Ecology of Freshwaters: Earth's Bloodstream

Námskeið  LBHI Vatnavistfræði I - Höfundur: Brian R. Moss
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Ecology of Freshwaters: Earth's Bloodstream

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover
  • Preface: why?
  • 1 The world as it was and the world as it is
    • 1.1 Early ecological history
    • 1.2 The more recent past
    • 1.3 Characteristics of freshwater organisms
    • 1.4 Freshwater biodiversity
    • 1.5 A spanner in the works?
    • 1.6 Politics and pollution
    • 1.7 On the nature of textbooks
    • 1.8 Further reading
  • 2 Early evolution and diversity of freshwater organisms
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 The freshwater biota
    • 2.3 Bacteria
    • 2.4 The variety of bacteria
    • 2.5 Viruses
    • 2.6 Two sorts of cells
    • 2.7 The diversity of microbial eukaryotes
    • 2.8 Algae
    • 2.9 Kingdoms of eukaryotes
    • 2.10 Further reading
  • 3 Diversity continued
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Osmoregulation
    • 3.3 Reproduction, resting stages and aestivation
    • 3.4 Getting enough oxygen
    • 3.5 Insects
    • 3.6 Big animals, air-breathers and swamps
    • 3.7 Dispersal among freshwaters
    • 3.8 Patterns in freshwater diversity
    • 3.9 Fish faunas
    • 3.10 The fish of Lake Victoria
    • 3.11 Overall diversity in freshwaters
    • 3.12 Environmental DNA
    • 3.13 Further reading
  • 4 Water
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 The molecular properties of water and their physical consequences
    • 4.3 Melting and evaporation
    • 4.4 How much water is there and where is it?
    • 4.5 Patterns in hydrology
    • 4.6 Bodies of water and their temperatures
    • 4.7 An overview of mixing patterns
    • 4.8 Viscosity of water and fluid dynamics
    • 4.9 Diffusion
    • 4.10 Further reading
  • 5 Water as a habitat
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Polar and covalent compounds
    • 5.3 The atmosphere
    • 5.4 Carbon dioxide
    • 5.5 Major ions
    • 5.6 The big picture
    • 5.7 Further reading
  • 6 Key nutrients, trace elements and organic matter
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Concepts of limiting substances
    • 6.3 Experiments on nutrient limitation
    • 6.4 Nutrient supply and need
    • 6.5 Phosphorus
    • 6.6 Nitrogen
    • 6.7 Pristine concentrations
    • 6.8 Trace elements and silicon
    • 6.9 Organic substances
    • 6.10 Substance budgets and movements
    • 6.11 Sediment–water relationships
    • 6.12 Further reading
  • 7 Light thrown upon the waters
    • 7.1 Light
    • 7.2 Effects of the atmosphere
    • 7.3 From above to under the water
    • 7.4 Remote sensing
    • 7.5 Further reading
  • 8 Headwater streams and rivers
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 General models of stream ecosystems
    • 8.3 The basics of stream flow
    • 8.4 Flow and discharge
    • 8.5 Laminar and turbulent flow
    • 8.6 Particles carried
    • 8.7 The response of stream organisms to shear stress
    • 8.8 Community composition in streams
    • 8.9 Algal and plant communities
    • 8.10 Macroinvertebrates
    • 8.11 Streams in different climates: the polar and alpine zones
    • 8.12 Invertebrates of kryal streams
    • 8.13 Food webs in cold streams
    • 8.14 Stream systems in the cold-temperate zone
    • 8.15 Allochthonous sources of energy
    • 8.16 Stream orders
    • 8.17 The river continuum concept
    • 8.18 Indirectly, wolves are stream animals too
    • 8.19 Scarcity of nutrients
    • 8.20 Warm-temperate streams
    • 8.21 Desert streams
    • 8.22 Tropical streams
    • 8.23 Further reading
  • 9 Uses, misuses and restoration of headwater streams and rivers
    • 9.1 Traditional use of headwater river systems
    • 9.2 Deforestation
    • 9.3 Acidification
    • 9.4 Eutrophication
    • 9.5 Commercial afforestation
    • 9.6 Settlement
    • 9.7 Engineering impacts
    • 9.8 Alterations of the fish community and introduced species
    • 9.9 Sewage and toxic pollution and their treatment
    • 9.10 Diffuse pollution
    • 9.11 River monitoring
    • 9.12 The Water Framework Directive
    • 9.13 Implementation of the Directive
    • 9.14 Restoration and rehabilitation ecology
    • 9.15 Further reading
  • 10 Rich systems: floodplain rivers
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 From an erosive river to a depositional one
    • 10.3 Submerged plants
    • 10.4 Growth of submerged plants
    • 10.5 Methods of measuring the primary productivity of submerged plants
    • 10.6 Enclosure methods
    • 10.7 Other methods
    • 10.8 Submerged plants and the river ecosystem
    • 10.9 Farther downstream: swamps and floodplains
    • 10.10 Productivity of swamps and floodplain marshes
    • 10.11 Swamp soils and the fate of the high primary production
    • 10.12 Oxygen supply and soil chemistry in swamps
    • 10.13 Emergent plants and flooded soils
    • 10.14 Swamp and marsh animals
    • 10.15 Whitefish and blackfish
    • 10.16 Latitudinal differences in floodplains
    • 10.17 Polar floodplains
    • 10.18 Cold-temperate floodplains
    • 10.19 Warm-temperate floodplains
    • 10.20 Tropical floodplains
    • 10.21 The Sudd
    • 10.22 Further reading
  • 11 Floodplains and human affairs
