Glycogen Storage
        • Table 23.10: Sample Meal Plan for Carbohydrate Depletion and Carbohydrate Loading Preceding an Endurance Event
        • Figure 23.14
        • Figure 23.15
        • Figure 23.16
        • Table 23.11: Effects of Two Different Forms of Chromium Supplementation on Average Values for Anthropometric, Bone, and Soft-Tissue Composition Measurements Before and After Resistance Training
        • Figure 23.17
        • Table 23.12: Selected Studies Showing Increases in Exercise Performance Following Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation
        • Figure 23.18
        • Figure 23.19
        • Figure 23.20
        • Figure 23.21
        • Figure 23.22
      • Additional References
  • Section 5: Exercise Performance and Environmental Stress
    • Chapter 24: Physical Activity at Medium and High Altitude
      • Section 5: Exercise Performance and Environmental Stress
        • Exhibit 919
        • Exhibit 920
      • Chapter 24 Introduction
      • The Stress of Altitude
        • Oxygen Loading at Altitude
        • Figure 24.1
        • Figure 24.2
      • Acclimatization
        • Immediate Responses to Altitude Exposure
          • Hyperventilation
          • Increased Cardiovascular Response
          • Catecholamine Response
          • Fluid Loss
        • Longer-Term Adjustments to Altitude
          • Acid–Base Readjustment
          • Hematologic Changes
          • Cellular Adaptations
          • Body Mass and Body Composition
        • Time Required for Acclimatization
        • Table 24.1: Immediate and Longer-Term Adjustments to Altitude Hypoxia
        • Figure 24.3
        • Figure 24.4
        • Table 24.2: Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response During Submaximal and Maximal Exercise at Sea Level and Simulated Altitude of 4000 m (13,123 ft)
        • Figure 24.5
        • Figure 24.6
        • In a Practical Sense: Identification and Treatment of Altitude-Related Medical Problems
          • Table 1: Altitude-Related Medical Conditions and Symptoms
          • Table 2: Prevention and Treatment of High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
        • Figure 24.7
        • Figure 24.8
      • Metabolic, Physiologic, and Exercise Capacities at Altitude
        • Maximal Oxygen Consumption
        • Exercise Performance
        • Circulatory Factors
          • Submaximal Physical Activity
          • Maximal Physical Activity
        • Aerobic Capacity on Return to Sea Level
        • Possible Negative Effects
        • Figure 24.9
      • Altitude Training and Sea-Level Performance
        • Altitude Natives May Respond Differently
        • Decrement in Absolute Training Level at Altitude
        • Figure 24.10
        • Table 24.3: Effect of Altitude on Training Exercise Intensity for Six Collegiate Athletes
      • Combine Altitude Stay with Low-Altitude Training
        • At-Home Acclimatization
        • Figure 24.11
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 25: Exercise and Thermal Stress
      • Chapter 25 Introduction
      • Part 1 Mechanisms of Thermoregulation: Thermal Balance
        • Figure 25.1
        • Table 25.1: Thermodynamics During Rest and Exercise
      • Hypothalamic Temperature Regulation
        • Figure 25.2
      • Thermoregulation in Cold Stress: Heat Conservation and Heat Production
        • Vascular Adjustments
        • Muscular Activity
        • Hormonal Output
      • Thermoregulation in Heat Stress: Heat Loss
        • Heat Loss by Radiation
        • Heat Loss by Conduction
        • Heat Loss by Convection
        • Heat Loss by Evaporation
          • Evaporative Heat Loss at High Ambient Temperatures
          • Heat Loss During High Humidity
        • Integration of Heat-Dissipating Mechanisms
          • Circulation
          • Evaporation
          • Hormonal Adjustments
        • Figure 25.3
      • Effects of Clothing on Thermoregulation
        • Clothing Insulations (Clo Units)
        • Cold-Weather Clothing
        • Warm-Weather Clothing
        • Football Uniforms
        • The Modern Cycling Helmet Does Not Thwart Heat Dissipation
        • Table 25.2: clo Values Required to Maintain Core Temperature Related to Physical Activity Level and Ambient Temperature
        • In a Practical Sense: Assessing Heat Quality of the Environment: How Hot Is Too Hot?
          • Figure 1
          • Figure 2
        • Table 25.3: clo Values for Some Common Garmentsa
        • Figure 25.4
      • Part 2 Thermoregulation and Environmental Heat Stress during Physical Activity: Physical Activity in the Heat
        • Circulatory Adjustments
          • Vascular Constriction and Dilation
          • Maintenance of Blood Pressure
        • Core Temperature During Physical Activity
          • Temperature Regulated at a Higher Level During Physical Activity
        • Water Loss in the Heat: Dehydration
          • Magnitude of Fluid Loss
          • Significant Consequences of Dehydration
          • Physiologic and Performance Decrements
          • Diuretics
        • Figure 25.5
        • Table 25.4: Predicted Sweating Rates (L · hr -1) for Running at 8.5 to 15.0 km · hr -1 in Cool/Temperate (TDBa = 18°C) and Warm (TDB = 28°C) Weather
        • Exhibit 964
        • Figure 25.6
        • Exhibit 966
      • Maintaining Fluid Balance: Rehydration and Hyperhydration
        • Does Exogenous Glycerol Provide a Benefit?
