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Cognitive Linguistics

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Dedication
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abbreviations, symbols and transcription
  • Part I Overview of the Cognitive Linguistics Enterprise
    • Introduction
    • 1 What does it mean to know a language?
      • 1.1 What is language for?
        • 1.1.1 The symbolic function of language
        • 1.1.2 The interactive function of language
      • 1.2 The systematic structure of language
        • 1.2.1 Evidence for a system
        • 1.2.2 The systematic structure of thought
      • 1.3 What do linguists do?
        • 1.3.1 What?
        • 1.3.2 Why?
        • 1.3.3 How?
        • 1.3.4 Speaker intuitions
        • 1.3.5 Converging evidence
      • 1.4 What it means to know a language
      • 1.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 2 The nature of cognitive linguistics: assumptions and commitments
      • 2.1 Two key commitments
        • 2.1.1 The 'Generalisation Commitment'
        • 2.1.2 The 'Cognitive Commitment'
      • 2.2 The embodied mind
        • 2.2.1 Embodied experience
        • 2.2.2 Embodied cognition
        • 2.2.3 Experiential realism
      • 2.3 Cognitive semantics and cognitive approaches to grammar
      • 2.4 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 3 Universals and variation in language, thought and experience
      • 3.1 Universals in thought and language
        • 3.1.1 Typological universals
        • 3.1.2 Universals in formal linguistics
        • 3.1.3 Universals in cognitive linguistics
      • 3.2 Cross-linguistic patterns in semantic systems
        • 3.2.1 Patterns in the conceptualisation of space
        • 3.2.2 Patterns in the conceptualisation of time
      • 3.3 Cross-linguistic variation in semantic systems
        • 3.3.1 Variation in the conceptualisation of space
        • 3.3.2 Variation in the conceptualisation of time
      • 3.4 Linguistic relativity and cognitive linguistics
        • 3.4.1 Whorf and the Linguistic Relativity Principle
        • 3.4.2 Language as a shaper of thought
        • 3.4.3 The cognitive linguistics position
      • 3.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 4 Language in use: knowledge of language, language change and language acquisition
      • 4.1 Language in use
        • 4.1.1 A usage event
        • 4.1.2 The relationship between usage and linguistic structure
        • 4.1.3 Comprehension and production
        • 4.1.4 Context
        • 4.1.5 Frequency
      • 4.2 Cognitive Grammar
        • 4.2.1 Abstraction, schematisation and language use
        • 4.2.2 Schemas and their instantiations
        • 4.2.3 Partial sanction
        • 4.2.4 The non-reductive nature of schemas
        • 4.2.5 Frequency in schema formation
      • 4.3 A usage-based approach to language change
        • 4.3.1 Historical linguistics and language change
        • 4.3.2 The Utterance Selection Theory of language change
        • 4.3.3 The Generalised Theory of Selection and the Theory of Utterance Selection
        • 4.3.4 Causal mechanisms for language change
      • 4.4 The usage-based approach to language acquisition
        • 4.4.1 Empirical findings in language acquisition
        • 4.4.2 The cognitive view: socio-cognitive mechanisms in language acquisition
        • 4.4.3 Comparing the generative view of language acquisition
      • 4.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
  • Part II Cognitive Semantics
    • Introduction
    • 5 What is cognitive semantics?
      • 5.1 Guiding principles
        • 5.1.1 Conceptual structure is embodied
        • 5.1.2 Semantic structure is conceptual structure
        • 5.1.3 Meaning representation is encyclopaedic
        • 5.1.4 Meaning construction is conceptualisation
      • 5.2 Phenomena investigated within cognitive semantics
        • 5.2.1 The bodily basis of meaning
        • 5.2.2 Conceptual structure
        • 5.2.3 Encyclopaedic semantics
        • 5.2.4 Mappings
        • 5.2.5 Categorisation
        • 5.2.6 Word meaning and polysemy
      • 5.3 Methodology
      • 5.4 Some comparisons with formal approaches to semantics
      • 5.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 6 Embodiment and conceptual structure
      • 6.1 Image schemas
        • 6.1.1 What is an image schema?
        • 6.1.2 Properties of image schemas
        • 6.1.3 Image schemas and linguistic meaning
        • 6.1.4 A provisional list of image schemas
        • 6.1.5 Image schemas and abstract thought
      • 6.2 Conceptual structure
        • 6.2.1 Semantic structure
        • 6.2.2 Schematic systems
      • 6.3 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 7 The encyclopaedic view of meaning
      • 7.1 Dictionaries versus encylopaedias
        • 7.1.1 The dictionary view
        • 7.1.2 Problems with the dictionary view
        • 7.1.3 Word meaning versus sentence meaning
        • 7.1.4 The encyclopaedic view
        • 7.2 Frame semantics
          • 7.2.1 What is a semantic frame?
