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Developmental Biology

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Frí heimsending

Efnisyfirlit

  • Front Matter
    • Copyright Page
    • Dedication
    • Brief Contents
    • Contents
    • From the Authors
    • Reviewers of the Eleventh Edition
    • Media and Supplements
  • Front Endpapers
  • Chapter 1 Making New Bodies: Mechanisms of Developmental Organization
    • The Punchline
    • How Are You?” The Questions of Developmental Biology
    • The Cycle of Life
    • An Example: A Frog’s Life
      • Gametogenesis and fertilization
      • Cleavage and gastrulation
      • Organogenesis
      • Metamorphosis and gametogenesis
    • Comparative Embryology
      • Epigenesis and preformationism
    • An Overview of Early Development
      • Patterns of cleavage
      • Gastrulation: “The most important time in your life”
      • Naming the parts: The primary germ layers and early organs
      • The four principles of Karl Ernst von Baer
    • Keeping Track of Moving Cells: Fate Maps and Cell Lineages
      • Fate maps
      • Direct observation of living embryos
      • Dye marking
      • Genetic labeling
      • Transgenic DNA chimeras
    • Evolutionary Embryology
      • Embryonic homologies
    • Medical Embryology and Teratology
      • Genetic malformations and syndromes
      • Disruptions and teratogens
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 2 Specifying Identity: Mechanisms of Developmental Patterning
    • The Punchline
    • Levels of Commitment
      • Cell differentiation
      • Commitment
    • Autonomous Specification
      • Cytoplasmic determinants and autonomous specification in the tunicate
    • Conditional Specification
      • Cell position matters: Conditional specification in the sea urchin embryo
    • Syncytial Specification
      • Opposing axial gradients define position
    • A Rainbow of Cell Identities
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 3 Differential Gene Expression: Mechanisms of Cell Differentiation
    • Defining Differential Gene Expression
    • The Punchline
    • Quick Primer on the Central Dogma
    • Evidence for Genomic Equivalence
    • Modulating Access to Genes
      • Loosening and tightening chromatin: Histones as gatekeepers
      • Maintaining a memory of methylation
    • Anatomy of the Gene
      • Exons and introns
      • Cis regulatory elements: The on, off, and dimmer switches of a gene
      • Transcription factor function
    • The Gene Regulatory Network: Defining an Individual Cell
    • Mechanisms of Differential Gene Transcription
      • Differentiated proteins from high and low CpG-content promoters
      • DNA methylation, another key on/off switch of transcription
    • Differential RNA Processing
      • Creating families of proteins through differential nRNA splicing
      • Splicing enhancers and recognition factors
    • Control of Gene Expression at the Level of Translation
      • Differential mRNA longevity
      • Stored oocyte mRNAs: Selective inhibition of mRNA translation
      • Ribosomal selectivity: Selective activation of mRNA translation
      • microRNAs: Specific regulation of mRNA translation and transcription
      • Control of RNA expression by cytoplasmic localization
    • Posttranslational Regulation of Gene Expression
    • The Basic Tools of Developmental Genetics
      • Characterizing gene expression
    • Testing Gene Function
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 4 Cell-to-Cell Communication: Mechanisms of Morphogenesis
    • The Punchline
    • A Primer on Cell-to-Cell Communication
    • Adhesion and Sorting: Juxtacrine Signaling and the Physics of Morphogenesis
      • Differential cell affinity
      • The thermodynamic model of cell interactions
      • Cadherins and cell adhesion
    • The Extracellular Matrix as a Source of Developmental Signals
      • Integrins: Receptors for extracellular matrix molecules
    • The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
