Advertising, Promotion, and other aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications

Námskeið 134.6.0 SAMA Samþætt markaðssamskipti - Höfundar: J. Craig Andrews, Terence A. Shimp
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Advertising, Promotion, and other aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Brief Contents
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • About the Authors
  • Part 1: The Practice and Environment of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)
    • Chapter 1: An Overview of Integrated Marketing Communications
      • Marcom Insight: Checking in with Mobile Apps: The Creative Use of Geo-Fencing and Geo-Conquesting
      • Introduction
      • Marketing Communications Objectives and Terminology
      • Promotional Mix Elements
      • The Primary Tools of Marketing Communications
      • The Integration of Marketing Communications
        • Why Integrate?
        • IMC Practices and Synergy
        • Definition of IMC
      • Key Imc Features
        • Key Feature #1: IMC Should Begin with the Customer or Prospect
        • Key Feature #2: Use Any Form of Relevant Contact
        • Key Feature #3: Speak with a Single Voice
        • Key Feature #4: Build Relationships Rather Than Engage in Flings
        • Key Element #5: Don’t Lose Focus of the Ultimate Objective: Affect Behavior
        • Obstacles to Implementing the Key IMC Features
      • The Marketing Communications Decision-Making Process
        • Fundamental Marcom Decisions
        • Marcom Implementation Decisions
        • Marcom Outcomes
        • Program Evaluation
      • Summary
      • Appendix
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 2: Enhancing Brand Equity and Accountability
      • Marcom Insight: Are There Too Many Social Media Brands?
      • Introduction
      • Brand Equity
        • A Firm-Based Perspective on Brand Equity
        • Brand Equity Models
        • Relationships among Brand Concepts, Brand Equity, and Brand Loyalty
        • Strategies to Enhance Brand Equity
        • What Benefits Result from Enhancing Brand Equity?
        • Characteristics of World-Class Brands
      • Affecting Behavior and Achieving Marcom Accountability
        • Difficulty of Measuring Marcom Effectiveness
        • Assessing Effects with Marketing Mix Modeling
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 3: Brand Adoption, Brand Naming, and Intellectual Property Issues
      • Marcom Insight: Goodwill Boutiques: Thrifty Brand Takes Off
      • Introduction
      • Marcom and Brand Adoption
        • Brand Characteristics That Facilitate Adoption
        • Quantifying the Adoption-Influencing Characteristics
      • Brand Naming
        • What Constitutes a Good Brand Name?
        • The Brand-Naming Process
        • The Role of Logos
      • Intellectual Property
        • Patents
        • Copyrights
        • Trademarks
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 4: Environmental, Regulatory, and Ethical Issues
      • Marcom Insight: Graphic Visual Tobacco Warnings in the United States
      • Introduction
      • Environmental Marketing Communications
        • Green Marketing Initiatives
        • Social Media Campaigns
        • Guidelines for Green Marketing
      • Regulation of Marketing Communications
        • When Is Regulation Justified?
        • Regulation by Federal Agencies
        • False Advertising and Lanham Act Cases in Federal Court
        • Regulation by State Agencies
        • Advertising Self-Regulation
      • Ethical Issues in Marketing Communications
        • The Ethics of Targeting
        • Ethical Issues in Advertising
        • Ethical Issues in Public Relations and Product Placement
        • Ethical Issues in Packaging and Branding
        • Ethical Issues in Sales Promotions
        • Ethical Issues in Online and Social Media Marketing
        • Fostering Ethical Marketing Communications
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
  • Part 2: Fundamental IMC Planning and Decisions
    • Chapter 5: Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning
      • Marcom Insight: Positioning and “McBucks”: Should McDonald’s Try to Become Starbucks?
