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Exercise Biochemistry

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • A Guided Tour for the Student
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Biochemistry Basics
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. Chemical Elements
      • 1.2. Chemical Bonds
      • 1.3. Molecules
      • 1.4. Ions
      • 1.5. Radicals
      • 1.6. Polarity and Miscibility
      • 1.7. Solutions
      • 1.8. Chemical Reactions
      • 1.9. Chemical Equilibrium
      • 1.10. pH
      • 1.11. Acid–Base Interconversions
      • 1.12. Buffer Systems
      • 1.13. Classes of Biological Substances
      • 1.14. Classes of Nutrients
      • 1.15. Cell Structure
    • Chapter 2. Metabolism
      • 2.1. Free-Energy Changes of Metabolic Reactions
      • 2.2. Determinants of Free-Energy Change
      • 2.3. ATP, the Energy Currency of Cells
      • 2.4. Phases of Metabolism
      • 2.5. Redox Reactions
      • 2.6. Overview of Catabolism
    • Chapter 3. Proteins
      • 3.1. Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins
      • 3.2. The Peptide Bond
      • 3.3. Primary Structure of Proteins
      • 3.4. Secondary Structure
      • 3.5. Tertiary Structure
      • 3.6. Denaturation
      • 3.7. Quaternary Structure
      • 3.8. Protein Function
      • 3.9. Oxygen Carriers
      • 3.10. Myoglobin
      • 3.11. Hemoglobin Structure
      • 3.12. The Wondrous Properties of Hemoglobin
      • 3.13. Enzymes
      • 3.14. The Active Site
      • 3.15. How Enzymes Speed Up Metabolic Reactions
      • 3.16. Factors Affecting the Rate of Enzyme Reactions
    • Chapter 4. Nucleic Acids and Gene Expression
      • 4.1. Introducing Nucleic Acids
      • 4.2. Flow of Genetic Information
      • 4.3. Deoxyribonucleotides, the Building Blocks of DNA
      • 4.4. Primary Structure of DNA
      • 4.5. The Double Helix of DNA
      • 4.6. The Genome of Living Organisms
      • 4.7. DNA Replication
      • 4.8. Mutations
      • 4.9. RNA
      • 4.10. Transcription
      • 4.11. Delimiting Transcription
      • 4.12. Genes and Gene Expression
      • 4.13. Messenger RNA
      • 4.14. Translation
      • 4.15. The Genetic Code
      • 4.16. Transfer RNA
      • 4.17. Translation Continued
      • 4.18. Novel Kinds of RNA
      • 4.19. In the Beginning, RNA?
    • Chapter 5. Carbohydrates and Lipids
      • 5.1. Carbohydrates
      • 5.2. Monosaccharides
      • 5.3. Oligosaccharides
      • 5.4. Polysaccharides
      • 5.5. Carbohydrate Categories in Nutrition
      • 5.6. Lipids
      • 5.7. Fatty Acids
      • 5.8. Triacylglycerols
      • 5.9. Phospholipids
      • 5.10. Steroids
      • 5.11. Cell Membranes
    • Chapter 6. Vitamins and Minerals
      • 6.1. Water-Soluble Vitamins
      • 6.2. Fat-Soluble Vitamins
      • 6.3. Metal Minerals
      • 6.4. Nonmetal Minerals
      • 6.5. Elements in the Human Body
  • Part II: Biochemistry of the Neural and Muscular Processes of Movement
    • Chapter 7. Neural Control of Movement
      • 7.1. Two Ways of Transmitting Nerve Signals
      • 7.2. The Resting Potential
      • 7.3. The Action Potential
      • 7.4. Propagation of an Action Potential
      • 7.5. Transmission of a Nerve Impulse From One Neuron to Another
      • 7.6. Birth of a Nerve Impulse
      • 7.7. The Neuromuscular Junction
      • 7.8. Changes in Motor Neuron Activity During Exercise
      • 7.9. A Lethal Arsenal at the Service of Research
    • Chapter 8. Muscle Activity
      • 8.1. Structure of a Muscle Cell
      • 8.2. The Sliding Filament Theory
      • 8.3. The Wondrous Properties of Myosin
      • 8.4. Myosin Structure
      • 8.5. Actin
      • 8.6. Sarcomere Architecture
      • 8.7. Mechanism of Force Generation
      • 8.8. Types of Muscle Activity
      • 8.9. Myosin Isoforms and Muscle Fiber Types
      • 8.10. Control of Muscle Activity by Ca^2+
      • 8.11. Excitation–Contraction Coupling
  • Part III: Exercise Metabolism
    • III.1. Defining Exercise and Physical Activity
    • III.2. Principles of Exercise Metabolism
    • III.3. Exercise Parameters
    • III.4. Means of Metabolic Control in Exercise
    • III.5. Energy Sources in Exercise
    • III.6. How Researchers Study Exercise Metabolism
    • III.7. Laboratory Techniques in the Study of Exercise Metabolism
    • Chapter 9. Compounds of High Phosphoryl-Transfer Potential
      • 9.1. The ATP–ADP Cycle
      • 9.2. The ATP–ADP Cycle in Exercise
      • 9.3. Phosphocreatine
