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Criminology: Theories, Patterns and Typologies

Vörumerki: Cengage
Vörunúmer: 9781337514910
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Criminology: Theories, Patterns and Typologies

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Preface
  • Contents
  • Part One: Concepts Of Crime, Law, And Criminology
    • Chapter 1: Crime And Criminology
      • What Is Criminology?
        • Criminology And Criminal Justice
        • Criminology And Deviant Behavior
      • What Criminologists Do: Criminology In Action
        • Criminal Statistics And Crime Measurement
        • Socio-Legal Studies
        • Theory Construction And Testing
        • Criminal Behavior Systems And Crime Typologies
        • Punishment, Penology, And Social Control
        • Victimology: Victims And Victimization
      • How Criminologists View Crime
        • The Consensus View Of Crime
        • The Conflict View Of Crime
        • The Interactionist View Of Crime
        • Defining Crime
      • Crime And The Law
        • A Brief History Of The Law
        • Common Law
        • The Law In Contemporary Society
        • Shaping The Criminal Law
        • The Substantive Criminal Law
        • The Elements Of Criminal Law
        • Criminal Defenses
        • The Evolution Of Criminal Law
      • Ethical Issues In Criminology
        • Who To Study?
        • What To Study?
        • How To Study?
    • Chapter 2: The Nature And Extent Of Crime
      • Primary Sources Of Crime Data
        • Official Records: The Uniform Crime Report
        • Compiling The Uniform Crime Report
        • Are The Uniform Crime Reports Valid?
        • The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
        • Survey Research
        • The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
        • Self-Report Surveys
        • Evaluating The Primary Sources Of Crime Data
      • Secondary Sources Of Crime Data
        • Cohort Research
        • Experimental Research
        • Observational And Interview Research
        • Meta-Analysis And Systematic Review
        • Data Mining
        • Crime Mapping
      • Crime Trends
        • Official Crime Trends
        • Victimization Trends
        • Trends In Self-Reporting
        • International Crime Trends
        • What The Future Holds
      • Crime Patterns
        • The Ecology Of Crime
        • Use Of Firearms
        • Social Class, Socioeconomic Conditions, And Crime
        • Age And Crime
        • Co-offending And Crime
        • Gender And Crime
        • Race And Crime
        • Cultural Bias
        • Economic And Social Disparity
        • Immigration And Crime
        • Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers
    • Chapter 3: Victims And Victimization
      • Problems Of Crime Victims
        • Economic Costs
        • Individual Costs
        • The Cycle Of Violence
      • The Nature Of Victimization
        • The Social Ecology Of Victimization
        • The Victim’s Household
        • Victim Characteristics
        • Victims And Their Criminals
      • Theories Of Victimization
        • Victim Precipitation Theory
        • Lifestyle Theory
        • Deviant Place Theory
        • Routine Activities Theory
      • Caring For The Victim
        • The Government’s Response To Victimization
        • Victim-Offender Reconciliation Programs
        • Community Organization
        • Victims And Self-Protection
        • Victims’ Rights
  • Part Two: Theories Of Crime Causation
    • Chapter 4: Rational Choice Theory
      • The Development Of Rational Choice
        • Development Of Classical Criminology
        • Cesare Beccaria
        • Classical Criminology
        • Contemporary Choice Theory Emerges
      • The Concepts Of Rational Choice
        • Why Crime?
        • Choosing Crime
        • Offense And Offender
        • Structuring Criminality
        • Structuring Crime
      • Is Crime Rational?
        • Is Theft Rational?
        • Is Drug Use Rational?
        • Is Violence Rational?
      • Eliminating Crime
      • Situational Crime Prevention
        • Targeting Specific Crimes
        • Situational Crime Prevention: Costs And Benefits
      • General Deterrence
        • The Perception Of Punishment And Deterrence
        • Certainty Of Punishment And Deterrence
        • Severity Of Punishment And Deterrence
        • Speed (Celerity) Of Punishment And Deterrence
        • Analyzing General Deterrence
      • Specific Deterrence
        • Can Punishment Produce More Crime?