          • 7.2.2 Frames in cognitive psychology
          • 7.2.3 The COMMERCIAL EVENT frame
          • 7.2.4 Speech event frames
          • 7.2.5 Consequences of adopting a frame-based model
        • 7.3 The theory of domains
          • 7.3.1 What is a domain?
          • 7.3.2 Basic, image-schematic and abstract domains
          • 7.3.3 Other characteristics of domains
          • 7.3.4 Profile/base organisation
          • 7.3.5 Active zones
        • 7.4 The perceptual basis of knowledge representation
        • 7.5 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
      • 8 Categorisation and idealised cognitive models
        • 8.1 Categorisation and cognitive semantics
          • 8.1.1 The classical theory
          • 8.1.2 The definitional problem
          • 8.1.3 The problem of conceptual fuzziness
          • 8.1.4 The problem of prototypicality
          • 8.1.5 Further problems
        • 8.2 Prototype theory
          • 8.2.1 Principles of categorisation
          • 8.2.2 The categorisation system
          • 8.2.3 The vertical dimension
          • 8.2.4 The horizontal dimension
          • 8.2.5 Problems with prototype theory
        • 8.3 The theory of idealised cognitive models
          • 8.3.1 Sources of typicality effects
          • 8.3.2 Radial categories as a further source of typicality effects
          • 8.3.3 Addressing the problems with prototype theory
        • 8.4 The structure of ICMs
        • 8.5 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
      • 9 Metaphor and metonymy
        • 9.1 Literal versus figurative language
          • 9.1.1 Literal and figurative language as complex concepts
          • 9.1.2 Can the distinction be maintained?
        • 9.2 What is metaphor?
        • 9.3 Conceptual Metaphor Theory
          • 9.3.1 The unidirectionality of metaphor
          • 9.3.2 Motivation for target and source
          • 9.3.3 Metaphorical entailments
          • 9.3.4 Metaphor systems
          • 9.3.5 Metaphors and image schemas
          • 9.3.6 Invariance
          • 9.3.7 The conceptual nature of metaphor
          • 9.3.8 Hiding and highlighting
        • 9.4 Primary Metaphor Theory
          • 9.4.1 Primary and compound metaphors
          • 9.4.2 Experiential correlation
          • 9.4.3 Motivating primary metaphors
          • 9.4.4 Distinguishing primary and compound metaphors
        • 9.5 What is metonymy?
        • 9.6 Conceptual metonymy
          • 9.6.1 Metonymy as an access mechanism
          • 9.6.2 Metonymy-producing relationships
          • 9.6.3 Vehicles for metonymy
        • 9.7 Metaphor-metonymy interaction
        • 9.8 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
      • 10 Word meaning and radial categories
        • 10.1 Polysemy as a conceptual phenomenon
        • 10.2 Words as radial categories
        • 10.3 The full-specification approach
          • 10.3.1 Image schema transformations
          • 10.3.2 Metaphorical extensions
        • 10.4 Problems with the full-specification approach
        • 10.5 The Principled Polysemy approach
          • 10.5.1 Distinguishing between senses
          • 10.5.2 Establishing the prototypical sense
          • 10.5.3 Illustration of a radial category based on Principled Polysemy
          • 10.5.4 Beyond prepositions
        • 10.6 The importance of context for polysemy
          • 10.6.1 Usage context: subsenses
          • 10.6.2 Sentential context: facets
          • 10.6.3 Knowledge context: ways of seeing
        • 10.7 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
      • 11 Meaning construction and mental spaces
        • 11.1 Sentence meaning in formal semantics
        • 11.2 Meaning construction in cognitive semantics
        • 11.3 Towards a cognitive theory of meaning construction
        • 11.4 The architecture of mental space construction
          • 11.4.1 Space builders
          • 11.4.2 Elements
          • 11.4.3 Properties and relations
          • 11.4.4 Mental space lattices
          • 11.4.5 Counterparts and connectors
          • 11.4.6 The Access Principle
          • 11.4.7 Roles and values
        • 11.5 An illustration of mental space construction
        • 11.6 The dynamic nature of meaning construction
          • 11.6.1 Tense and aspect in English
          • 11.6.2 The tense-aspect system in Mental Spaces Theory
          • 11.6.3 Epistemic distance
        • 11.7 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
      • 12 Conceptual blending
        • 12.1 The origins of Blending Theory
        • 12.2 Towards a theory of conceptual integration
        • 12.3 The nature of blending
          • 12.3.1 The elements of conceptual blending
          • 12.3.2 Further linguistic examples
          • 12.3.3 Non-linguistic examples
        • 12.4 Vital relations and compressions
          • 12.4.1 Vital relations
          • 12.4.2 A taxonomy of vital relations and their compressions
          • 12.4.3 Disintegration and decompression
        • 12.5 A taxonomy of integration networks
          • 12.5.1 Simplex networks
          • 12.5.2 Mirror networks
          • 12.5.3 Single-scope networks
          • 12.5.4 Double-scope networks
        • 12.6 Multiple blending
        • 12.7 Constraining Blending Theory
        • 12.8 Comparing Blending Theory with Conceptual Metaphor Theory
          • 12.8.1 Contrasts
          • 12.8.2 When is a metaphor not a blend?