        • Adequacy of Rehydration
        • Electrolyte Replacement: Added Sodium May Benefit Rehydration
        • Whole-Body Precooling
        • Figure 25.7
      • Factors That Modify Heat Tolerance
        • Acclimatization
        • Training Status
        • Age
          • Age-Related Differences Do Exist
          • Children
        • Gender
          • Sweating
        • Body Fat Level
        • Table 25.5: Physiologic Adjustments During Heat Acclimatization
        • Figure 25.8
      • Complications from Excessive Heat Stress
        • Heat Cramps
        • Heat Exhaustion
          • Heat Stroke
          • Oral Temperature Unreliable
        • Table 25.6: Cardiovascular Responses During the Three Stages of Exercise Hyperthermia
      • Part 3 Thermoregulation and Environmental Cold Stress during Physical Activity: Physical Activity in the Cold
        • Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Cold Stress
        • Children and Cold Stress
        • Table 25.7: Core Temperature and Associated Physiological Changes that Occur as Core Temperature Falls; Individuals Respond Differently at Each Level of Core Temperature
      • Cold Acclimatization
        • The Ama
        • Other Examples of Cold Adaptation
        • Figure 25.9
      • How Cold Is Too Cold?
        • The Wind-Chill Temperature Index
        • Respiratory Tract During Cold-Weather Physical Activity
        • Figure 25.10
    • Chapter 26: Sport Diving
      • Chapter 26 Introduction
      • Diving History—Antiquity to the Present
        • Chronology of Selected Events in Diving History
        • The Historical Roots of Deepwater Diving
          • Santa Barbara, CA
          • The Man and the Dive: Reflections of Bob Ratcliffe
          • The Salvage of the Squalus: A Historic Undersea Rescue
        • Exhibit 982
        • Exhibit 983
        • Exhibit 984
        • Exhibit 985
        • Exhibit 986
        • Exhibit 987
        • Exhibit 988
        • Exhibit 989
        • Exhibit 990
        • Exhibit 991
        • Exhibit 992
        • Exhibit 993
        • Exhibit 994
        • Exhibit 995
        • Exhibit 996
        • Exhibit 997
        • Exhibit 998
        • Exhibit 999
        • Exhibit 1000
        • Exhibit 1001
        • Exhibit 1002
        • Exhibit 1003
        • Exhibit 1004
        • Exhibit 1005
        • Exhibit 1006
        • Table 26.1: Breadth-Hold Diving World Records as of August 2013
        • Exhibit 1008
        • Exhibit 1009
        • Exhibit 1010
        • Exhibit 1011
        • Exhibit 1012
        • Exhibit 1013
        • Exhibit 1014
      • Pressure–Volume Relationships and Diving Depth
        • Diving Depth and Pressure
        • Diving Depth and Gas Volume
        • Table 26.2: Relationship of Depth in Water to External Pressure, Lung Volume, and Inspired Gas Pressures
        • Figure 26.1
      • Snorkeling and Breath-Hold Diving
        • Limits to Snorkel Size
          • Inspiratory Capacity and Diving Depth
          • Snorkel Size and Pulmonary Dead Space
        • Breath-Hold Diving
          • Hyperventilation and Breath-Hold Diving: Blackout
          • Depths Limits With Breath-Hold Diving: Thoracic Squeeze
        • Diving Reflex in Humans
        • In a Practical Sense: Training Regimen for Free Diving from a Free Dive Champion
          • Exhibit 1020
          • Exhibit 1021
        • Exhibit 1022
        • In a Practical Sense: Estimating Residual Lung Volume from Age, Stature, and Body Mass
          • Exhibit 1024
        • Figure 26.2
      • Scuba Diving
        • Open-Circuit Scuba
        • Closed-Circuit Scuba
        • Figure 26.3
        • Figure 26.4
        • Figure 26.5
        • Table 26.3: U.S. Navy–Recommended Depth-Time Limits Breathing Pure Oxygen During Working Divesa
      • Special Problems with Breathing Gases at High Pressures
        • Air Embolism
        • Pneumothorax: Lung Collapse
        • Facemask “Squeeze”
        • Blockage of Eustachian Tube: Middle-Ear Squeeze
          • Aerosinusitis
        • Nitrogen Narcosis: “Rapture of the Deep”
        • Decompression Sickness
          • Nitrogen Elimination: Zero Decompression Limits
          • Consequences of Inadequate Decompression
        • Oxygen Poisoning
          • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
        • Women at No Greater Risk
        • Figure 26.6
        • Exhibit 1033
        • Figure 26.7
        • Figure 26.8
        • Figure 26.9
        • Table 26.4: Representative Depth-Time Limits for Closed-Circuit Diving with 100% Oxygen
      • Dives to Exceptional Depths: Mixed-Gas Diving
        • Helium–Oxygen Mixtures
        • Saturation Diving
        • Technical Diving
        • Figure 26.10
        • Table 26.5: Representative Oxygen Partial Pressure Limits for Surface-Supplied Heliox Diving
        • Figure 26.11
        • Figure 26.12
      • Energy Cost of Underwater Swimming
        • Figure 26.13
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 27: Microgravity: The Last Frontier
      • Chapter 27 Introduction
      • The Weightless Environment
        • Gravity
        • Microgravity and Weightlessness
          • Passenger in a Falling Elevator
        • Examples of Near–Zero-G During Spaceflight
        • Strategies to Simulate Microgravity
          • Human Testing
          • Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulations
        • Exhibit 1048
        • Figure 27.1
        • Exhibit 1050
        • Exhibit 1051
        • Figure 27.2
        • Figure 27.3
        • Figure 27.4
        • Figure 27.5
      • Historical Overview of Aerospace Physiology and Medicine
        • The Early Balloonists
        • Early Years
          • Suborbital Flights
          • High-Altitude Explorations
        • Sputnik: The Rocket Launch That Shocked the World
        • Exhibit 1057
        • Exhibit 1058
        • Figure 27.6
      • Modern Era
        • United States Races into Space
        • United States Human Space Program
        • Table 27.1: Potential Deleterious Effects of Weightlessness for Launch, Travel, and Reentry
        • In a Practical Sense: Space Suits for Space Travel
          • Exhibit 1063
        • Exhibit 1064
      • Medical Evaluation for Astronaut Selection
        • First Astronauts
          • Occupational Health Program
        • Table 27.2: Physiologic and Psychologic Testing of the First American Project Mercury Astronauts
        • Exhibit 1067
        • Figure 27.7
        • Exhibit 1069
      • Bone
        • Cardiovascular Adaptations
          • Pulmonary Adaptations
          • Denitrogenation and EVA
        • Body Fluid Adaptations
        • Sensory System Adaptations
        • Musculoskeletal Adaptations
          • Increased Calcium Loss
