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A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

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Efnisyfirlit

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents Summary
  • Glossary and abbreviations
  • Table of cases
  • Table of statutes
  • PART I  HISTORY AND RANGE OF ADR METHODS
    • 1    INTRODUCTION
      • A   BACKGROUND
      • B   WHAT IS ADR?
      • C   WHY IS THERE A NEED FOR ADR?
      • D   THE GROWTH OF ADR OPTIONS
      • E   COURT RECOGNITION OF ADR
      • F   ADR AND THE REVIEW OF CIVIL LITIGATION COSTS
      • G   RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
      • H   THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
      • I    SOME ISSUES WITH REGARD TO ADR
      • J   POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF ADR
        • Lower cost
        • Speed of settlement
        • Control of process
        • Choice of forum
        • A wider range of issues may be considered
        • Wider range of potential outcomes
        • Flexibility of process
        • Flexibility with regard to evidence
        • Confidentiality
        • Use of a problem-solving approach
        • Possible reduction of risk
        • Client satisfaction
      • K   POTENTIAL DISADVANTAGES OF ADR
        • Increased expense
        • Additional delay
        • Possible reduction in outcome compared to a court judgment
        • Lack of a clear and public finding
        • Loss of potential strategic use of procedural steps
        • Loss of potential advantages of evidential rules
        • Confusion of process
      • L   WEIGHING UP DISPUTE RESOLUTION OPTIONS
      • M   THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DISPUTE ESCALATION
      • N   ASSESSING THE SUCCESS OF ADR
      • O   OVERVIEW OF REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS
      • P   OVERVIEW OF TRAINING AND ACCREDITATION
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 2   OVERVIEW OF ADR OPTIONS
      • A   KEY ELEMENTS OF ADR OPTIONS
      • B   THE ROLE OF THE LAWYER WITH REGARD TO ADR OPTIONS
      • C   NON-ADJUDICATIVE ADR OPTIONS
        • Inter-client discussion
        • Written offers
        • Negotiation
        • Mediation
        • Conciliation
        • Early neutral and/or expert evaluation
      • D   ADJUDICATIVE ADR OPTIONS
        • Arbitration
        • Adjudication
        • Expert determination
      • E   OTHER OPTIONS
        • Hybrids
        • Processes for dealing with grievances
        • Specialist systems
        • IT-based options
        • Dispute management systems
        • Complex dispute resolution
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 3    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF AN ADR OPTION
      • A    LEGAL ADVICE ON APPROPRIATE DISPUTE RESOLUTION OPTIONS
        • Overcoming possible problems in advising on ADR
        • The professional duty to give advice
        • When to give advice on ADR options
      • B   ADVANCE SELECTION OF AN ADR OPTION
      • C   FACTORS INFLUENCING ADR SELECTION
        • Is jurisdiction an issue?
        • Is ADR inappropriate?
        • Is a court decision creating a precedent important?
        • Is a court order necessary?
        • What is the relative cost of possible options?
        • How important is expert knowledge?
        • Is confidentiality important?
        • How much control does the client want?
        • What are the main objectives of the client?
        • Is a future relationship important?
        • What is the relevance of the chances of success?
        • Does the client want a ‘day in court’?
        • Would neutral assistance be valuable?
        • What stage has the case reached?
        • How important might interim orders be?
        • Might orders relating to evidence be needed?
        • What is the attitude of the court?
        • Might enforcement be an issue?
      • D   POTENTIAL CONCERNS ABOUT ADR
        • ADR can undermine litigation
        • Proposing ADR suggests a lack of faith in your case
        • ADR can undermine a lawyer’s control of a case
        • ADR does not really save costs
        • ADR is a way of getting something for a weak case
        • ADR involves too much pressure to settle
        • ADR is used as a delaying tactic
        • ADR is not a robust process
      • E   SECURING AGREEMENT TO ADR
        • Suggest specific benefits that ADR might offer
        • Offer information about ADR options
        • Propose a simple ADR option
        • Address any concerns that you think an opponent might have
        • Offer to pay reasonable ADR fees
        • Seek to persuade a judge to order a stay
      • F   CONFIDENTIALITY IN RELATION TO ADR PROCESSES
      • G   TIMING THE USE OF ADR
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 4   FUNDING ADR PROCEDURES
      • A   THE FUNDING CONTEXT
      • B   GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
        • What are the main elements of expense in the case?
        • How much is at stake in the case?
        • How is the case being funded?