    • Cell Signaling
      • Induction and competence
      • Reciprocal induction
      • Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
      • The insect trachea: Combining inductive signals with cadherin regulation
    • Paracrine Factors: Inducer Molecules
      • Morphogen gradients
      • Signal transduction cascades: The response to inducers
      • Fibroblast growth factors and the RTK pathway
      • FGFs and the JAK-STAT pathway
      • The Hedgehog family
      • The Wnt family
      • superfamily
      • The TGF-B superfamily
      • Other paracrine factors
    • The Cell Biology of Paracrine Signaling
      • Focal membrane protrusions as signaling sources
    • Juxtacrine Signaling for Cell Identity
      • The Notch pathway: Juxtaposed ligands and receptors for pattern formation
      • Paracrine and juxtacrine signaling in coordination: Vulval induction in
      • Hippo: An integrator of pathways
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 5 Stem Cells: Their Potential and Their Niches
    • The Punchline
    • The Stem Cell Concept
      • Division and self-renewal
      • Potency defines a stem cell
    • Stem Cell Regulation
    • Pluripotent Cells in the Embryo
      • Cells of the inner cell mass
      • Mechanisms promoting pluripotency of ICM cells
    • Adult Stem Cell Niches
      • Stem cells fueling germ cell development in Drosophila
    • Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche of the V-SVZ
      • The neural stem cell niche of the V-SVZ
      • Maintaining the NSC pool with cell-to-cell interactions
      • Promoting differentiation in the V-SVZ niche
      • Environmental influences on the NSC niche
    • The Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Niche
      • Clonal renewal in the crypt
      • Regulatory mechanisms in the crypt
    • Stem Cells Fueling the Diverse Cell Lineages in Adult Blood
      • The hematopoietic stem cell niche
      • Regulatory mechanisms in the endosteal niche
      • Regulatory mechanisms in the perivascular niche
    • The Mesenchymal Stem Cell: Supporting a Variety of Adult Tissues
      • Regulation of MSC development
      • Other stem cells supporting adult tissue maintenance and regeneration
    • The Human Model System to Study Development and Disease
      • Pluripotent stem cells in the lab
      • Induced pluripotent stem cells
      • Organoids: Studying human organogenesis in a culture dish
    • Stem Cells: Hope or Hype?
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 6 Sex Determination and Gametogenesis
    • The Punchline
    • Chromosomal Sex Determination
    • The Mammalian Pattern of Sex Determination
    • Primary Sex Determination in Mammals
      • The developing gonads
      • Genetic mechanisms of primary sex determination: Making decisions
      • The ovary pathway: Wnt4 and R-spondin1
      • The testis pathway: Sry and Sox9
      • The right time and the right place
    • Secondary Sex Determination in Mammals: Hormonal Regulation of the Sexual Phenotype
      • The genetic analysis of secondary sex determination
    • Chromosomal Sex Determination in
      • The Sex-lethal gene
      • Doublesex: The switch gene for sex determination
    • Environmental Sex Determination
    • Mammalian Gametogenesis
      • Meiosis: The intertwining of life cycles
      • Gametogenesis in mammals: Spermatogenesis
      • Gametogenesis in mammals: Oogenesis
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 7 Fertilization: Beginning a New Organism
    • The Punchline
    • Structure of the Gametes
      • Sperm
      • The egg
      • Recognition of egg and sperm
    • External Fertilization in Sea Urchins
      • Sperm attraction: Action at a distance
      • The acrosome reaction
      • Recognition of the egg’s extracellular coat
      • Fusion of the egg and sperm cell membranes
      • One egg, one sperm
      • The fast block to polyspermy
      • The slow block to polyspermy
      • Calcium as the initiator of the cortical granule reaction