      • 9.4. Watching Exercise Metabolism
      • 9.5. Loss of AMP by Deamination
      • 9.6. Purine Degradation
    • Chapter 10. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Exercise
      • 10.1. Carbohydrate Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution
      • 10.2. Glycogen Content of the Human Body
      • 10.3. Glycogenesis
      • 10.4. Glycogenolysis
      • 10.5. Exercise Speeds Up Glycogenolysis in Muscle
      • 10.6. The Cyclic-AMP Cascade
      • 10.7. Recapping the Effect of Exercise on Muscle Glycogen Metabolism
      • 10.8. Glycolysis
      • 10.9. Exercise Speeds Up Glycolysis in Muscle
      • 10.10. Pyruvate Oxidation
      • 10.11. Exercise Speeds Up Pyruvate Oxidation in Muscle
      • 10.12. The Citric Acid Cycle
      • 10.13. Exercise Speeds Up the Citric Acid Cycle in Muscle
      • 10.14. The Electron-Transport Chain
      • 10.15. Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • 10.16. Energy Yield of the Electron-Transport Chain
      • 10.17. Energy Yield of Carbohydrate Oxidation
      • 10.18. Exercise Speeds Up Oxidative Phosphorylation in Muscle
      • 10.19. Lactate Production in Muscle During Exercise
      • 10.20. Lactate Production Is Probably Not a Cause of Fatigue
      • 10.21. Lactate Production Is Not Due to a Lack of Oxygen
      • 10.22. Features of Anaerobic Carbohydrate Catabolism
      • 10.23. Using Lactate
      • 10.24. Gluconeogenesis
      • 10.25. A Shortcut in Gluconeogenesis
      • 10.26. Exercise Speeds Up Gluconeogenesis and Slows Down Glycolysis in the Liver
      • 10.27. The Cori Cycle
      • 10.28. Exercise Speeds Up Glycogenolysis and Slows Down Glycogenesis in the Liver
      • 10.29. Control of the Plasma Glucose Concentration
      • 10.30. Control of the Plasma Glucose Concentration in Exercise
      • 10.31. Blood Lactate Accumulation
      • 10.32. Blood Lactate Decline
      • 10.33. “Thresholds”
    • Chapter 11. Lipid Metabolism in Exercise
      • 11.1. Triacylglycerol Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution
      • 11.2. Digestion, Absorption, and Distribution of Other Lipids
      • 11.3. Fat Content of the Human Body
      • 11.4. Triacylglycerol Synthesis in Adipose Tissue
      • 11.5. Lipolysis
      • 11.6. Exercise Speeds Up Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue
      • 11.7. Exercise Speeds Up Lipolysis in Muscle
      • 11.8. Fate of the Lipolytic Products During Exercise
      • 11.9. Fatty Acid Degradation
      • 11.10. Energy Yield of Fatty Acid Oxidation
      • 11.11. Degradation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids
      • 11.12. Degradation of Odd-Number Fatty Acids
      • 11.13. Fatty Acid Synthesis
      • 11.14. Synthesis of Fatty Acids Other Than Palmitate
      • 11.15. Exercise Speeds Up Fatty Acid Oxidation in Muscle
      • 11.16. Changes in the Plasma Fatty Acid Concentration and Profile During Exercise
      • 11.17. Interconversion of Lipids and Carbohydrates
      • 11.18. Brown Adipose Tissue
      • 11.19. Plasma Lipoproteins
      • 11.20. A Lipoprotein Odyssey
      • 11.21. Effects of Exercise on the Plasma Triacylglycerol Concentration
      • 11.22. Effects of Exercise on the Plasma Cholesterol Concentration
      • 11.23. Exercise Speeds Up Ketone Body Metabolism
    • Chapter 12. Protein Metabolism in Exercise
      • 12.1. Processing of Dietary Proteins
      • 12.2. Protein Content of the Human Body
      • 12.3. Protein Turnover
      • 12.4. Effects of Exercise on Protein Turnover
      • 12.5. Amino Acid Degradation
      • 12.6. Amino Acid Synthesis
      • 12.7. Effects of Exercise on Amino Acid Metabolism in Muscle
      • 12.8. Effects of Exercise on Amino Acid Metabolism in the Liver
      • 12.9. The Urea Cycle
      • 12.10. Plasma Amino Acid, Ammonia, and Urea Concentrations During Exercise
      • 12.11. Contribution of Proteins to the Energy Expenditure of Exercise
      • 12.12. Effects of Training on Protein Turnover
    • Chapter 13. Effects of Exercise on Gene Expression
      • 13.1. Stages in the Control of Gene Expression
      • 13.2. Stages in the Control of Gene Expression Affected by Exercise
      • 13.3. Kinetics of a Gene Product After Exercise
      • 13.4. Exercise-Induced Changes That May Modify Gene Expression
      • 13.5. Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy
      • 13.6. Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Increase in Muscle Mitochondrial Content