          • 12.8.3 What Blending Theory adds to Conceptual Metaphor Theory
        • 12.9 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
      • 13 Cognitive semantics in context
        • 13.1 Truth-conditional semantics
          • 13.1.1 Meaning, truth and reality
          • 13.1.2 Object language versus metalanguage
          • 13.1.3 The inconsistency of natural language
          • 13.1.4 Sentences and propositions
          • 13.1.5 Truth-conditional semantics and the generative enterprise
          • 13.1.6 Compositionality of meaning
          • 13.1.7 Translating natural language into a metalanguage
          • 13.1.8 Semantic interpretation and matching
          • 13.1.9 Comparison with cognitive semantics
        • 13.2 Relevance Theory
          • 13.2.1 Ostensive communication
          • 13.2.2 Mutual cognitive environment
          • 13.2.3 Relevance
          • 13.2.4 Explicature and implicature
          • 13.2.5 Metaphor
          • 13.2.6 Comparison with cognitive semantics
        • 13.3 Summary
        • Further reading
        • Exercises
  • Part III Cognitive Approaches to Grammar
    • Introduction
    • 14 What is a cognitive approach to grammar?
      • 14.1 Guiding assumptions
        • 14.1.1 The symbolic thesis
        • 14.1.2 The usage-based thesis
        • 14.1.3 The architecture of the model
      • 14.2 Distinct cognitive approaches to grammar
        • 14.2.1 The 'Conceptual Structuring System Model'
        • 14.2.2 Cognitive Grammar
        • 14.2.3 Constructional approaches to grammar
        • 14.2.4 Cognitive approaches to grammaticalisation
      • 14.3 Grammatical terminology
        • 14.3.1 Grammar
        • 14.3.2 Units of grammar
        • 14.3.3 Word classes
        • 14.3.4 Syntax
        • 14.3.5 Grammatical functions
        • 14.3.6 Agreement and case
      • 14.4 Characteristics of the cognitive approach to grammar
        • 14.4.1 Grammatical knowledge: a structured inventory of symbolic units
        • 14.4.2 Features of the closed-class subsystem
        • 14.4.3 Schemas and instances
        • 14.4.4 Sanctioning and grammaticality
      • 14.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 15 The conceptual basis of grammar
      • 15.1 The grammatical subsystem: encoding semantic structure
      • 15.2 Talmy's 'Conceptual Structuring System Model'
        • 15.2.1 The configuration of SPACE and TIME
        • 15.2.2 Conceptual alternativity
        • 15.2.3 Schematic systems
        • 15.2.4 The 'Configurational Structure System'
        • 15.2.5 The 'Attentional System'
        • 15.2.6 The 'Perspectival System'
        • 15.2.7 The 'Force-Dynamics System'
      • 15.3 Langacker's theory of Cognitive Grammar
        • 15.3.1 The conceptual basis of word classes
        • 15.3.2 Attention
        • 15.3.3 Force-dynamics
      • 15.4 Categorisation and polysemy in grammar: the network conception
      • 15.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 16 Cognitive Grammar: word classes
      • 16.1 Word classes: linguistic categorisation
      • 16.2 Nominal predications: nouns
        • 16.2.1 Bounding
        • 16.2.2 Homogeneity versus heterogeneity
        • 16.2.3 Expansibility and contractibility versus replicability
        • 16.2.4 Abstractions
      • 16.3 Nominal versus relational predications
      • 16.4 Temporal versus atemporal relations
        • 16.4.1 Temporal relations: verbs
        • 16.4.2 Atemporal relations
        • 16.4.3 Class schemas
      • 16.5 Nominal grounding predications
        • 16.5.1 Determiners and quantifiers
        • 16.5.2 Grounding
      • 16.6 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 17 Cognitive Grammar: constructions
      • 17.1 Phrase structure
        • 17.1.1 Valence
        • 17.1.2 Correspondence
        • 17.1.3 Profile determinacy
        • 17.1.4 Conceptual autonomy versus conceptual dependence
        • 17.1.5 Constituency
        • 17.1.6 The prototypical grammatical construction
      • 17.2 Word structure
        • 17.2.1 Phonological autonomy and dependence
        • 17.2.2 Semantic autonomy and dependence
        • 17.2.3 Prototypical stems and affixes
        • 17.2.4 Composite structure
        • 17.2.5 Constructional schemas
        • 17.2.6 Grammatical morphemes and agreement