        • Skeletal Muscle Adaptations
          • Concentric and Eccentric Strength
        • Muscle Ultrastructural Changes
          • Maximal Explosive Leg Power Before and After Space Missions
        • Exhibit 1071
        • Figure 27.8
        • Figure 27.9
        • Table 27.3: Changes in Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Microgravity
        • Figure 27.10
        • Table 27.4: Pulmonary System Changes Associated with Microgravity During Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (Flight STS-40, June 5, 1991) and German Spacelab Mission D-2 Aboard STS-55 (April 26, 1993)
        • Figure 27.11
        • Table 27.5: Body Fluid Changes Associated with Microgravity
        • Table 27.6: Sensory System Changes Associated with Microgravity
        • Figure 27.12
        • Table 27.7: Musculoskeletal Changes Associated with Microgravity
        • Table 27.8: Bone Loss on Mir Space Station Expressed as Percentage of Bone Mineral Density Lost Per Month
        • Figure 27.13
        • Figure 27.14
        • Figure 27.15
        • Figure 27.16
      • Countermeasure Strategies
        • In-Flight Exercise
          • Countermeasures on Long-Duration Missions
        • Space Pharmacology
        • Lower-Body Negative Pressure
          • Assessing Orthostatic Deconditioning Effects
          • LBNP Combined Countermeasures
        • Nutrition
          • Effects on Body Weight
          • Energy Expenditure and Energy Balance Dynamics on the Space Shuttle
          • International Space Station (ISS) Experiments on Nutrition and Body Composition
          • Nutritionally Related Effects of Spaceflight on Physiologic Functions
        • Table 27.9: Adverse Effects of Spaceflight and Proposed Countermeasures
        • Exhibit 1089
        • Figure 27.17
        • Figure 27.18
        • Figure 27.19
        • Table 27.10: Incidence and Severity of Space Motion Sickness During 36 Space Shuttle Flights
        • Figure 27.20
        • Figure 27.21
        • Figure 27.22
        • Figure 27.23
        • Figure 27.24
      • Overview of Physiologic Responses to Spaceflight
        • Short- and Long-Term Responses
        • Time Course of In-Flight Adaptations
        • Time Course of Postflight Readaptations
        • Figure 27.25
        • Figure 27.26
        • Figure 27.27
        • Figure 27.28
      • NASA’s New Vision for the Future of Space Exploration
        • Exhibit 1105
        • Exhibit 1106
        • Exhibit 1107
        • Exhibit 1108
        • Exhibit 1109
      • Practical Benefits from Space Biology Research
        • Table 27.11: Examples of Spin-off Technologies from the Apollo Space Program
        • Table 27.12: Examples of Spin-off Technologies from the Space Shuttle Program
        • Exhibit 1113
      • Final Words
        • Figure 27.29
        • Figure 27.30
        • Figure 27.31
        • Exhibit 1118
        • Exhibit 1119
  • Section 6: Body Composition, Energy Balance, and Weight Control
    • Chapter 28: Body Composition Assessment
      • Section 6: Body Composition, Energy Balance, and Weight Control
        • Exhibit 1121
      • Chapter 28 Introduction
        • Four Limitations of Height–Weight Tables
        • Table 28.1: Terms Frequently Used in Describing and Measuring Body Composition
      • Overweight, Overfatness, and Obesity: No Unanimity for Terminology
      • The Body Mass Index: A Popular Clinical Standard
        • BMI Computation
        • New Standards for Overweight and Obesity
          • BMI Limitations
          • Miss America and BMI: Underweight Role Models?
        • In a Practical Sense: Determining Body Frame Size from Stature and Two Bone Diameters
          • Table 1: Example of BFS Calculations for a Male and Female of Different Heights and Bone Measurements
          • Table 2: BFS Categories
          • Exhibit 1129
        • Figure 28.1
        • Figure 28.2
        • Figure 28.3
        • Figure 28.4
        • Figure 28.5
      • Composition of the Human Body
        • Reference Man and Reference Woman
          • Essential and Storage Fat
        • Minimal Leanness Standards
          • Men
          • Women
        • Leanness, Regular Physical Activity, and Menstrual Irregularity
          • Lean-to-Fat Ratio
        • Delayed Onset of Menstruation and Cancer Risk
        • Figure 28.6
      • Common Techniques to Assess Body Composition
        • Direct Assessment
        • Indirect Assessment
          • Hydrostatic Weighing: Archimedes’ Principle
        • Body Volume Measurement
          • Water Displacement
          • Hydrostatic Weighing
        • BOD POD Measurement of Body Volume
        • Some Discrepancies in the Literature
        • Skinfold and Girth Measurements
          • Subcutaneous Fat Measurement with Skinfolds
          • Usefulness of Skinfold Scores
          • Skinfolds and Age
          • User Beware
          • Measurement of Girths
          • Usefulness of Girth Scores
          • Body Fat Predictions from Girths
        • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
          • Influence of Hydration Level and Ambient Temperature
          • Applicability of BIA in Sports and Exercise Training
        • Near-Infrared Interactance
          • Questionable Validity of NIR
        • Ultrasound Assessment of Fat
        • Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
          • Computed Tomography
          • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
          • Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
        • Figure 28.7
        • Figure 28.8
        • Table 28.2: Measurements of Two Professional Football Players from Underwater Weighing
        • Table 28.3: Body Fat Estimates Using Age- and Gender-Specific Conversions to Account for Age-Related Changes in the Density of the Fat-Free Body Mass
        • Figure 28.9
        • Figure 28.10
        • Figure 28.11
        • Table 28.4: Changes in Selected Skinfolds of a Young Woman During a 16-Week Exercise Program
        • Figure 28.12
        • Figure 28.13
        • In a Practical Sense: How to Predict Percentage Body Fat from Girths for Overly Fat Men and Women
          • Exhibit 1149
        • Figure 28.14
        • Figure 28.15
        • Figure 28.16
        • Figure 28.17
        • Figure 28.18
        • Figure 28.19
        • Figure 28.20
      • Average Percentage Body Fat
        • Table 28.5: Average Values of Body Fat for Younger and Older Women and Men from Selected Studies
      • Determining Goal Body Weight
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 29: Physique, Performance, and Physical Activity
      • Chapter 29 Introduction
      • Physiques of Champion Athletes
        • Michael Phelps—World Champion Swimmer Anomaly?