      • Incapacitation
        • Does Incarceration Control Crime?
      • Public Policy Implications Of Choice Theory
        • Police And Deterrence
        • Courts, Sentencing, And Deterrence
        • Just Desert
    • Chapter 5: Trait Theories
      • Foundations Of Trait Theory
        • Biological Positivism
        • Cesare Lombroso
        • The Legacy Of Biological Criminology
        • Sociobiology
        • Contemporary Trait Theories
      • Biosocial Theory
        • Biochemical Conditions And Crime
        • Neurophysiological Conditions And Crime
        • Arousal Theory
        • Genetics And Crime
        • Evolutionary Theory
        • Evaluation Of The Biosocial Branch Of Trait Theory
      • Psychological Trait Theories
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Attachment Theory
        • Mental Disorders And Crime
        • Behavioral Theory
        • Cognitive Theory
      • Personality And Crime
        • The Antisocial Personality
        • Intelligence And Crime
      • Public Policy Implications Of Trait Theory
    • Chapter 6: Social Structure Theories
      • Development Of Sociological Criminology
        • Quetelet And Durkheim
        • The Chicago School And Beyond
      • Socioeconomic Structure And Crime
        • The Underclass
        • Child Poverty
        • Minority Group Poverty
      • Social Structure Theories
        • Social Disorganization Theory
        • The Social Ecology School
        • Collective Efficacy
      • Strain Theories
        • The Concept Of Anomie
        • Merton’s Theory Of Anomie
        • Institutional Anomie Theory (IAT)
        • Relative Deprivation Theory
        • General Strain Theory (GST)
        • Sources Of Strain
        • Coping With Strain
        • Evaluating GST
      • Cultural Deviance Theories
        • Conduct Norms
        • Focal Concerns
        • Theory Of Delinquent Subcultures
        • Theory Of Differential Opportunity
        • Evaluating Social Structure Theories
      • Public Policy Implications Of Social Structure Theory
        • Community Policing
    • Chapter 7: Social Process Theories: Socialization And Society
      • Socialization And Crime
        • Family Relations
        • Educational Experience
        • Peer Relations And Crime
        • Religion And Belief
        • Socialization And Crime
      • Social Learning Theory
        • Differential Association Theory
        • Differential Reinforcement Theory
        • Neutralization Theory
        • Are Learning Theories Valid?
      • Social Control Theory
        • Self-Concept And Crime
        • Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory
      • Social Reaction Theory
        • Defining Crime And Deviance
        • Labeling Effects And Consequences
        • Primary And Secondary Deviance
        • Research On Social Reaction Theory
        • Who Gets Labeled? Differential Enforcement
        • Is Labeling Theory Valid?
      • Evaluating Social Process Theories
      • Public Policy Implications Of Social Process Theory
    • Chapter 8: Social Conflict, Critical Criminology, And Restorative Justice
      • The Historical Development Of Critical Criminology
        • Productive Forces And Productive Relations
        • A Marxist Vision Of Crime
      • Creating A Critical Criminology
        • Contemporary Critical Criminology
      • How Critical Criminologists Define Crime
      • How Critical Criminologists View The Cause Of Crime
        • Failing Social Institutions
        • Globalization
        • State-Organized Crime
      • Instrumental Vs. Structural Theory
        • Instrumental Theory
        • Structural Theory
      • Research On Critical Criminology
        • Race And Justice
      • Critique Of Critical Criminology
      • Alternative Views Of Critical Theory
        • Left Realism
        • Critical Feminist Theory: Gendered Criminology
        • Power–Control Theory
        • Peacemaking Criminology
      • Critical Theory And Public Policy
        • The Concept Of Restorative Justice
        • Reintegrative Shaming
        • The Process Of Restoration
        • The Challenge Of Restorative Justice
    • Chapter 9: Developmental Theories: Life Course, Latent Trait, And Trajectory
      • Foundations Of Developmental Theory
        • Criminal Career Research
        • Life Course, Latent Traits, And Trajectories
        • Population Heterogeneity vs. State Dependence
      • Life Course Fundamentals
        • Disruption Promotes Criminality
        • Changing Life Influences
      • Life Course Concepts
        • Problem Behavior Syndrome
        • Offense Specialization/Generalization
        • Early Onset
        • Persistence And Desistance
      • Theories Of The Criminal Life Course
        • Sampson And Laub: Age-Graded Theory
        • The Marriage Factor
        • Age-Graded Theory Validity
      • Social Schematic Theory (SST)
      • Propensity/Latent Trait Theories
        • How Can The Aging-Out Process Be Explained?