        • The extent to which expense has already been incurred
        • The chances of success
        • The possibility that costs may be recovered or liability for costs may shift
      • C   ELEMENTS OF EXPENSE
        • Solicitor fees
        • Barrister fees
        • Evidence and information
        • Disbursements
        • Process fees
      • D   WHAT ADR PROCESSES COST
        • ADR provider’s fee
        • Negotiation
        • Mediation
        • Arbitration
        • Other forms of ADR
      • E   EFFECTS OF THE FUNDING BASIS
        • Conditional fee agreement funding
        • Damages-based agreement
        • Insurance
        • Third-party funding
        • Legal Aid Agency funding
      • F   SHIFTING THE LIABILITY FOR COSTS—PART 36 OFFERS
      • G   CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE PARTIES
      • H   OVERALL FINANCIAL ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT
      • I    BASIC EXAMPLE OF ADR FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 5   ONLINE ADR OPTIONS AND ODR
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   BACKGROUND
      • C   THE MAIN BODIES CONCERNED WITH ODR
      • D   THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN ADR
      • E   THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN COURT PROCESSES
      • F   ODR SOFTWARE OPTIONS
      • G   DEVELOPMENT OF ADR AND ODR WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      • H   LOOKING FORWARD
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 6   PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   ADVISING ON ADR OPTIONS
      • C   LAWYERS PROVIDING AN ADR SERVICE
      • D   COMPLIANCE WITH CORE PROFESSIONAL DUTIES
        • To act at all times in the client’s best interests
        • To act within the client’s instructions
        • To maintain client confidentiality
        • To act competently
        • To act with integrity
        • To be independent
        • Not to mislead anyone
        • Not to bring the system of justice into disrepute
        • Not to make threats
      • E   SPECIFIC DUTIES IN NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION
      • F   THE DUTY OF CONFIDENTIALITY
      • Introduction
      • The extent of the duty
      • Confidentiality in mediation
      • Confidentiality in early neutral evaluation and expert determination
      • Confidentiality in adjudicative processes such as arbitration and adjudication
    • G   LEGAL PROFESSIONAL PRIVILEGE
    • H   WITHOUT PREJUDICE COMMUNICATIONS
      • Exceptions to the without prejudice communications rule
    • I    PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • J   DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION IN ADR PROCESSES
      • Non-adjudicatory ADR and expert determination
      • Adjudication and arbitration
    • K   AUTHORITY TO SETTLE
    • L   THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BARRISTERS AND THEIR PROFESSIONAL CLIENTS IN ADR
    • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
  • PART II  THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ADR, CPR, AND LITIGATION
    • 7   THE APPROACH OF THE COURTS TO ADR
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   PRE-ACTION PROTOCOLS
        • Practice Direction—Pre-Action Conduct and Protocols
        • The pre-action protocols
        • The Pre-action Protocol for Possession Claims based on Mortgage or Home Purchase Plan Arrears in Respect of Residential Property
        • The Pre-action Protocol for Construction and Engineering Disputes
        • Family proceedings
      • C   THE COURT GUIDES
        • The Admiralty and Commercial Courts Guide
        • The Chancery Guide
        • The Queen’s Bench Guide
        • The Technology and Construction Court Guide
        • The Circuit Commercial (Mercantile) Court Guide
      • D   THE OVERRIDING OBJECTIVE AND ADR
      • E   ACTIVE CASE MANAGEMENT AND ADR
        • A more robust approach since 1 April
        • Case management orders and ADR
        • Part 36 offers to settle
      • F   COSTS MANAGEMENT AND ADR
      • G   DIRECTIONS QUESTIONNAIRES AND ADR
      • H   GRANTING STAYS FOR ADR
      • I    JUDICIAL ENCOURAGEMENT OF ADR
      • J   THE APPROACH OF THE COURTS TO CONTRACTUAL ADR CLAUSES
      • K   COSTS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
      • L   CAN THE COURT COMPEL THE PARTIES TO USE ADR?
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 8   THE SANCTIONS FOR REFUSING TO ENGAGE IN ADR PROCESSES
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   THE COURT’S GENERAL POWERS TO MAKE COSTS ORDERS
      • C   ADVERSE COSTS ORDERS AGAINST A PARTY WHO FAILS TO COMPLY WITH THE PRE-ACTION PROTOCOLS
      • D   ADVERSE COSTS ORDERS AGAINST A PARTY WHO UNREASONABLY REFUSES TO CONSIDER ADR
        • The nature of the dispute
        • The merits of the case
        • The extent to which other settlement methods have been attempted
        • Whether the costs of ADR would be disproportionately high
        • Whether any delay in setting up and attending ADR would be prejudicial
        • Whether ADR had a reasonable prospect of success
      • E   OTHER FACTORS
        • Whether an ADR order was made by the court
        • Obtaining further information or evidence before using ADR
        • Both parties at fault
      • F   REJECTING ADR AFTER JUDGMENT AND BEFORE THE HEARING OF AN APPEAL
      • G   DELAY IN CONSENTING TO ADR
      • H   BACKING OUT OF AN AGREED ADR PROCESS
      • I    UNREASONABLE CONDUCT IN THE MEDIATION
      • J   IMPOSING A COSTS CAP ON SOLICITOR–CLIENT COSTS FOR FAILING TO PURSUE ADR
      • K   INDEMNITY COSTS ORDERS FOR FAILING TO CONSIDER ADR
      • L   WHAT PRACTICAL STEPS SHOULD BE TAKEN BY A PARTY TO AVOID SANCTIONS?