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Floodplain services
    • 11.3 Floodplain fisheries
    • 11.4 Floodplain swamps and human diseases
    • 11.5 Case studies: the Pongola River
    • 11.6 River and floodplain management and rehabilitation
    • 11.7 Mitigation: plant bed management in rivers
    • 11.8 Enhancement
    • 11.9 Rehabilitation
    • 11.10 Inter-basin transfers and water needs
    • 11.11 Further reading
  • 12 Lakes and other standing waters
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 The origins of lake basins
    • 12.3 Lake structure
    • 12.4 The importance of the catchment area
    • 12.5 Lakes as autotrophic or heterotrophic systems
    • 12.6 The continuum of lakes
    • 12.7 Lake history
    • 12.8 Organic remains
    • 12.9 General problems of interpretation of evidence from sediment cores
    • 12.10 Two ancient lakes
    • 12.11 Younger lakes
    • 12.12 Filling in
    • 12.13 Summing-up
    • 12.14 Further reading
  • 13 The communities of shallow standing waters: mires, shallow lakes and the littoral zone
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 What determines the nature of mires and littoral zones?
    • 13.3 Temperature
    • 13.4 Nutrients
    • 13.5 Littoral communities in lakes
    • 13.6 The structure of littoral communities
    • 13.7 Periphyton
    • 13.8 Heterotrophs among the plants
    • 13.9 Neuston
    • 13.10 Linkages, risks and insurances among the littoral communities
    • 13.11 Latitude and littorals
    • 13.12 The role of the nekton
    • 13.13 Further reading
  • 14 Plankton communities of the pelagic zone
    • 14.1 Kitchens and toilets
    • 14.2 Phytoplankton and sinking
    • 14.3 Photosynthesis and growth of phytoplankton
    • 14.4 Net production and growth
    • 14.5 Nutrient uptake and growth rates of phytoplankton
    • 14.6 Distribution of freshwater phytoplankton
    • 14.7 Washout
    • 14.8 Cyanobacterial blooms
    • 14.9 Heterotrophs in the plankton: viruses and bacteria
    • 14.10 The microbial pathway
    • 14.11 Zooplankton
    • 14.12 Grazing
    • 14.13 Feeding and grazing rates of zooplankton
    • 14.14 Competition and predation among grazers
    • 14.15 Predation on zooplankters by invertebrates
    • 14.16 Fishes in the open-water community
    • 14.17 Predation on the zooplankton and fish production
    • 14.18 Avoidance of vertebrate predation by the zooplankton
    • 14.19 Piscivores and piscivory
    • 14.20 Functioning of the open-water community
    • 14.21 Polar lakes
    • 14.22 Cold-temperate lakes
    • 14.23 Warm-temperate lakes
    • 14.24 Very warm lakes in the tropics
    • 14.25 Further reading
  • 15 The profundal zone and carbon storage
    • 15.1 The end of the line
    • 15.2 The importance of oxygen
    • 15.3 Profundal communities
    • 15.4 Biology of selected benthic invertebrates
    • 15.5 What the sediment-living detritivores really eat
    • 15.6 Influence of the open-water community on the profundal benthos
    • 15.7 Sediment storage and the global carbon cycle
    • 15.8 Further reading
  • 16 Fisheries in standing waters
    • 16.1 Some general principles
    • 16.2 Some basic fish biology
    • 16.3 Eggs
    • 16.4 Feeding
    • 16.5 Breeding
    • 16.6 Choice of fish for a fishery
    • 16.7 Measurement of fish production
    • 16.8 Growth measurement
    • 16.9 Fish production and commercial fisheries in lakes
    • 16.10 Changes in fisheries: a case study
    • 16.11 The East African Great Lakes
    • 16.12 Fish culture
    • 16.13 Stillwater angling
    • 16.14 Amenity culture and the aquarium trade
    • 16.15 Further reading
  • 17 The uses, abuses and restoration of standing waters
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Services provided by standing waters
    • 17.3 Domestic water supply, eutrophication and reservoirs
    • 17.4 Eutrophication – nutrient pollution
    • 17.5 Dams and reservoirs
    • 17.6 Fisheries in new lakes
    • 17.7 Effects downstream of the new lake
    • 17.8 New tropical lakes and human populations
    • 17.9 Man-made tropical lakes, the balance of pros and cons
    • 17.10 Amenity and conservation
    • 17.11 The alternative states model
    • 17.12 Ponds
    • 17.13 Restoration approaches for standing waters: symptom treatment
    • 17.14 Treatment of proximate causes: nutrient control
    • 17.15 Present supplies of phosphorus, their relative contributions and how they are related to the algal crop
    • 17.16 Methods available for reducing total phosphorus loads
    • 17.17 In-lake methods
    • 17.18 Complications for phosphorus control – sediment sources
    • 17.19 Nitrogen reduction
    • 17.20 Habitat creation
    • 17.21 Further reading
  • 18 Climate change and the future of freshwaters
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Climate change
    • 18.3 Existing effects of freshwaters
    • 18.4 Future effects
    • 18.5 Future effects on freshwaters
    • 18.6 Switches and feedbacks
    • 18.7 Wicked problems
    • 18.8 Mitigation of global warming
    • 18.9 The remedy of ultimate causes
    • 18.10 Rewilding the world
    • 18.11 Reforming governments
    • 18.12 Further reading
  • References
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

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