          • Fat–Free-to-Fat Ratio
          • Racial Differences
        • Percentage Body Fat of Elite Athletes
          • By Category
          • Field Event Athletes
          • Female Endurance Athletes
          • Male Endurance Athletes
          • Swimmers versus Runners
          • American Football Players
          • 2004–2005 Division I Big Ten Collegiate Football Players
          • Weightlifters and Bodybuilders
        • Exhibit 1163
        • Table 29.1: Comparison of Swimming Speed in Goldfish and Michael Phelps (100-m butterfly time of 51.25 s)
        • Figure 29.1
        • Exhibit 1166
        • Figure 29.2
        • Figure 29.3
        • Table 29.2: Skinfold and Girth Anthropometry of the Top 10 American Athletes in the Discus, Shot-Put, Javelin, and Hammer Throw
        • Exhibit 1170
        • Table 29.3: Body Composition of Female Endurance Runners
        • Table 29.4: Body Composition Characteristics of Elite Male Middle- and Long-Distance Runners and Elite Marathoners
        • Table 29.5: Body Composition of Collegiate and Professional Football Players Grouped by Position
        • Table 29.6: Average Body Mass and Stature for the 2007 NFL Super Bowl Offensive and Defensive Linemen
        • Figure 29.4
        • In a Practical Sense: Predicting Body Fat from Skinfolds, Girths, and BIA Measurements for Different Athletic Groups
          • Exhibit 1177
        • Figure 29.5
        • Table 29.7: Average BMI of Division I Big Ten Collegiate American Football Offensive and Defensive Linemen
        • Figure 29.6
        • Exhibit 1181
        • Table 29.8: Comparison of Height, Body Weight, and BMI for 2005 Champions Tour and PGA Golf Tour Champions and 2011 Top 20 PGA Players
        • Table 29.9: Body Composition and Anthropometric Girths of Male and Female Bodybuilders
      • Upper Limit for Fat-Free Body Mass
        • Exhibit 1185
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 30: Overweight, Overfatness (Obesity), and Weight Control
      • Chapter 30 Introduction
      • Part 1 Obesity: Historical Perspective
      • Obesity Remains a Worldwide Epidemic
        • Figure 30.1
        • Figure 30.2
        • Figure 30.3
        • Exhibit 1193
        • Exhibit 1194
      • Increased Body Fat: A Progressive Long-Term Process
        • Generally an Overfed Nation
        • Exhibit 1196
        • Figure 30.4
      • Genetics Influences Body Fat Accumulation
        • A Mutant Gene and Leptin
        • Influence of Racial Factors
          • A Word of Caution
        • Figure 30.5
        • Figure 30.6
      • Physical Inactivity: A Crucial Component in Excessive Fat Accumulation
        • Physical Activity and Body Fat Accumulation Throughout Life
        • Benefits of Increased Energy Output with Aging
        • Figure 30.7
      • Health Risks of Excessive Body Fat
        • Excessive Fatness in Childhood and Adolescence Predicts Adverse Health Effects in Adulthood
        • Defined Health Risks
        • Figure 30.8
        • Exhibit 1205
        • Figure 30.9
        • Exhibit 1207
      • Criteria for Excessive Body Fat: How Fat Is Too Fat?