      • Introduction
      • Segments and the Market Segmentation Process
      • Segmentation Bases: Behavioral Segmentation
        • Online Behavioral Targeting
        • Privacy Concerns
      • Psychographic Segmentation
        • Customized Psychographic Profiles
        • General Purpose Psychographic Profiles
      • Geodemographic Segmentation
      • Demographic Segmentation
        • The Changing Age Structure
        • The Ever-Changing American Household
        • Ethnic Population Developments
      • Market Targeting
      • Market Positioning in Practice: The Fundamentals
        • Benefit Positioning
        • Attribute Positioning
        • Repositioning a Brand
        • Marketing Mix Development
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 6: The Communications Process and Consumer Behavior
      • Marcom Insight: Everyday Consumer Habits Helping the World
      • The Communications Process
        • Elements in the Communication Process
      • Marketing Communication and Meaning
        • The Meaning of Meaning
        • The Dimensions of Meaning
        • Meaning Transfer: From Culture to Object to Consumer
        • The Use of Figurative Language in Marketing Communications
      • Behavioral Foundations of Marketing Communications
        • The Consumer Processing Model (CPM)
        • The Hedonic, Experiential Model (HEM)
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 7: The Role of Persuasion in Integrated Marketing Communications
      • Marcom Insight: Can We Be Persuaded to Overcome Bad Habits? The Cell-Free Club
      • The Nature and Role of Attitudes
        • What Is an Attitude?
        • Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
      • Persuasion in Marketing Communications
        • The Ethics of Persuasion
      • Tools of Influence: The Persuader’s Perspective
        • Reciprocation
        • Commitment and Consistency
        • Social Proof
        • Liking
        • Authority
        • Scarcity
      • The Influence Process: The Persuadee’s Perspective
        • Message Arguments
        • Peripheral Cues
        • Communication Modality
        • Receiver Involvement
        • Receiver’s Initial Position
      • An Integrated Model of Persuasion
        • The Central Route
        • The Peripheral Route
        • Dual Routes
      • Enhancing Consumers’ Motivation, Ability, and pportunity to Process Advertisements
        • Motivation to Attend to Messages
        • Motivation to Process Messages
        • Opportunity to Encode Information
        • Opportunity to Reduce Processing Time
        • Ability to Access Knowledge Structures
        • Ability to Create Knowledge Structures
        • Section Summary
      • The Theory of Reasoned Action (Tora)
        • Attitude Change Strategies
      • Changing Preferences and Behavioral Modification Strategies
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 8: Objective Setting and Budgeting
      • Marcom Insight: The Gecko, Flo, Mayhem, Magic Jingles, and the Insurance Industry Ad Brawl
      • Introduction
        • Setting Marcom Objectives
        • The Hierarchy of Marcom Effects
        • The Integrated Information Response Model
        • Section Summary
        • Requirements for Setting Suitable Marcom Objectives
        • Should Marcom Objectives Be Stated in Terms of Sales?
      • Marcom Budgeting
        • Budgeting in Theory
        • Budgeting in Practice
        • Section Summary
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
  • Part 3: Advertising Management and Media Choices
    • Chapter 9: Overview of Advertising Management
      • Marcom Insight: The Story of “Mad Man,” the “Elvis of Advertising”
      • Introduction
      • The Magnitude of Advertising
        • Advertising-to-Sales Ratios
        • Advertising Effects Are Uncertain
      • Advertising’s Effect on the Economy
        • Advertising = Market Power
        • Advertising = Information
        • A Synthesis
      • Advertising Functions
        • Informing
        • Influencing
        • Reminding and Increasing Salience
        • Adding Value
        • Assisting Other Company Efforts
      • The Advertising Management Process
        • Managing the Advertising Process: The Client Perspective
        • The Role of Advertising Agencies
        • Agency Compensation
      • Ad-Investment Considerations
        • The Case for Investing in Advertising
        • The Case for Disinvesting
        • Which Position Is More Acceptable?
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 10: Effective and Creative Ad Messages
      • Marcom Insight: Perhaps the Greatest TV Commercial of All Time
      • Introduction
      • Suggestions for Creating Effective Advertising
      • Qualities of Successful Advertising
      • What Exactly Does Being “Creative” and “Effective” Mean?