        • Crime And Human Nature
        • General Theory Of Crime
      • Trajectory Theory
        • Early, Late, And Nonstarters
        • Chronic Offending
        • Pathways To Crime
        • Adolescent-Limited Offenders Vs. Life Course Persisters
      • Evaluating Developmental Theories
      • Public Policy Implications Of Developmental Theory
  • Part Three: Crime Typologies
    • Chapter 10: Interpersonal Violence
      • The Causes Of Violence
        • Psychological/Biological Abnormality
        • Human Instinct
        • Substance Abuse
        • Socialization And Upbringing
        • Exposure To Violence
        • Cultural Values: Subculture Of Violence
        • Cultural Values: National Values
      • Rape
        • History Of Rape
        • Rape And War
        • Incidence Of Rape
        • Types Of Rape And Rapists
        • The Causes Of Rape
        • Rape And The Law
      • Murder And Homicide
        • Degrees Of Murder
        • The Nature And Extent Of Murder
        • Murderous Relations
        • Multiple Murders
        • Serial Murder
        • Mass Murders
        • Spree Killers
      • Assault And Battery
        • Nature And Extent Of Assault
        • Assault In The Home
        • Dating Violence
      • Robbery
        • Types Of Robbers/Types Of Robberies
        • The Calculating Robber
        • Acquaintance Robbery
      • Emerging Forms Of Interpersonal Violence
        • Hate Crimes
        • Workplace Violence
        • Stalking
    • Chapter 11: Political Crime And Terrorism
      • Political Crime
        • The Nature Of Political Crimes
        • The Goals Of Political Criminals
        • Becoming A Political Criminal
      • Types Of Political Crimes
        • Election Fraud
        • Abuse Of Office/Public Corruption
        • Treason
        • Espionage
        • State Political Crime
        • Using Torture
      • Terrorism
        • Terrorist And Guerilla
        • Terrorist And Insurgent
        • Terrorist And Revolutionary
      • A Brief History Of Terrorism
        • Religious Roots
        • Political Roots
      • Contemporary Forms Of Terrorism
        • Revolutionary Terrorists
        • Political Terrorists
        • Nationalist Terrorism
        • Retributive Terrorism
        • State-Sponsored Terrorism
        • Lone-Actor Terrorists
      • How Are Terror Groups Organized?
      • What Motivates The Terrorist?