        • Percentage of Body Fat
        • Distribution or Patterning of Fat at Different Anatomic Regions
        • Adipocyte Size and Number: Hypertrophy versus Hyperplasia
          • Fat Cell Development and Adipocytes
          • Cellularity Differences Between Nonobese and Obese Persons
          • Effects of Weight Loss
          • Effects of Weight Gain
          • Possibility of New Adipocyte Formation
        • Figure 30.10
        • Exhibit 1210
        • Figure 30.11
        • Figure 30.12
        • Figure 30.13
        • Figure 30.14
      • Part 2 Principles of Weight Control: Diet and Physical Activity: Energy Balance: Input versus Output
        • A Prudent Recommendation
      • Energy Balance: Input versus Output
        • A Prudent Recommendation
        • Figure 30.15
      • Dieting for Weight Control
        • Long-Term Success
          • National Weight Control Registry: Clues to Long-Term Success
          • Structured Assistance May Prove Useful for Successful Weight Loss
          • Weight Loss Improves Disease-Risk Biomarkers
        • Setpoint Theory: A Case Against Dieting
          • Resting Metabolism Decreases
          • Biologic Feedback Mechanism
          • Dieting Extremes
          • Low Carbohydrate–Ketogenic Diets
          • High-Protein Diets
          • Semistarvation Diets
        • Figure 30.16
        • Figure 30.17
        • Table 30.1: (Top) Dietary Strategies to Achieve Weight Loss of Participants of the NWCR. (Bottom) Effects of Weight Loss on Various Dimensions of Life Reported by Participants
        • Figure 30.18
        • Figure 30.19
        • In a Practical Sense: Recognizing Warning Signs of Disordered Eating
          • Exhibit 1225
          • Table 1: Warning Signs of Anorexia Nervosa
          • Table 2: Warning Signs of Bulimia Nervosa
      • Factors That Affect Weight Loss
        • Early Weight Loss Largely Water
        • Hydration Level
        • Longer-Term Deficit Promotes Fat Loss
        • Figure 30.20
        • Figure 30.21
      • Increased Physical Activity for Weight Control
        • Not Simply Gluttony
        • The Most Desirable Solution—Increase Energy Output
        • Two Misconceptions About Physical Activity
          • Misconception 1: Increased Physical Activity Increases Food Intake
          • Misconception 2: Physical Activity Does Not Burn Many Calories
        • Exhibit 1232
        • Exhibit 1233
      • Effectiveness of Regular Physical Activity
        • Resistance Training
        • Dose–Response Relationship for Energy Expended and Weight Lost
          • Walking–Running for Different Durations
          • Exercise Frequency
          • Start Slowly and Progress Gradually
          • Self-Selected Energy Expenditures: Mode of Physical Activity
        • Caloric Restraint Plus Physical Activity: The Ideal Combination
        • Spot Reduction Does Not Work to Selectively Reduce Local Fat Deposits
        • Possible Gender Difference in Responsiveness to Physical Activity
        • Figure 30.22
        • Table 30.2: Effectiveness of a 16-Week Walking Program on Body Composition and Blood Lipid Changes in Six Overfat, Young Men
        • Table 30.3: Changes in Body Composition After 12 Weeks of Either Resistance Training or Endurance Training
        • Figure 30.23
        • Table 30.4: Effects of Three Training Durations of Walking and Running on Body Composition Changes
        • Figure 30.24
        • Table 30.5: Benefits of Adding Exercise to Dietary Restriction for Weight Loss
      • Weight Loss Recommendations for Wrestlers and Other Power Athletes
        • Prudent Recommendations for Wrestlers
        • Table 30.6: Using Anthropometric Equations to Predict a Minimal Wrestling Weight and to Select a Competitive Weight Class
      • Gaining Weight: The Competitive Athlete’s Dilemma
        • Unsupported Hype
        • Increase the Lean, Not the Fat
        • How Much Gain to Expect
        • Figure 30.25
  • Section 7: Exercise, Successful Aging, and Disease Prevention
    • Chapter 31: Physical Activity, Health, and Aging
      • Section 7: Exercise, Successful Aging, and Disease Prevention
      • Chapter 31 Introduction
      • The Graying of America
        • Exhibit 1249
      • The New Gerontology
        • Healthy Life Expectancy: A New Concept
        • Figure 31.1
        • Exhibit 1252
      • Part 1 Physical Activity in the Population: Physical Activity Epidemiology
        • Terminology
        • Physical Activity Participation
          • U.S. Adult Population
          • U.S. Children and Teenagers
        • Healthy People 2020
          • Safety of Exercising
        • Prehabilitation Reduces Sports and Recreational Injuries
        • Sedentary Environmental Death Syndrome
        • Figure 31.2
        • Exhibit 1255
        • In a Practical Sense: Assessing Hip-and-Trunk and Shoulder–Wrist Flexibility
          • Modified Sit-and-Reach Ratings: Men (Score in Inches)
          • Modified Sit-and-Reach Ratings: Women (Score in Inches)
          • Exhibit 1259
          • Shoulder-and-Wrist Elevation Ratings Based on Colege-Age Men and Women (Score in Inches)
        • Figure 31.3
        • Figure 31.4
        • Exhibit 1263
      • Part 2 Aging and Physiologic Function: Age Trends
        • Differences in Exercise Physiology between Children and Adults
        • Muscular Strength
          • Age Trends among Elite Weightlifters and Powerlifters
          • Muscle Mass Decrease
          • Resistance Training for Older Adults
        • Neural Function
        • Endocrine Changes
          • Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
          • Adrenal Cortex
          • Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis
        • Pulmonary Function
        • Cardiovascular Function
          • Aerobic Power
          • Central and Peripheral Cardiovascular Functions
          • Physiologic Loss with Aging: Lifestyle or Chronologic Age?