        • Creativity: The CAN Elements
        • Getting Messages to “Stick”
        • Illustrations of Creative and Sticky Advertising Executions
      • Making an Impression
      • Advertising Plans and Strategy
        • A Five-Step Program
      • Constructing a Creative Brief
        • Advertising Objectives
        • Target Audience
        • Motivations, Thoughts, and Feelings
        • Brand Positioning and Personality
        • Primary Outcome or “Take Away”
        • Other Details and Mandatories
      • Means-End Chaining and Laddering
        • The Nature of Values
        • Which Values Are Most Relevant to Advertising?
        • Advertising Applications of Means-End Chains: The MECCAS Model
        • Identifying Means-End Chains: The Method of Laddering
        • Practical Issues in Identifying Means-End Chains
      • Alternative Styles of Creative Advertising
        • Generic Creative Style
        • Preemptive Creative Style
        • Unique Selling Proposition Creative Style
        • Brand Image Creative Style
        • Resonance Creative Style
        • Emotional Creative Style
        • Section Summary
      • Corporate Image and Corporate Issue Advertising
        • Corporate Image Advertising
        • Corporate Issue (Advocacy) Advertising
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 11: Endorsers and Message Appeals in Advertising
      • Marcom Insight: When Celebrity Endorsers Go Bad
      • Introduction
      • The Role of Celebrity Endorsers in Advertising
      • Source Attributes and Receiver Processing Modes
        • Credibility: The Process of Internalization
        • Attractiveness: The Process of Identification
        • Power: The Process of Compliance
        • Practical Issues in Selecting Celebrity Endorsers
        • The Role of Q Scores
      • The Role of Humor in Advertising
      • Appeals to Consumer Fears
        • Fear Appeal Logic
        • Appropriate Intensity
      • The Related Case of Appeals to Scarcity
      • Appeals to Consumer Guilt
      • The Use of Sex in Advertising
        • What Role Does Sex Play in Advertising?
        • The Potential Downside of Sex Appeals in Advertising
      • Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds
        • Why It Is Unlikely That Subliminal Advertising Works
      • The Functions of Music In Advertising
      • The Role of Comparative Advertising
        • Is Comparative Advertising More Effective?
        • Considerations Dictating the Use of Comparative Advertising
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 12: Traditional Advertising Media
      • Marcom Insight: Has Traditional Advertising Media Lost Its Effectiveness? The Rise of Cord Cutting,
      • Introduction
        • Some Preliminary Comments
      • Newspapers
        • Buying Newspaper Space
        • Newspaper Advertising’s Strengths and Limitations
      • Magazines
        • Buying Magazine Space
        • Magazine Advertising’s Strengths and Limitations
        • Magazine Audience Measurement
        • Using Simmons and MRI Reports
        • Customized Magazines
      • Radio
        • Buying Radio Time
        • Radio Advertising’s Strengths and Limitations
        • Radio Audience Measurement
      • Television
        • Television Programming Dayparts
        • Network, Spot, Syndicated, Cable, and Local Advertising
        • Television Advertising’s Strengths and Limitations
        • Infomercials
        • Brand Placements in Television Programs
        • Recent Developments in TV Advertising
        • Television Audience Measurement
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 13: Digital Media: Online, Mobile, and App Advertising
      • Marcom Insight: Mobile Headache? The Excitement and Challenges of Mobile Advertising
      • Introduction
        • Online Advertising: Benefits and Costs
        • The Online Advertising Process
        • Online Advertising Formats
      • Search Engine Advertising
        • Purchasing Keywords and Selecting Content-Oriented Websites
        • SEA Problems and Suggestions
      • Display Advertising
        • Static Banner Ads
        • Click-Through Rates
        • Standardization of Display Ad Sizes
      • Rich Media: Pop-Ups, Interstitials, Superstitials, and Online Video Ads
        • Online Video Ads
        • Mobile Advertising and Apps
        • App Advertising
      • Websites and Sponsored Sites
      • Blogs and Podcasts
        • Blogs
        • Podcasts
      • E-Mail Advertising
        • Opt-in E-Mailing versus Spam
        • E-Mail Magazines (E-zines)
      • Behavioral Targeting, Programmatic Advertising, and Privacy Issues
        • Behavioral Targeting
        • Programmatic Ads
        • Consumer Privacy
      • Measuring Online Ad Effectiveness
        • Metrics for Measuring Online Ad Performance
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 14: Social Media
      • Marcom Insight: Is Facebook Becoming Passé? Or Are We Hopelessly Addicted?