      • 17.3 Clauses
        • 17.3.1 Valence at the clause level
        • 17.3.2 Grammatical functions and transitivity
        • 17.3.3 Case
        • 17.3.4 Marked coding: the passive construction
      • 17.4 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 18 Cognitive Grammar: tense, aspect, mood and voice
      • 18.1 English verbs: form and function
      • 18.2 The clausal head
        • 18.2.1 The passive construction: [be2 [PERF3 [V]]]
        • 18.2.2 The progressive construction: [be1 [-ing [V]]]
        • 18.2.3 The perfect construction: [have [PERF4 [V]]]
      • 18.3 The grounding predication: mood and tense
        • 18.3.1 Mood
        • 18.3.2 Tense
        • 18.3.3 The epistemic model
      • 18.4 Situation aspect
        • 18.4.1 Situation types
        • 18.4.2 Perfective and imperfective PROCESSES
        • 18.4.3 Aspect and the count/mass distinction
      • 18.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 19 Motivating a construction grammar
      • 19.1 Constructions versus 'words and rules'
      • 19.2 Exploring idiomatic expressions
        • 19.2.1 Typology of idiomatic expressions
        • 19.2.2 Case study I: the let alone construction
        • 19.2.3 Case study II: the what's X doing Y construction
      • 19.3 Construction Grammar
        • 19.3.1 The Construction Grammar model
        • 19.3.2 Construction Grammar: a 'broadly generative' model
        • 19.3.3 Comparing Construction Grammar with Cognitive Grammar
      • 19.4 The 'Generalisation Commitment'
      • 19.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 20 The architecture of construction grammars
      • 20.1 Goldberg's construction grammar
        • 20.1.1 Assumptions
        • 20.1.2 Advantages of a constructional approach to verb argument structure
        • 20.1.3 The relationship between verbs and constructions
        • 20.1.4 Relationships between constructions
        • 20.1.5 Case studies
      • 20.2 Radical Construction Grammar
        • 20.2.1 Taxonomy of constructions
        • 20.2.2 Emphasis on diversity
        • 20.2.3 Five key features of RCG
      • 20.3 Embodied Construction Grammar
        • 20.3.1 Emphasis on language processing
        • 20.3.2 Analysis and simulation
      • 20.4 Comparing constructional approaches to grammar
      • 20.5 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 21 Grammaticalisation
      • 21.1 The nature of grammaticalisation
        • 21.1.1 Form change
        • 21.1.2 Meaning change
      • 21.2 Metaphorical extension approaches
        • 21.2.1 Case study: OBJECT-TO-SPACE
        • 21.2.2 Case study: SPACE-TO-POSSESSION
      • 21.3 Invited Inferencing Theory
        • 21.3.1 Case study: the evolution of must
      • 21.4 The subjectification approach
        • 21.4.1 Case study: be going to
        • 21.4.2 Case study: the evolution of auxiliaries from verbs of motion or posture
      • 21.5 Comparison of the three approaches: be going to
      • 21.6 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
    • 22 Cognitive approaches to grammar in context
      • 22.1 Theories of grammar: assumptions, objectives, methodology
        • 22.1.1 Cognitive approaches to grammar
        • 22.1.2 Generative approaches to grammar
        • 22.1.3 Cognitive versus generative models
        • 22.1.4 Functional-typological approaches to grammar
      • 22.2 Core issues in grammar: comparing cognitive and generative accounts
        • 22.2.1 Word classes
        • 22.2.2 Constituency: heads and dependents
        • 22.2.3 The status of tree diagrams
        • 22.2.4 Grammatical functions and case
        • 22.2.5 The verb string: tense, aspect and mood
        • 22.2.6 The passive construction
      • 22.3 Summary
      • Further reading
      • Exercises
  • Part IV Conclusion
    • 23 Assessing the cognitive linguistics enterprise
      • 23.1 Achievements
      • 23.2 Remaining challenges
      • 23.3 Summary
  • Appendix: Tables and Figures
  • References
  • Index

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Vörumerki: Taylor and Francis
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Cognitive Linguistics

Vörumerki: Taylor and Francis
Vörunúmer: 9781317954354
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