          • Endurance Performance
        • Sprint Performance
        • Body Composition
        • Bone Mass
        • Figure 31.5
        • Figure 31.6
        • Exhibit 1267
        • Figure 31.7
        • Figure 31.8
        • Figure 31.9
        • Figure 31.10
        • Figure 31.11
        • Figure 31.12
        • Figure 31.13
        • Figure 31.14
      • Trainability and Age
        • Aerobic Trainability among Older Adults: Perhaps a Gender Difference
        • Figure 31.15
        • Table 31.1: Effects of 9 Months of Endurance Training on Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Cardiovascular Function in 15 Men Age 63 ± 3 yr, and 16 Women Age 64 ± 3 yr
      • Part 3 Physical Activity, Health, and Longevity
      • Physical Activity, Health, and Longevity
        • Enhanced Quality to a Longer Life: The Harvard Alumni Study
          • Vigorous Exercise and Longevity
        • Epidemiologic Evidence
      • Regular Moderate Physical Activity Provides Significant Benefits
        • Influence of Physiologic Factors
        • Structured Physical Activity Not Necessary
        • Table 31.2: General Trend for Effects of Regular Physical Activity and/or Increased Physical Fitness and Risk for Chronic Disease Conditions
      • Part 4 Coronary Heart Disease
      • Changes on the Cellular Level
        • C-Reactive Protein: An Indication of Arterial Inflammation
        • Vulnerable Plaque: Difficult to Detect yet Lethal
        • Vascular Degeneration Begins Early in Life
        • Cardiovascular Disease Epidemic
          • Prevalence and Control of Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors: An Issue for Many Americans
        • Animation: Acute Inflammation
        • Exhibit 1286
        • Figure 31.16
      • Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors
        • Age, Gender, and Heredity
        • Blood Lipid Abnormalities
          • AHA Recommendations for Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol
          • LDL Particle Size Assessment Also Important
          • Factors That Affect Blood Lipids
          • Specific Effects of Physical Activity
          • Other Influences
        • Beyond Cholesterol: Homocysteine and Coronary Heart Disease
        • CHD Risk Factor Interactions
        • Risk Factors in Children
        • Calculate Your CHD Risk
        • Table 31.3: Modifiable and Unmodifiable Risk Factors Most Frequently Implicated in Coronary Heart Disease
        • Figure 31.17
        • Table 31.4: Approximate Composition of Serum Lipoproteins
        • Figure 31.18
        • Figure 31.19
        • Table 31.5: Novel Risk Factors for Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease
        • Figure 31.20
        • Figure 31.21
      • Additional References
    • Chapter 32: Clinical Exercise Physiology for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Pulmonary Rehabilitation
      • Chapter 32 Introduction
      • The Exercise Physiologist in the Clinical Setting
        • Vital Link between Sports Medicine and Exercise Physiology
        • Table 32.1: Clinical Areas and Corresponding Diseases and Disorders Where Regular Physical Activity Applies
        • Figure 32.1
        • Table 32.2: Health Benefits of Regular Physical Activitya
      • Training and Certification Programs for Professional Exercise Physiologists
      • Clinical Applications of Exercise Physiology to Diverse Diseases and Disorders
      • Oncology
        • Recent Cancer Statistics
          • Clinical Features
        • Cancer Rehabilitation and Physical Activity
          • Physical Activity: Protective Effects on Cancer Occurrence
          • Physical Activity Prescription and Cancer
          • Breast Cancer Rehabilitation and Physical Activity
        • Figure 32.2
        • Table 32.3: Cancer Therapies and Their Complications
        • Figure 32.3
        • Figure 32.4
      • Cardiovascular Disease
        • Cardiovascular Disease and Exercise Capacity
        • Blood Pressure: Classification and Risk Stratification
        • Regular Physical Activity and Hypertension
          • Chronic Resistance Training Effects on Blood Pressure
        • Diseases of the Myocardium
          • Angina Pectoris
          • Myocardial Infarction
          • Congestive Heart Failure
          • Aneurysm
          • Heart Valve Diseases
        • Cardiac Nervous System Diseases
        • Table 32.4: Cardiac Diseases That Cause Functional Impairment
        • Table 32.5: Classification of Blood Pressure for Adults Age 18 Years and Older
        • Figure 32.5
        • Table 32.6: Risk Stratification and Recommended Treatment for Hypertension
        • Figure 32.6
        • Table 32.7: Blood Pressure during Rest and Submaximal Exercise before and after 4 to 6 Weeks of Training in Seven Middle-Age CHD Patients
        • Table 32.8: Comparison of Symptoms of Angina Pectoris and Heartburn
        • Figure 32.7
        • Figure 32.8
        • Animation: Edema
        • Figure 32.9
        • Animation: Congestive Heart Failure
      • Assessing Cardiac Disease
        • Purpose of Health Screening and Risk Stratification
        • Patient History
        • Physical Examination
          • Heart Auscultation
          • Laboratory Tests
          • Invasive Physiologic Tests
          • Noninvasive Physiologic Tests
        • Prudent Pre-exercise Evaluation
        • Reasons for Stress Testing
        • Who Requires Stress Testing?
        • Informed Consent
        • Stress Testing Contraindications
          • GXT Termination
        • Stress Test Outcomes
          • Stress Testing the “Oldest-Old”
        • Exercise-Induced Indicators of CHD
          • Angina Pectoris
          • Electrocardiographic Abnormalities
          • Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities
          • Other Exercise-Induced CHD Indicators
        • In a Practical Sense: Par-Q to Assess Readiness for Physical Activity
        • Exhibit 1325
        • Table 32.9: Diagnosis of Chest Pain
        • Table 32.10: Normal and Abnormal ECG Changes during Exercise
        • Figure 32.10
        • Animation: Coronary Angiography: Left Coronary System—Part A
        • Animation: Coronary Angiography: Left Coronary System—Part B
        • Table 32.11: Data from an Exercise Stress Test to Diagnose and Formulate an Exercise Prescription
        • Table 32.12: ACSM Recommendations for Current Medical Examination and Exercise Stress Testing (GXT) and Physician Supervision of GXT Prior to Participation in Exercise Program
        • Table 32.13: Criteria for Terminating a Graded Exercise Test by Apparently Healthy Adults
        • Figure 32.11
      • Stress Test Protocols
        • Bruce and Balke Treadmill Tests
        • Bicycle Ergometer Tests
        • Arm-Crank Ergometer Tests
        • Stress Testing Safety
        • Table 32.14: Summary Reports of Incidence of Morbidity and/or Mortality during or Following a Graded Exercise Test (1969–1995)
      • Prescribing Physical Activity and Exercise
        • Practical Illustration
        • Improvements in CHD Patients
        • The Program
          • Supervision Level
          • Resistance Exercise Provides Benefits
        • Cardiac Medications and Exercise Response
        • Figure 32.12
        • Table 32.15: ACSM Categories for Exercise Programs Related to Patient Symptoms
        • Table 32.16: Cardiac Medications: Their Use, Side Effects, and Effects on Exercise Response
      • Cardiac Rehabilitation
        • Inpatient Programs
        • Outpatient Programs
        • Table 32.17: Functional and Therapeutic Classifications of Heart Disease from the New York Heart Association.