      • Introduction
      • Social Media Background and Landscape
        • Comparisons with Traditional Media
      • Social Media Advantages and Disadvantages
      • Social Media Categories and Brands
      • Social Networking
        • Facebook
        • Twitter
        • Instagram
        • Snapchat
      • Successful Social Media Campaigns
        • Common Objectives and Themes for These Successful Social Media Campaigns
        • Factors That “Work” in Social Media Campaigns and Why
      • Organizing Social Media Efforts
      • How to Advertise on Social Networks
      • Privacy and Other Concerns
        • Other Social Media Network Concerns
      • Measurement of Social Media Campaigns
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 15: Direct Marketing, CRM, and Other Media
      • Marcom Insight: During Tough Times, Flex Seal and ShamWow March On
      • Introduction
      • Direct Marketing
        • Direct Marketing’s Phenomenal Growth
      • Direct-Response Advertising
      • Direct Mail
        • Illustrations of Successful Direct-Mail Campaigns
        • Direct Mail’s Distinctive Features
        • Who Uses Direct Mail and What Functions Does It Accomplish?
        • The Special Case of Catalogs and Video Media
        • CRM and the Use of Databases
      • Outbound and Inbound Telemarketing
        • Outbound Telemarketing
        • Inbound Telemarketing
        • Major Telemarketing Regulation
      • Other Media
      • Brand Placements
        • Brand Placements in Movies
        • Brand Placements in TV Programs
      • Yellow-Pages Advertising
      • Video-Game Advertising
        • Measuring Video-Game Audiences
      • Cinema Advertising
      • Alternative Advertising Media
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 16: Media Planning and Analysis
      • Marcom Insight: Is Super Bowl Advertising Worth the Expense?
      • Introduction
        • Some Useful Terminology: Media versus Vehicles
        • Messages and Media: A Hand-in-Glove Relation
        • Programmatic Ad Buying
        • Cross-Media Platforms
        • Selecting and Buying Media and Vehicles
      • The Media-Planning Process
      • Selecting the Target Audience
      • Specifying Media Objectives
        • Reach
        • Frequency
        • Weight
        • Continuity
        • Recency Planning (a.k.a. the Shelf-Space Model)
        • Cost Considerations
        • The Necessity of Making Trade-Offs
      • Media-Scheduling Software
        • Hypothetical Illustration: A One-Month Magazine Schedule for the Esuvee Safety Campaign
      • Review of Media Plans
        • The Diet Dr Pepper Plan
        • The FDA’s “The Real Cost” Campaign
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 17: Measuring Ad Message Effectiveness
      • Marcom Insight: Lessons in Ad Copy Testing and Track-ing: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaig
      • Introduction to Advertising Research
        • It Is Not Easy or Inexpensive
        • Testing TV Commercials in Prefinished (Rough) Form
        • What Does Advertising Research Involve?
        • Industry Standards for Message Research
        • What Do Brand Managers and Ad Agencies Want to Learn from Message Research?
