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Economics

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Vörumerki: Cengage
Vörunúmer: 9781473768628
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Economics

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Rafræn bók. Uppl. sendar á netfangið þitt eftir kaup
Rafbók til eignar. Rafbók til eignar þarf að hlaða niður á þau tæki sem þú vilt nota innan eins árs frá því bókin er keypt. Útgáfa: 5

Efnisyfirlit

  • Brief Contents
  • Contents
  • About the Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Part 1: Introduction to Economics
    • Chapter 1: What Is Economics?
      • The Economy and Economic Systems
      • How People Make Decisions
      • How People Interact
      • How the Economy as a Whole Works
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 2: Thinking Like an Economist
      • Introduction
      • Economic Methodology
      • Schools of Thought
      • The Economist as Policy Advisor
      • Why Economists Disagree
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 2: The Theory of Competitive Markets
    • Chapter 3: The Market Forces of Supply and Demand
      • The Assumptions of the Competitive Market Model
      • Demand
      • Shifts versus Movements along the Demand Curve
      • Supply
      • Supply and Demand Together
      • Prices as Signals
      • Analyzing Changes in Equilibrium
      • Elasticity
      • The Price Elasticity of Demand
      • Other Demand Elasticities
      • Price Elasticity of Supply
      • Applications of Supply and Demand Elasticity
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 4: Background to Demand: Consumer Choices
      • The Standard Economic Model
      • The Budget Constraint: What the Consumer Can Afford
      • Preferences: What the Consumer Wants
      • Optimization: What the Consumer Chooses
      • Conclusion: Do People Really Behave This Way?
      • Behavioural Approaches to Consumer Behaviour
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 5: Background to Supply: Firms in Competitive Markets
      • The Costs of Production
      • Production and Costs
      • The Various Measures of Cost
      • Costs in the Short Run and in the Long Run
      • Summary
      • Returns to Scale
      • What Is a Competitive Market?
      • Profit Maximization and the Competitive Firm's Supply Curve
      • The Supply Curve in a Competitive Market
      • Conclusion: Behind the Supply Curve
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 6: Consumers, Producers and the Efficiency of Markets
      • Consumer Surplus
      • Producer Surplus
      • Market Efficiency
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 3: Interventions in Markets
    • Chapter 7: Supply, Demand and Government Policies
      • Controls on Prices
      • Taxes
      • Subsidies
      • The Tax System
      • The Deadweight Loss of Taxation
      • Administrative Burden
      • The Design of the Tax System
      • Taxes and Equity
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 8: Public Goods, Common Resources and Merit Goods
      • The Different Kinds of Goods
      • Public Goods
      • Common Resources
      • Merit Goods
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 9: Market Failure and Externalities
      • Market Failure
      • Externalities
      • Externalities and Market Inefficiency
      • Private Solutions to Externalities
      • Public Policies towards Externalities
      • Public/Private Policies towards Externalities
      • Government Failure
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 4: Firm Behaviour and Market Structures
    • Chapter 10: Firms' Production Decisions
      • Isoquants and Isocosts
      • The Least-Cost Input Combination
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 11: Market Structures I: Monopoly
      • Imperfect Competition
      • Why Monopolies Arise
      • How Monopolies Make Production and Pricing Decisions
      • The Welfare Cost of Monopoly
      • Price Discrimination
      • Public Policy towards Monopolies
      • Conclusion: The Prevalence of Monopoly
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 12: Market Structures II: Monopolistic Competition
      • Competition with Differentiated Products
      • Advertising and Branding
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 13: Market Structures III: Oligopoly
      • Characteristics of Oligopoly
      • Game Theory and the Economics of Cooperation
      • Entry Barriers in Oligopoly
      • Public Policy towards Oligopolies
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 14: Market Structures IV: Contestable Markets
      • The Nature of Contestable Markets
      • The Limitations of Contestability
      • Summary
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 5: Factor Markets
    • Chapter 15: The Economics of Factor Markets
      • The Marginal Product Theory of Distribution
      • The Demand for Labour
      • The Supply of Labour
      • Equilibrium in the Labour Market
      • Other Theories of the Labour Market
      • Marxist Labour Theory
      • Feminist Economics and the Labour Market
      • Monopsony
      • Wage Differentials
      • The Economics of Discrimination
      • The Other Factors of Production: Land and Capital
      • Economic Rent
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 6: Inequality
    • Chapter 16: Income Inequality and Poverty
      • The Measurement of Inequality
      • The Political Philosophy of Redistributing Income
      • Policies to Reduce Poverty
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 7: Trade
    • Chapter 17: Interdependence and the Gains from Trade
      • The Production Possibilities Frontier
      • International trade
      • The Principle of Comparative Advantage
      • The Determinants of Trade
      • The Winners and Losers from Trade
      • Restrictions on Trade
      • Criticisms of Comparative Advantage Theory
      • Other Theories of International Trade
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 8: Heterodox Economics
    • Chapter 18: Information and Behavioural Economics