      • M   HOW DOES THE COURT TREAT PRIVILEGED MATERIAL WHEN SEEKING TO IMPOSE SANCTIONS?
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 9   RECOVERY OF ADR COSTS IN LITIGATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   COSTS OF INTERIM APPLICATIONS RELATING TO ADR
      • C   RECOVERY OF THE COSTS OF UNSUCCESSFUL ADR PROCESSES
        • Costs of failed ADR as part of the costs of litigation
        • The agreement between the parties determines liability in respect of ADR costs
        • The parties make no agreement about the costs of the ADR process
        • Agreement between the parties for the costs of the ADR process to be costs in the case
        • Settlement or determination on all issues apart from costs
      • D   RECOVERING THE COSTS OF AN ADR PROCESS AS DAMAGES
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
  • PART III  NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION
    • 10   OVERVIEW OF NEGOTIATION AND MEDIATION
      • 11   STYLES, STRATEGIES, AND TACTICS IN NEGOTIATION
      • A   THE IMPORTANCE OF STYLE, STRATEGY, AND TACTICS
      • B   STYLES
        • Co-operative
        • Competitive/confrontational
        • Choice of style
      • C   STRATEGIES
        • Co-operative
        • Competitive or positional
        • Collaborative—principled or problem solving
        • Pragmatic
        • Choice of strategy
        • Interaction of strategies
      • D   TACTICS
        • Tactics relating to information
        • Tactics relating to offers and demands
        • Tactics relating to structure
        • Tactics relating to presentation
        • Tactics relating to law
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 12   PREPARING FOR NEGOTIATION
      • A   THE IMPORTANCE OF PREPARATION
      • B   IDENTIFYING THE OBJECTIVES
      • C   THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PROCEDURAL STAGE THE CASE HAS REACHED
        • The case is at a very early stage
        • The case is at a pre-action protocol stage
        • After the issue of proceedings
        • The case is being prepared for trial
      • D   IDENTIFYING THE ISSUES
      • E   THE RELEVANCE OF THE LEGAL CONTEXT
      • F   PREPARING TO DEAL WITH FACTS AND EVIDENCE
        • The client’s view of the facts and evidence
        • The opponent’s view of the facts and evidence
        • Dealing with gaps and ambiguities
        • Preparing to deal with facts and information in negotiation
      • G   PREPARING TO DEAL WITH FIGURES
      • H   IDENTIFYING PERSUASIVE ARGUMENTS
        • Arguments based on the application of the law
        • Arguments based on facts
        • Merit-based or moral argument
        • Practical or personal arguments
        • Mixed arguments
      • I    PLANNING POTENTIAL DEMANDS, OFFERS, AND CONCESSIONS
        • Plan what you will seek from the other side
        • Plan how and when you will ask
        • Plan what you might offer
        • Plan how and when you might make offers
      • J   LINKING CONCESSIONS
      • K   IDENTIFYING THE BATNA
      • L   IDENTIFYING THE WATNA
      • M   CLARIFYING YOUR INSTRUCTIONS AND AUTHORITY
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 13   THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS
      • A   WHEN, HOW, AND WHERE
      • B   WHO
      • C   COMMUNICATING EFFECTIVELY
        • Reciprocal or ‘mirroring’ behaviour
        • Effective presentation
        • Responding effectively
        • Questioning effectively
        • Listening effectively
      • D   STRUCTURE AND AGENDA SETTING
      • E   OPENING
        • Open by agreeing an agenda
        • Open with a statement or a proposal
        • Start by asking some key questions
        • Invite your opponent to open
        • Start with items that can be agreed easily
        • Start with items where your case is strong
        • Make limits on authority clear
        • Refer to privilege for discussion
        • Dealing with problems in opening
      • F   SEEKING INFORMATION
      • G   MAKING YOUR CASE ON THE ISSUES
        • Presenting the merits of your case
        • Addressing weaknesses in your case
        • Bringing out weaknesses in your opponent’s case
        • Proposing an outcome
        • Additions to oral argument
      • H   PLANNING AND TIMING CONCESSIONS, OFFERS, AND DEMANDS
        • Implementing concession plan
        • Gaining concessions
        • Making demands
        • Making concessions
        • Linking concessions
        • Making offers
        • Reaching a deal
        • Bargaining tactics
      • I    MAKING PROGRESS
      • J   DEALING WITH DIFFICULTIES
        • Gaps in information
        • Getting bogged down, or reaching deadlock
        • Dealing with a poorly prepared opponent
        • Dealing with a very competitive opponent
        • Frustration and emotion
        • Concern about possible inexperience
      • K   REACHING A CLOSE-SETTLEMENT OR BREAKDOWN
        • Making an oral contract
        • Recording the outcome
        • No agreement is reached
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 14   MEDIATION: GENERAL PRINCIPLES
      • A   WHAT IS MEDIATION?