    • Activation of Egg Metabolism in Sea Urchins
      • Release of intracellular calcium ions
      • Effects of calcium release
    • Fusion of Genetic Material in Sea Urchins
    • Internal Fertilization in Mammals
      • Getting the gametes into the oviduct: Translocation and capacitation
      • In the vicinity of the oocyte: Hyperactivation, thermotaxis, and chemotaxis
      • The acrosome reaction and recognition at the zona pellucida
      • Gamete fusion and the prevention of polyspermy
      • Fusion of genetic material
      • Activation of the mammalian egg
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 8 Rapid Specification in Snails and Nematodes
    • The Punchline
    • Developmental Patterns among the Metazoa
      • Basal phyla
      • The triploblastic animals: Protostomes and deuterostomes
    • Early Development in Snails
    • Cleavage in Snail Embryos
      • Maternal regulation of snail cleavage
      • The snail fate map
      • Cell specification and the polar lobe
      • Altering evolution by altering cleavage patterns: An example from a bivalve mollusk
    • Gastrulation in Snails
    • The Nematode
    • Cleavage and Axis Formation in
      • Rotational cleavage of the egg
      • Anterior-posterior axis formation
      • Dorsal-ventral and right-left axis formation
      • Control of blastomere identity
    • Gastrulation in
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 9 The Genetics of Axis Specification in Drosophila
    • The Punchline
    • Development
    • Early
      • Fertilization
      • Cleavage
      • The mid-blastula transition
      • Gastrulation
    • The Genetic Mechanisms Patterning the
    • Body
    • Segmentation and the Anterior-Posterior Body Plan
      • Anterior-posterior polarity in the oocyte
      • Maternal gradients: Polarity regulation by oocyte cytoplasm
      • The anterior organizing center: The Bicoid and Hunchback gradients
      • The terminal gene group
      • Summarizing early anterior-posterior axis specification in Drosophila
    • Segmentation Genes
      • Segments and parasegments
      • The gap genes
      • The pair-rule genes
      • The segment polarity genes
    • The Homeotic Selector Genes
    • Generating the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
      • Dorsal-ventral patterning in the oocyte
      • Generating the dorsal-ventral axis within the embryo
      • Establishing a nuclear Dorsal gradient
    • Axes and Organ Primordia: The Cartesian Coordinate Model
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 10 Sea Urchins and Tunicates: Deuterostome Invertebrates
    • Early Development in Sea Urchins
    • The Punchline
      • Early cleavage
      • Blastula formation
      • Fate maps and the determination of sea urchin blastomeres
      • Gene regulatory networks and skeletogenic mesenchyme specification
      • Specification of the vegetal cells
    • Sea Urchin Gastrulation
      • Ingression of the skeletogenic mesenchyme
      • Invagination of the archenteron
    • Early Development in Tunicates
      • Cleavage
      • The tunicate fate map
      • Autonomous and conditional specification of tunicate blastomeres
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 11 Amphibians and Fish
    • Early Amphibian Development
    • The Punchline
    • Fertilization, Cortical Rotation, and Cleavage
      • Unequal radial holoblastic cleavage
      • The mid-blastula transition: Preparing for gastrulation
    • Amphibian Gastrulation
      • Vegetal rotation and the invagination of the bottle cells
      • Epiboly of the prospective ectoderm
    • Progressive Determination of the Amphibian Axes
      • Specification of the germ layers
      • The dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior axes
    • The Work of Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold
      • Autonomous specification versus inductive interactions
      • Primary embryonic induction
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Amphibian Axis Formation
      • How does the organizer form?