        • Table 32.18: Guidelines for Risk Stratification from the AHA When Considering an Exercise Program
      • Pulmonary Diseases
        • Restrictive Lung Dysfunction
        • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
          • Chronic Bronchitis
          • Emphysema
          • Cystic Fibrosis
        • Pulmonary Assessments
          • X-Ray
          • Computed Tomography
          • Other Measures
        • Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Physical Activity Prescription
        • Pulmonary Medications
        • Table 32.19: Restrictive Lung Diseasesa
        • Exhibit 1346
        • Figure 32.13
        • Figure 32.14
        • Figure 32.15
        • Table 32.20: Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis and Related Pulmonary Involvement
        • Figure 32.16
        • Figure 32.17
        • Exhibit 1353
        • Figure 32.18
        • Table 32.21: Major Pulmonary Bronchodilator Drugs: Their Uses and Side Effects
      • Physical Activity and Asthma
        • Asthma Statistics
        • Sensitivity to Thermal Gradients and Fluid Loss
        • Environmental Impact
        • Benefits of Warm-Up and Medication
        • Figure 32.19
        • Animation: Asthma
      • Neuromuscular Diseases, Disabilities, and Disorders
        • Stroke
          • Clinical Features
          • Exercise Prescription
        • Multiple Sclerosis
          • Clinical Features
          • Exercise Prescription
        • Parkinson’s Disease
          • Clinical Features
          • Exercise Prescription
        • Animation: Stroke
        • Table 32.22: Physical and Psychologic Conditions and Comorbidities in Stroke Patients
      • Renal Disease
        • Clinical Features
        • Exercise Prescription
      • Cognitive/Emotional Diseases and Disorders
        • Clinical Features
        • Exercise Prescription
        • Table 32.23: Twelve Common Signs and Symptoms of Depression
      • Additional References
  • Section 8: On the Horizon
    • Chapter 33: Molecular Biology: A New Vista for Exercise Physiology
      • Section 8: On the Horizon
      • Chapter 33 Introduction
        • Figure 33.1
      • Historical Tour of Molecular Biology
        • Exhibit 1370
        • Figure 33.2
        • Exhibit 1372
        • Exhibit 1373
        • Animation: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
      • Revolution in the Biologic Sciences
        • Exhibit 1376
        • Exhibit 1377
        • Figure 33.3
      • The Human Genome
        • Figure 33.4
        • Exhibit 1381
      • Nucleic Acids
        • DNA and RNA
        • Linking Nucleotides: Phosphodiester Bonding
        • Structure of DNA
        • Base Pairing
        • Forms of RNA
          • Codons and Nature’s Genetic Code
        • Sequencing of Codons
        • Figure 33.5
        • Figure 33.6
        • Figure 33.7
        • Figure 33.8
        • Figure 33.9
        • Figure 33.10
        • Exhibit 1389
        • Figure 33.11
        • Animation: Protein Synthesis
        • Animation: Protein Synthesis Overview
        • Animation: DNA Synthesis
        • Exhibit 1394
        • Figure 33.12
      • How DNA Replicates
        • Three Stages of DNA Replication
        • Pivotal Role for DNA Polymerase
          • What Controls DNA Synthesis?
        • Cell Life Cycle Controllers
        • Figure 33.13
        • Animation: DNA Synthesis/Replication
        • Figure 33.14
        • Animation: DNA Repair
        • Figure 33.15
      • Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation
        • Generalized Overview of Protein Synthesis
        • Transcription of the Genetic Code: RNA Synthesis and Gene Expression
        • Examples of Gene Expression
        • Protein Enzymes
        • Transcription Control
        • Enzyme Turnover Number
        • Gene Expression and Human Exercise Performance
        • Exons and Introns
          • RNA Splicing
          • mRNA Packaging: Polyadenylic Acid and Guanosine Triphosphate—Tails and Caps
          • Exiting the Nucleus
        • Translation of the Genetic Code: Ribosomal Assembly of Polypeptides
          • Ribosomes and Polypeptide Synthesis: Initiation of Protein Construction
          • Role of tRNA
          • Polypeptide Elongation and Termination
          • Protein Delivery System: The Golgi Complex
          • Termination of Protein Synthesis
          • Hemoglobin and the Evolutionary Tree
          • Proteolysis: The Ultimate Fate of Proteins
          • Summary of Main Sequence of Events in Protein Synthesis
        • Figure 33.16
        • Animation: ATPase
        • Figure 33.17
        • Figure 33.18
        • Figure 33.19
        • Figure 33.20
        • Figure 33.21
        • Figure 33.22
        • Figure 33.23
        • Figure 33.24
        • Figure 33.25
        • Exhibit 1414
        • Exhibit 1415
        • Figure 33.26
        • Table 33.1: Eight Categories of Proteins and Their Biologic Functions
        • Figure 33.27
        • Figure 33.28
        • Table 33.2: Essential Concepts and Sequence of Events in Protein Synthesis
      • Mutations
        • Varieties of Mutations
          • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
          • Cancer
        • Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Diseases
        • Exhibit 1422
        • Exhibit 1423
        • Table 33.3: Types and Examples of Genetic Mutations
        • Figure 33.29
        • Figure 33.30
        • Figure 33.31
      • New Horizons in Molecular Biology
        • Medically Related Research
        • DNA Technologies
          • DNA Cloning Isolates Human Genes
          • Practical Application in Bioremediation
          • Locating Specific Genes with Plasmids
        • Electrophoresis and Gel Transfer Methods
          • DNA Amplification with the Polymerase Chain Reaction
          • Applications of PCR
          • Injection Experiments
          • Cloning a Mammal
          • Gene Knockout Technique
          • Knockout Mice to Study Mechanisms of Obesity
        • Exhibit 1429
        • Exhibit 1430
        • Figure 33.32
        • Figure 33.33
        • Exhibit 1433
        • Figure 33.34
        • Figure 33.35
        • Exhibit 1436
        • Figure 33.36
        • Figure 33.37
        • Figure 33.38
        • Figure 33.39
        • Exhibit 1441
        • Figure 33.40
        • Exhibit 1443
        • Exhibit 1444
        • Figure 33.41
        • Figure 33.42
        • Figure 33.43
        • Figure 33.44
        • Figure 33.45
        • Figure 33.46