      • Two General Forms of Message Research
        • Qualitative Message Research
        • Quantitative Message Research
      • Measures of Recognition and Recall
        • Starch Ad Readership Studies
        • Bruzzone Tests
        • Day-After Recall Testing
      • Measurement of Emotional Reactions
        • BBDO’s Emotional Measurement System
        • Facial Imaging Technology
        • Neuroscience and Brain Imaging
        • Self-Report Measurement
        • Physiological Testing and Biometrics
      • Measures of Persuasion
        • The Ipsos ASI: Connect® Method
        • The Ipsos ASI Next*TV® Method
        • The MSW*ARS Brand Preference Method
      • Measures of Sales Response (Single-Source Systems)
        • Nielsen Catalina’s Advantics on Demand
      • Some Major Conclusions about Television Advertising
        • Conclusion 1—All Commercials Are Not Created Equal: Ad Copy Must Be Distinctive
        • Conclusion 2—More Is Not Necessarily Better: Weight Is Not Enough
        • Conclusion 3—All Good Things Must End: Advertising Eventually Wears Out
        • Conclusion 4—Do Not Be Stubborn: Advertising Works Quickly or Not at All
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
  • Part 4: Sales Promotion Management
    • Chapter 18: Sales Promotion Overview and the Role of Trade Promotion
      • Marcom Insight: The Latest in Trade Promotions: New Thinking and Old Ways
      • Introduction
        • The Nature of Sales Promotion
        • Promotion Targets
      • Increased Budgetary Allocations to Promotions
        • Factors Accounting for the Shift
        • A Consequence of the Increase: A Shift in Accounting Rules
      • What Are Sales Promotions’ Capabilities and Limitations?
        • What Promotions Can Accomplish
        • What Promotions Cannot Accomplish
        • Problems with an Excessive Emphasis on Sales Promotion
      • The Role of Trade Promotions
        • Trade Promotions’ Scope and Objectives
        • Ingredients for a Successful Trade Promotion Program
      • Trade Allowances
        • Major Forms of Trade Allowances
        • Undesirable Consequences of Off-Invoice Allowances: Forward Buying and Diverting
      • Efforts to Rectify Trade Allowance Problems
        • Category Management
        • Everyday Low Pricing (EDLP)
        • Pay-for-Performance Programs
        • Customizing Promotions: Account-Specific Marketing
        • Other Forms of Trade Promotions
      • Generalizations about Promotions
        • Generalization 1: Temporary Retail Price Reductions Substantially Increase Sales—But Only in the
        • Generalization 2: The Greater the Frequency of Deals, the Lower the Height of the Deal Spike
        • Generalization 3: The Frequency of Deals Changes the Consumer’s Reference Price
        • Generalization 4: Retailers Pass through Less Than 100 Percent of Trade Deals
        • Generalization 5: Higher-Market-share brands Are less deal elastic
        • Generalization 6: Advertised promotions Can result in increased store Traffic
        • Generalization 7: Feature advertising and displays operate synergistically to influence sales of dis
        • Generalization 8: Promotions in one product category affect sales of brands in complementary and com
        • Generalization 9: The effects of promoting higher- and lower-quality brands Are asymmetric
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 19: Consumer Sales Promotion: Sampling and Couponing
      • Marcom Insight: Groupon: Is the “New” Model for Couponing Still Working?
      • Introduction
        • Why Use Consumer Promotions?
        • Brand Management Objectives and Consumer Rewards
        • Classification of Promotion Methods
      • Sampling
        • Major Sampling Practices
        • When Should Sampling Be Used?
        • Sampling Problems
      • Couponing
        • Couponing Background
        • Point-of-Purchase Couponing
        • Mail- and Media-Delivered Coupons
        • In- and On-Pack Coupons
        • Online and Social Group Couponing
        • The Coupon Redemption Process and Misredemption
      • The Role of Promotion Agencies
        • The Rise of the Online Promotion Agency
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 20: Consumer Sales Promotion: Premiums and Other Promotions
      • Marcom Insight: Whopper Sacrifice: is an Online Premium Offer Worth 10 Friends?
      • Introduction
      • Premiums
        • Free-with-Purchase Premiums
        • Mail-In and Online Offers
        • In-, On-, and Near-Pack Premiums
        • Self-Liquidating Offers
        • What Makes a Good Premium Offer?