      • Functions of the organizer
      • Induction of neural ectoderm and dorsal mesoderm: BMP inhibitors
    • Regional Specificity of Neural Induction along the Anterior-Posterior Axis
      • The head inducer: Wnt antagonists
      • Trunk patterning: Wnt signals and retinoic acid
    • Specifying the Left-Right Axis
    • Early Zebrafish Development
    • Cleavage
    • Gastrulation and Formation of the Germ Layers
      • Dorsal-ventral axis formation
      • Anterior-posterior axis formation
      • Left-right axis formation
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 12 Birds and Mammals
    • The Punchline
    • Early Development in Birds Avian Cleavage
    • Gastrulation of the Avian Embryo
      • The hypoblast
      • The primitive streak
      • Molecular mechanisms of migration through the primitive streak
      • Regression of the primitive streak and epiboly of the ectoderm
    • Axis Specification and the Avian “Organizer”
      • The role of gravity and the PMZ
      • Left-right axis formation
    • Early Development in Mammals Cleavage
      • The unique nature of mammalian cleavage
      • Compaction
      • Trophoblast or ICM? The first decision of the rest of your life
      • Escape from the zona pellucida and implantation
    • Mammalian Gastrulation
      • Modifications for development inside another organism
    • Mammalian Axis Formation
      • The anterior-posterior axis: Two signaling centers
      • Anterior-posterior patterning by FGF and RA gradients
      • Anterior-posterior patterning: The Hox code hypothesis
      • The left-right axis
    • Twins
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 13 Neural Tube Formation and Patterning
    • The Punchline
    • Transforming the Neural Plate into a Tube: The Birth of the Central Nervous System
      • Primary neurulation
      • Secondary neurulation
    • Patterning the Central Nervous System
      • The anterior-posterior axis
      • The dorsal-ventral axis
      • Opposing morphogens
      • Transcriptional cross-repression
    • All Axes Come Together
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 14 Brain Growth
    • The Punchline
    • Neuroanatomy of the Developing Central Nervous System
      • The cells of the developing central nervous system
      • Tissues of the developing central nervous system
    • Developmental Mechanisms Regulating Brain Growth
      • Neural stem cell behaviors during division
      • Neurogenesis: Building from the bottom up (or from the inside out)
      • Glia as scaffold for the layering of the cerebellum and neocortex
      • Signaling mechanisms regulating development of the neocortex
    • Development of the Human Brain
      • Fetal neuronal growth rate after birth
      • Hills raise the horizon for learning
      • Genes for neuronal growth
      • High transcriptional activity
      • Teenage brains: Wired and unchained
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 15 Neural Crest Cells and Axonal Specificity
    • The Neural Crest
    • The Punchline
    • Regionalization of the Neural Crest
    • Neural Crest: Multipotent Stem Cells?
    • Specification of Neural Crest Cells
    • Neural Crest Cell Migration: Epithelial to Mesenchymal and Beyond
      • Delamination
      • The driving force of contact inhibition
      • Collective migration
    • Migration Pathways of Trunk Neural Crest Cells
      • The ventral pathway
      • The dorsolateral pathway
    • Cranial Neural Crest
    • The “Chase and Run” Model
    • Neural Crest-Derived Head Skeleton
      • Coordination of face and brain growth
    • Cardiac Neural Crest
    • Establishing Axonal Pathways in the Nervous System
    • The Growth Cone: Driver and Engine of Axon Pathfinding
      • Plus tips” and actin-microtubule interactions
      • Rho, Rho, Rho your actin filaments down the signaling stream
    • Axon Guidance
    • The Intrinsic Navigational Programming of Motor Neurons
      • Cell adhesion: A mechanism to grab the road
      • Local and long-range guidance molecules: The street signs of the embryo
      • Repulsion patterns: Ephrins and semaphorins
    • How Did the Axon Cross the Road?
    • The Travels of Retinal Ganglion Axons
      • Growth of the retinal ganglion axon to the optic nerve
      • Growth of the retinal ganglion axon through the optic chiasm
    • Target Selection: “Are We There Yet?”