        • Psychological View
        • Alienation View
        • Socialization/Friendship View
        • Ideological View
        • Explaining State-Sponsored Terrorism
      • Extent Of The Terrorism Threat
      • Response To Terrorism
        • Confronting Terrorism With Law Enforcement
        • Combating Terrorism With The Courts
        • Confronting Terrorism With The Law
        • Combating Terrorism With Politics
    • Chapter 12: Property Crime
      • A Brief History Of Theft
        • Theft In The Nineteenth Century: Train Robbery And Safecracking
      • Contemporary Theft
        • Occasional Thieves
        • Professional Thieves
        • The Fence
        • Professional Cargo Thieves
      • Larceny/Theft
        • Larceny Today
        • Shoplifting
        • Bad Checks
        • Credit Card Theft
        • Auto Theft
        • False Pretenses/Fraud
        • Confidence Games
        • Embezzlement
      • Burglary
        • The Nature And Extent Of Burglary
        • Residential Burglaries
        • Commercial Burglary
        • Careers In Burglary
      • Arson
        • The Juvenile Fire Starter
        • Professional Arson
    • Chapter 13: Enterprise Crime: White-Collar, Green, And Transnational Organized Crime
      • The Concept Of Enterprise Crime
      • White-Collar Crime
        • Nature And Extent Of White-Collar Crime
        • White-Collar Swindlers
        • White-Collar Chiseling
        • White-Collar Exploitation
        • White-Collar Influence Peddling
        • White-Collar Embezzlement And Employee Fraud
        • Client Fraud
        • Corporate Crime
        • White-Collar Law Enforcement Systems
        • Controlling White-Collar Crime
      • Green Crime
        • Defining Green Crime
        • The Harms Perspective
        • Forms Of Green Crime
        • Controlling Green Crime
      • Organized And Transnational Organized Crime
        • Origins Of Organized Crime
        • The Mafia
        • The Rise Of Transnational Organized Crime
        • Characteristics Of Transnational Organized Crime
        • Activities Of Transnational Organized Crime
        • Transnational Gangs
        • Controlling Transnational Crime
      • The Causes Of Enterprise Crime
        • Rational Choice: Greed
        • Rational Choice: Need
        • Rationalization/Neutralization View
        • Cultural View
        • Self-Control View
    • Chapter 14: Public Order Crime: Sex And Substance Abuse
      • Law And Morality
        • Debating Morality
        • Social Harm
        • Moral Crusades And Crusaders
        • Moral Crusades Today
      • Sexually Related Offenses
      • Paraphilias
        • Pedophilia
      • Prostitution
        • Prostitution Today
        • Incidence Of Prostitution
        • Prostitution In Other Cultures
        • Types Of Prostitutes
        • Who Becomes A Prostitute?
        • Controlling Prostitution
        • Legalize Prostitution?
      • Obscenity And Pornography
        • Child Pornography
        • Does Pornography Cause Violence?
        • Pornography And The Law
        • Controlling Pornography
      • Substance Abuse
        • When Did Drug Use Begin?
        • Alcohol And Its Prohibition
        • How Much Drug Use Is There Today?
        • Alcohol Abuse
        • Costs Of Substance Abuse
        • What Causes Substance Abuse?
        • Is There A Drug Gateway?
        • Types Of Drug Users And Abusers
        • Drugs And Crime
        • Drugs And The Law
        • Drug Control Strategies
        • Drug Legalization
    • Chapter 15: Crimes Of The New Millennium: Cybercrime
      • Development Of Cybercrime
        • The Stages of Cybercrime
      • Contemporary Cybercrime
      • Cybertheft: Cybercrimes For Profit
        • Computer Fraud
        • Theft From ATMs
        • Ransomware: Extortion Via The Internet
        • Illegal Copyright Infringement
        • Internet Securities Fraud
        • Identity Theft
        • Etailing Fraud
      • Cyberdeviance: The Darker Side Of The Net
        • Distributing Pornography
        • Ehooking
        • Distributing Dangerous Drugs
      • Cybervandalism: Cybercrime With Malicious Intent
        • Data Breaches
        • Worms, Viruses, Trojan Horses, Logic Bombs, And Spam
        • Website Defacement
        • Cyberstalking
        • Denial-of-Service Attack
        • Cyberbullying
        • Cyberspying
      • The Costs Of Cybercrime
      • Combating Cybercrime
        • Cybercrime Enforcement Agencies
        • International Treaties
      • Cyberwar: Politically Motivated Cybercrime
        • Cyberespionage
        • Cyberattacks
        • Cyberterrorism
        • Combating Cyberwar
  • Glossary
  • Case Index
  • Name Index
  • Subject Index

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Vörumerki: Cengage
Vörunúmer: 9781337514910
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