      • Price-Offs
        • Federal Trade Commission Price-Off Regulations
      • Bonus Packs
      • Games
        • Avoiding Snafus
      • Refunds and Rebates
        • Phantom Discounts
        • Rebate Fraud
      • Sweepstakes and Contests
        • Sweepstakes
        • Contests
        • Online Sweeps and Contests
      • Continuity Promotions
      • Overlay and Tie-In Promotions
        • Overlay Programs
        • Tie-In Promotions
      • Retailer Promotions
        • Retail Coupons
        • Frequent-Shopper (Loyalty) Programs
        • Special Price Deals
        • Samples, Premiums, and Games
      • Evaluating Sales Promotion Ideas
        • A Procedure for Evaluating Promotion Ideas
        • Postmortem Analysis
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
  • Part 5: Other IMC Tools
    • Chapter 21: Public Relations, Content Marketing, Viral Marketing, and Sponsorships
      • Marcom Insight: Rats and False Eight-Legged Chicken Rumors: KFC/Taco Bell Restaurants
      • Introduction
        • Marketing Public Relations (MPR) versus Advertising
      • Proactive versus Reactive Mpr
        • Proactive MPR
        • Content Marketing
        • Reactive MPR
        • Crisis Management
      • The Special Case of Rumors and Urban Legends
        • What Is the Best Way to Handle a Rumor?
      • Word-of-Mouth Influence
        • Strong and Weak Ties
        • The Role of Opinion Leaders in WOM Dissemination
        • Prevent Negative WOM
      • Viral Marketing
        • Viral Marketing Is Akin to Creating an Epidemic
        • Some Anecdotal Evidence
        • Formal Perspectives on Buzz Creation
        • Igniting Explosive Self-Generating Demand
        • Summing Up
      • Sponsorship Marketing
      • Event Sponsorships
        • Selecting Sponsorship Events
        • Sponsorship Agreements
        • Creating Customized Events
        • Ambushing Events
        • Measuring Success
      • Cause Sponsorships
        • The Benefits of Cause-Related Marketing
        • The Importance of Fit and Community-Driven CRM Efforts
        • Accountability Is Critical
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 22: Packaging, Point-of-Purchase Communications, and Signage
      • Marcom Insight: The “Appification” of Grocery Shopping
      • Introduction
      • Packaging
        • Packaging Structure
        • Evaluating the Package: The VIEW Model
        • Quantifying the VIEW Components
        • Designing a Package
      • Point-of-Purchase (POP) Communications
        • The Spectrum of POP Materials
        • What Does POP Accomplish?
        • POP’s Influence on Consumer Behavior
        • Evidence of In-Store Decision Making
        • Evidence of Display Effectiveness
        • Latest POPAI Research
        • The Use and Nonuse of POP Materials
        • Measuring In-Store Advertising’s Audience
      • On-Premise Business Signage
        • Types of On-Premise Signs
        • The ABCs of On-Premise Signs
        • Seek Expert Assistance
      • Out-of-Home (OOH, Off-Premise) Advertising
        • Forms of Billboard Ads
        • Buying Billboard Advertising
        • Billboard Advertising’s Strengths and Limitations
        • Measuring Billboard Audience Size and Characteristics: OAAA’s Geopath Ratings
        • A Case Study of Billboard Effectiveness
        • Other Forms of OOH Advertising
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Chapter 23: Personal Selling
      • Marcom Insight: What Qualities Are Liked and Disliked in a Salesperson?
      • Introduction
      • Personal Selling
        • Personal Selling’s Role in the Promotion Mix and IMC
        • Attitudes Toward Selling
        • Attractive Features of Personal Selling
      • Modern Selling Philosophy
      • Selling Activities and Types of Personal-Selling Jobs
        • Selling Activities
        • Types of Sales Jobs
      • The Basic Steps in Personal Selling
        • Step 1: Prospecting and Qualifying
        • Step 2: Preapproach
        • Step 3: Approach
        • Step 4: The Sales Presentation
        • Step 5: Handling Objections
        • Step 6: The Close
        • Step 7: The Follow-Up
        • In Summary
      • Salesperson Performance and Effectiveness
        • Specific Determinants of Salesperson Performance
      • Excellence in Selling
        • Specific Characteristics of High-Performers
      • Summary
      • Discussion Questions
  • Glossary
  • End Notes
  • Name Index
  • Subject Index

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