      • Chemotactic proteins
      • Target selection by retinal axons: “Seeing is believing”
      • Adhesive specificities in different regions of the optic tectum: Ephrins and Ephs
    • Synapse Formation
    • A Program of Cell Death
      • Activity-dependent neuronal survival
      • Differential survival after innervation: The role of neurotrophins
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 16 Ectodermal Placodes and the Epidermis
    • Cranial Placodes: The Senses of Our Heads
    • The Punchline
    • The Dynamics of Optic Development: The Vertebrate Eye
    • Formation of the Eye Field: The Beginnings of the Retina
    • The Lens-Retina Induction Cascade
      • Lens and cornea differentiation
      • Neural retina differentiation
    • The Epidermis and Its Cutaneous Appendages
    • Origin of the Epidermis
    • The Ectodermal Appendages
      • Recombination experiments: The roles of epithelium and mesenchyme
      • Signaling pathways
      • Ectodermal appendage stem cells
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 17 Paraxial Mesoderm: The Somites and Their Derivatives
    • The Punchline
    • Cell Types of the Somite
    • Establishing the Paraxial Mesoderm and Cell Fates Along the Anterior-Posterior Axis
      • Specification of the paraxial mesoderm
      • Spatiotemporal collinearity of Hox genes determine identity along the trunk
    • Somitogenesis
      • Axis elongation: A caudal progenitor zone and tissue-to-tissue forces
      • The clock-wavefront model
      • Linking the clock-wavefront to Hox-mediated axial identity and the end of somitogenesis
    • Sclerotome Development
      • Vertebrae formation
      • Tendon formation: The syndetome
      • Formation of the dorsal aorta
    • Dermomyotome Development
      • Determination of the central dermomyotome
      • Determination of the myotome
      • An emerging model of neural crest-regulated myogenesis
    • Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones
      • Endochondral ossification
      • Mechanotransduction and vertebrate bone development
    • Maturation of Muscle
      • Myoblasts and myofibers
      • Satellite cells: Unfused muscle progenitor cells
      • Mechanotransduction in the musculoskeletal system
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 18 Intermediate and Lateral Plate Mesoderm: Heart, Blood, and Kidneys
    • The Punchline
    • Intermediate Mesoderm: The Kidney
    • Specification of the Intermediate Mesoderm: Pax2, Pax8, and Lim1
    • Reciprocal Interactions of Developing Kidney Tissues
      • Mechanisms of reciprocal induction
    • Lateral Plate Mesoderm: Heart and Circulatory System
    • Heart Development
      • A minimalist heart
      • Formation of the heart fields
      • Specification of the cardiogenic mesoderm
      • Migration of the cardiac precursor cells
      • Initial heart cell differentiation
    • Blood Vessel Formation
      • Vasculogenesis: The initial formation of blood vessels
      • Angiogenesis: Sprouting of blood vessels and remodeling of vascular beds
      • Anti-angiogenesis in normal and abnormal development
    • Hematopoiesis: Stem Cells and Long-Lived Progenitor Cells
      • Sites of hematopoiesis
      • The bone marrow HSC niche
      • Hematopoietic inductive microenvironments
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 19 Development of the Tetrapod Limb
    • Limb Anatomy
    • The Punchline
    • The Limb Bud
    • Hox Gene Specification of Limb Skeleton Identity
      • From proximal to distal: Hox genes in the limb
      • From fins to fingers: Hox genes and limb evolution
    • Determining What Kind of Limb to Form and Where to Put It
      • Specifying the limb fields
      • Induction of the early limb bud
    • Outgrowth: Generating the Proximal-Distal Axis of the Limb
      • The apical ectodermal ridge
      • Specifying the limb mesoderm: Determining the proximal-distal polarity
      • Turing’s model: A reaction-diffusion mechanism of proximal-distal limb development
    • Specifying the Anterior-Posterior Axis
      • Sonic hedgehog defines a zone of polarizing activity
      • Specifying digit identity by Sonic hedgehog
      • Sonic hedgehog and FGFs: Another positive feedback loop
      • Hox specification of the digits
      • A Turing model for self-organizing digit skeletogenesis
    • Generating the Dorsal-Ventral Axis
    • Cell Death and the Formation of Digits and Joints
      • Sculpting the autopod
      • Forming the joints
      • Continued limb growth: Epiphyseal plates
      • Fibroblast growth factor receptors: Dwarfism
    • Evolution by Altering Limb Signaling Centers
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 20 The Endoderm: Tubes and Organs for Digestion and Respiration