      • Human Performance Research
        • Figure 33.47
        • Figure 33.48
      • Shaping the Future
        • Figure 33.49
        • Exhibit 1456
      • Additional References
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A: Bibliographies of Significant Contributions to the Exercise Physiology Literature
      • Appendix A: Bibliographies of Significant Contributions to the Exercise Physiology Literature
        • Sampling of Textbooks on Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropometry, Exercise and Training, and Exercise Physiology (1801–1947) (in Chronological Order)
        • Review Articles about Exercise, 1922–1940
        • Selected Contributions to the Exercise Physiology Literature by Swedish Exercise Physiologists Per-Olof Åstrand and Bengt Saltin
    • Appendix B: Scientific Contributions of Thirteen Outstanding Female Scientists
      • Appendix B: Scientific Contributions of Thirteen Outstanding Female Scientists
        • Figure: Scientific Contributions of Thirteen Outstanding Female Scientists
    • Appendix C: Honors and Awards of Interviewees
      • Appendix C: Honors and Awards of Interviewees
        • Stephen N. Blair
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Citation Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • Frank W. Booth
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Citation Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • Claude Bouchard
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • David L. Costill
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • Barbara Drinkwater
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • John O. Holloszy
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • Loring B. Rowell
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • Bengt Saltin
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
        • Charles M. Tipton
          • Statement of Contributions: ACSM Honor Award
          • Additional Honors and Awards
    • Appendix D: The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology
      • Appendix D: The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology
        • Units of Mass (Weight)
          • Terminology and Units of Measurement
        • Units of Mass (Weight)
        • Units of Volume
        • Units of Length
        • Units of Temperature
        • Units of Speed
        • Common Expressions of Work, Energy, and Power
        • Definitions of Common SI Units
        • Base Units of SI Nomenclature
        • General SI Style Guidelines
        • Common Prefixes used with SI Units of Measurement
        • Figure Appd-11: Conversion Factors for Use in the Exercise Sciences
        • SI Conversion Table for Common Values in Clinical Hematology and Clinical Chemistry
    • Appendix E: Nutritive Values for Common Foods, Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Beverages, and Specialty and Fast-Food Items
      • Appendix E: Nutritive Values for Common Foods, Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Beverages, and Specialty and Fast-Food Items
        • Breads
        • Cakes and Pies
        • Cookies
        • Candy Bars
        • Chocolate
        • Desserts and Breakfast Pastries
        • Cereals (without Milk)
        • Cheese
        • Fish
        • Fruits
        • Meats
        • Eggs
        • Dairy Products
        • Vegetables
        • Salad Bar
        • Variety
        • Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Beverages (1 Ounce)
        • Exhibit 1493
        • Exhibit 1494
    • Appendix F: Energy Expenditure in Household, Occupational, Recreational, and Sports Activities
      • Appendix F: Energy Expenditure in Household, Occupational, Recreational, and Sports Activities
        • How to Use Appendix F
        • Your Body Weight
    • Appendix G: Standardizing Gas Volumes: Environmental Factors
      • Standardizing Gas Volumes: Environmental Factors
        • Table G.1: Vapor Pressure (PH2O) of Moist Gas at Temperatures Normally Encountered in the Laboratory
        • Table G.2: Factors to Reduce Moist Gas to a Dry Gas Volume at 0°C and 760 mm Hg
        • Table G.3: BTPSa Correction Factors
    • Appendix H: Links for Supplemental Animations and Videos
      • Appendix H: Links for Supplemental Animations and Videos
        • Chapter 15
        • Chapter 18
        • Chapter 19
        • Chapter 26
        • Chapter 27
        • Chapter 29
        • Chapter 32
        • Chapter 33
    • Appendix I: United States Olympic Committee (USOC) National Anti-Doping Policy Statement of Prohibited Substances and Methods
      • Appendix I: United States Olympic Committee (USOC) National Anti-Doping Policy Statement of Prohibited Substances and Methods
        • Stimulants
        • Over-the-Counter Medications Containing Stimulants
        • Caffeine
        • Beta-2 Agonists
        • Allowable Medications
        • Table I.4: Restricted (Inhaleda) Beta-2 Agonists
        • Table I.1: Stimulants
        • Table I.2: Over-the-Counter Medications Containing Prohibited Stimulants
        • Table I.3: Approximate Caffeine Levels
        • Table I.5: Allowable Medications
    • Appendix J: Accomplishments of the United States and Soviet Human Space Programs: From Project Mercury to the International Space Station
      • Appendix J: Accomplishments of the United States and Soviet Human Space Programs: From Project Mercury to the International Space Station
        • Exhibit 1509
    • Appendix K: Microgravity-Related Websites
      • Appendix K: Microgravity-Related Websites
        • Exhibit 1511
    • Appendix L: Evaluation of Body Composition
      • Appendix L: Evaluation of Body Composition
        • Girth Method
        • Skinfold Method
          • The Nomogram
          • Variables
          • Using the Nomogram
          • Example
          • Caution
          • Equations
        • Exhibit 1513
        • Chart L.1: Conversion Constants to Predict Percent Body Fat for Young Mena
        • Chart L.2: Conversion Constants to Predict Percent Body Fat for Older Mena
        • Chart L.3: Conversion Constants to Predict Percent Body Fat for Young Womena
        • Chart L.4: Conversion Constants to Predict Percent Body Fat for Older Womena
        • Figure L.1.
    • Appendix M: Selected References: Human and Animal Research and Molecular Biology—2009–2013
      • Appendix M: Selected References: Human and Animal Research and Molecular Biology—2009–2013
  • Appendix
    • Remarks
    • Glossary

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