      • Principal and Agent
      • Asymmetric Information
      • Behavioural Economics
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 19: Heterodox Theories in Economics
      • Introduction
      • Institutional Economics
      • Feminist Economics
      • Complexity Economics
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 9: The Data of Macroeconomics
    • Chapter 20: Measuring a Nation's Well-Being and the Price Level
      • Marxist Economics
      • The Austrian School
      • Keynesianism
      • Monetarism
      • The Nature of Macroeconomics
      • The Economy's Income and Expenditure
      • The Measurement of Gross Domestic Product
      • The Components of GDP
      • Real versus Nominal GDP
      • The Limitations of GDP as a Measure of Well-Being
      • International Differences in GDP and the Quality of Life
      • Measuring the Cost of Living
      • The Consumer Prices Index
      • Correcting Economic Variables for the Effects of Inflation
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 10: The Real Economy in the Long Run
    • Chapter 21: Production and Growth
      • Economic Growth around the World
      • Growth Theory
      • Productivity
      • The Determinants of Economic Growth
      • Causes of Growth
      • Endogenous Growth Theory
      • Economic Growth and Public Policy
      • Conclusion: The Importance of Long-Run Growth
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 22: Unemployment and the Labour Market
      • Identifying Unemployment
      • The Causes of Unemployment
      • The Natural Rate of Unemployment
      • Marx and the Reserve Army of the Unemployed
      • The Cost of Unemployment
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 11: Long-Run Macroeconomics
    • Chapter 23: Saving, Investment and the Financial System
      • Financial Institutions in the Economy
      • Present Value: Measuring the Time Value of Money
      • Managing Risk
      • Asset Valuation
      • Saving and Investment in the National Income Accounts
      • The Market for Loanable Funds
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 24: The Monetary System
      • The Meaning of Money
      • The Role of Central Banks
      • The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem
      • The Bank of England
      • Banks and the Money Supply
      • The Central Bank's Tools of Monetary Control
      • Money Growth and Inflation
      • What Is Inflation?
      • The Costs of Inflation
      • Deflation
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 25: Open-Economy Macroeconomics
      • The International Flows of Goods and Capital
      • The Prices for International Transactions: Real and Nominal Exchange Rates
      • A First Theory of Exchange Rate Determination: Purchasing Power Parity
      • A Macroeconomic Theory of the Open Economy
      • Supply and Demand for Loanable Funds and for Foreign Currency Exchange
      • Equilibrium in the Open Economy
      • How Policies and Events Affect an Open Economy
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 12: Short-Run Economic Fluctuations
    • Chapter 26: Business Cycles
      • Trend Growth Rates
      • Causes of Changes in the Business Cycle
      • Business Cycle Models
      • Macroeconomic Models of the Economy
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 27: Keynesian Economics and IS-LM Analysis
      • The Keynesian Cross
      • The Multiplier Effect
      • The IS and LM Curves
      • General Equilibrium Using the IS-LM Model
      • From IS-LM to Aggregate Demand
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 28: Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply
      • Three Key Facts about Economic Fluctuations
      • Explaining Short-Run Economic Fluctuations
      • The Aggregate Demand Curve
      • The Aggregate Supply Curve
      • Two Causes of Economic Fluctuations
      • New Keynesian Economics
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 29: The Influence of Monetary and Fiscal Policy on Aggregate Demand
      • How Monetary Policy Influences Aggregate Demand
      • How Fiscal Policy Influences Aggregate Demand
      • Using Policy to Stabilize the Economy
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 30: The Short-Run Trade-off between Inflation and Unemployment
      • The Relationship between Inflation and Unemployment
      • The Phillips Curve
      • Shifts in the Phillips Curve: The Role of Expectations
      • The Long-Run Vertical Phillips Curve as an Argument for Central Bank Independence
      • Shifts in the Phillips Curve: The Role of Supply Shocks
      • The Cost of Reducing Inflation
      • Inflation Targeting
      • Reflecting on the Phillips Curve
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 31: Supply-Side Policies
      • Shifts in the Aggregate Supply Curve
      • Types of Supply-Side Policies
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Part 13: International Macroeconomics
    • Chapter 32: The Causes and Aftermath of the Financial Crisis
      • The Causes of the Crisis
      • The Efficient Markets Hypothesis
      • The Financial Crisis and Sovereign Debt
      • The Sovereign Debt Crisis
      • Austerity Policies: Too Far Too Quickly?
      • The Productivity Puzzle
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 33: Common Currency Areas
      • The Euro
      • The Benefits and Costs of a Common Currency
      • The Theory of Optimum Currency Areas
      • Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area?
      • Fiscal Policy and Common Currency Areas
      • The Fiscal Compact
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
    • Chapter 34: The Future of the European Union
      • The Euro
      • Italy
      • Brexit
      • Conclusion
      • Summary
      • Questions for Review
      • Problems and Applications
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Credits
  • List of Formulae

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Vörumerki: Cengage
Vörunúmer: 9781473768628
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