    • The Punchline
    • The Pharynx
    • The Digestive Tube and Its Derivatives
      • Specification of the gut tissue
      • Accessory organs: The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder
    • The Respiratory Tube
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 21 Metamorphosis: The Hormonal Reactivation of Development
    • The Punchline
    • Amphibian Metamorphosis
      • Morphological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis
      • Hormonal control of amphibian metamorphosis
      • Regionally specific developmental programs
    • Metamorphosis in Insects
      • Imaginal discs
      • Hormonal control of insect metamorphosis
      • The molecular biology of 20-hydroxyecdysone activity
      • Determination of the wing imaginal discs
    • Metamorphosis of the Pluteus Larva
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 22 Regeneration
    • The Punchline
    • Many Ways to Rebuild
    • Hydra: Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Morphallaxis, and Epimorphosis
      • Routine cell replacement by three types of stem cells
      • The head activator
      • The head inhibition gradients
    • Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration in Flatworms
    • Salamanders: Epimorphic Limb Regeneration
      • Formation of the apical epidermal cap and regeneration blastema
      • Proliferation of the blastema cells: The requirement for nerves and the apical epidermal cap
    • Luring the Mechanisms of Regeneration from Zebrafish Organs
    • Regeneration in Mammals
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 23 Aging and Senescence
    • Genes and Aging
    • The Punchline
      • DNA repair enzymes
      • Aging and the insulin signaling cascade
      • The mTORC1 pathway
      • Chromatin modification
    • Random Epigenetic Drift
    • Stem Cells and Aging
    • Exceptions to the Aging Rule
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 24 Development in Health and Disease: Birth Defects, Endocrine Disruptors, and Cancer
    • The Punchline
    • The Role of Chance
    • Genetic Errors of Human Development
      • The nature of human syndromes
      • Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity
    • Teratogenesis: Environmental Assaults on Animal Development
      • Alcohol as a teratogen
      • Retinoic acid as a teratogen
    • Endocrine Disruptors: The Embryonic Origins of Adult Disease
      • Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
      • Bisphenol A (BPA)
      • Atrazine: Endocrine disruption through hormone synthesis
      • Fracking: A potential new source of endocrine disruption
    • Transgenerational Inheritance of Developmental Disorders
    • Cancer as a Disease of Development
      • Developmental therapies for cancer
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 25 Development and the Environment: Biotic, Abiotic, and Symbiotic Regulation of Development
    • The Punchline
    • The Environment as a Normal Agent in Producing Phenotypes
      • Diet-induced polyphenisms
      • Predator-induced polyphenisms
      • Temperature as an environmental agent
    • Polyphenic Life Cycles
      • Larval settlement
      • The hard life of spadefoot toads
    • Developmental Symbioses
      • Mechanisms of developmental symbiosis: Getting the partners together
      • The Euprymna-Vibrio symbiosis
      • Obligate developmental mutualism
      • Developmental symbiosis in the mammalian intestine
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 26 Development and Evolution: Developmental Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
    • The Punchline
    • Descent with Modification: Why Animals Are Alike and Different
    • Preconditions for Evolution: The Developmental Structure of the Genome
      • Modularity: Divergence through dissociation
      • Molecular parsimony: Gene duplication and divergence
    • Deep Homology
    • Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
      • Heterotopy
      • Heterochrony
      • Heterometry
      • Heterotypy
    • Developmental Constraints on Evolution
    • Selectable Epigenetic Variation
      • Genetic assimilation
      • Fixation of environmentally induced phenotypes
    • Coda
    • Snapshot Summary
    • Further Reading
  • Glossary
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index
  • About the Book

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Vörumerki: Oxford
Tilboði lýkur 06.02.2019
Vörunúmer: 9781605357997
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Developmental Biology

Vörumerki: Oxford
Tilboði lýkur 06.02.2019
Vörunúmer: 9781605357997
Rafbók
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8.590 kr. 8.160 kr.
-5%
8.590 kr. 8.160 kr.