      • 13.7. Exercise and Epigenetics
    • Chapter 14. Integration of Exercise Metabolism
      • 14.1. Interconnection of Metabolic Pathways
      • 14.2. Energy Systems
      • 14.3. Energy Sources in Exercise
      • 14.4. Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
      • 14.5. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Choice of Energy Sources
      • 14.6. Effect of Exercise Duration on Choice of Energy Sources
      • 14.7. Interplay of Duration and Intensity: Energy Sources in Running and Swimming
      • 14.8. Effect of Exercise Program on Choice of Energy Sources
      • 14.9. Sex Differences in Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
      • 14.10. How Sex Influences Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
      • 14.11. Effect of Age on Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
      • 14.12. Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
      • 14.13. Effect of Fat Intake on Choice of Energy Sources During Exercise
      • 14.14. Adaptations to Endurance Training in the Proportion of Energy Sources Used During Exercise
      • 14.15. How Endurance Training Modifies the Proportion of Energy Sources Used During Exercise
      • 14.16. Adaptations of Exercise Metabolism to Resistance and Sprint Training
      • 14.17. Adaptations of Exercise Metabolism to Interval Training
      • 14.18. Adaptations of Exercise Metabolism to Concurrent Training
      • 14.19. Effect of the Genome on Choice of Energy Sources in Exercise
      • 14.20. Muscle Fiber Type Transitions
      • 14.21. Effects of Environmental Factors on Choice of Energy Sources in Exercise
      • 14.22. The Proportion of Fuels Can Be Measured Bloodlessly
      • 14.23. Hormonal Effects on Exercise Metabolism
      • 14.24. Redox State and Exercise Metabolism
      • 14.25. Causes of Fatigue
      • 14.26. Recovery of the Energy State After Exercise
      • 14.27. Metabolic Changes in Detraining
    • Chapter 15. Exercise to Fight Disease
      • 15.1. Health, Disease, and Exercise
      • 15.2. Exercise to Fight Cardiovascular Disease
      • 15.3. Adaptations of the Heart to Training
      • 15.4. Adaptations of the Vasculature to Training
      • 15.5. Exercise to Fight Cancer
      • 15.6. Diabetes, a Major Metabolic Upset
      • 15.7. Exercise to Fight Diabetes
      • 15.8. Obesity, a Health-Threatening Condition
      • 15.9. Why Obesity Is Harmful
      • 15.10. Exercise to Fight Obesity
      • 15.11. Exercise to Fight Osteoporosis
      • 15.12. Exercise to Fight Mental Dysfunction
      • 15.13. Detriments of Physical Inactivity
      • 15.14. Exercise for Healthy Aging and Longevity
      • 15.15. Benefits From Regular Exercise in Regard to Other Diseases
      • 15.16. A Final Word on the Value of Exercise
  • Part IV: Biochemical Assessment of Exercisers
    • IV.1. Blood
    • IV.2. Aims and Scope of the Biochemical Assessment
    • IV.3. The Reference Interval
    • IV.4. Classes of Biochemical Parameters
    • Chapter 16. Iron Status
      • 16.1. Hemoglobin
      • 16.2. Iron
      • 16.3. Total Iron-Binding Capacity
      • 16.4. Transferrin Saturation
      • 16.5. Soluble Transferrin Receptor
      • 16.6. Ferritin
      • 16.7. Iron Deficiency
    • Chapter 17. Metabolites
      • 17.1. Lactate
      • 17.2. Estimating Anaerobic Lactic Capacity
      • 17.3. Programming Training
      • 17.4. Estimating Aerobic Endurance
      • 17.5. Glucose
      • 17.6. Triacylglycerols
      • 17.7. Cholesterol
      • 17.8. Recapping the Lipidemic Profile
      • 17.9. Glycerol
      • 17.10. Urea
      • 17.11. Ammonia
      • 17.12. Creatinine
      • 17.13. Uric Acid
      • 17.14. Glutathione
    • Chapter 18. Enzymes and Hormones
      • 18.1. Enzymes
      • 18.2. Creatine Kinase
      • 18.3. ?-Glutamyltransferase
      • 18.4. Antioxidant Enzymes
      • 18.5. Hormones
      • 18.6. Cortisol
      • 18.7. Testosterone
      • 18.8. Overtraining Syndrome
      • 18.9. Epilogue
  • Answers to Problems and Critical Thinking Questions
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • About the Author

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Vörumerki: Human Kinetics
Vörunúmer: 9781492572695
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Exercise Biochemistry

Vörumerki: Human Kinetics
Vörunúmer: 9781492572695
Rafræn bók. Uppl. sendar á netfangið þitt eftir kaup
10.990 kr.
Get the product now
10.990 kr.