      • B   WHY IS MEDIATION AN EFFECTIVE ADR PROCESS?
      • C   JUDICIAL ENDORSEMENT OF MEDIATION
      • D   DISPUTES SUITABLE FOR MEDIATION
      • E   THE ADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION
      • F   DOES MEDIATION WORK?
      • G   WHY DO THE PARTIES USE MEDIATION?
      • H   WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MAKE A RELUCTANT PARTY ENGAGE IN MEDIATION?
        • Mediation Information Assessment Meetings
      • I    THE TIMING OF MEDIATION
        • Before litigation begins
        • After litigation begins
      • J   THE COSTS OF MEDIATION
        • The party’s own costs of preparing for the mediation
        • The mediator’s fee
        • Expenses of the mediation
      • K   THE FUNDING OF MEDIATION COSTS, FEES, AND EXPENSES
        • Public funding
        • Funding under a CFA
      • L   STYLES OF MEDIATION
        • Facilitative mediation
        • Evaluative mediation
        • Transformative mediation
      • M   THE ROLE OF THE MEDIATOR
        • Organizing the mediation process
        • Acting as a facilitator
        • Acting as intermediary
        • Post-mediation role
      • N   ACCREDITATION AND REGULATION OF MEDIATION
        • Introduction
        • Training requirements
      • O   THE CIVIL MEDIATION COUNCIL
        • The CMC Mediation Provider Registration Scheme
        • The CMC Individual Registration Scheme
        • Is further regulation required?
      • P   ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AFFECTING MEDIATORS
        • Competence
        • Independence and neutrality
        • Impartiality
        • The mediation procedure
        • Fairness
        • Confidentiality
        • Termination of the mediation
        • Repeat instructions
        • Practice administration
      • Q   THE WITHOUT PREJUDICE RULE IN MEDIATION
        • Communications that are not protected by the without prejudice rule in mediation
        • Can the mediator rely on the without prejudice rule?
      • R   LEGAL ADVICE PRIVILEGE IN MEDIATION
      • S   CONFIDENTIALITY IN MEDIATION
        • Example of a confidentiality clause
        • Information given to the mediator
        • Can the mediator enforce the confidentiality clause?
        • When will the court override the confidentiality provisions in the interests of justice?
        • Other exceptions to confidentiality
      • T   THE MEDIATOR AS WITNESS
        • Should the law be reformed?
      • U   CAN A MEDIATOR BE SUED?
        • Legal proceedings
        • Disciplinary proceedings
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 15   PREPARATION FOR THE MEDIATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   SELECTING A MEDIATOR
        • The qualities required in an effective mediator
        • Factors influencing the selection of a mediator
      • C   THE DURATION OF MEDIATION
      • D   SELECTING A VENUE
      • E   THE AGREEMENT TO MEDIATE
      • F   PRE-MEDIATION MEETING/CONTACT
      • G   THE ATTENDEES
        • Representatives of the parties
        • Person with authority to settle
        • Lawyers
        • Insurers
        • Interest groups
        • Experts
        • Witnesses of fact
      • H   THE POSITION STATEMENTS
        • The aims in drafting the position statement
        • The content of the position statement
        • Joint position statement
      • I    THE KEY SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
        • Agreed bundle
        • Confidential bundles
      • J   DISCLOSURE OF POSITION STATEMENTS AND DOCUMENTS
      • K   OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT THE PARTIES MAY WISH TO BRING TO THE MEDIATION
      • L   OTHER INFORMATION THAT THE MEDIATOR MAY SEEK FROM THE PARTIES BEFORE THE MEDIATION
      • M   RISK ASSESSMENT
      • N   OPTIONS FOR SETTLEMENT
      • O   SPECIMEN SETTLEMENT CLAUSES
      • P   CONCLUSION
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 16   THE MEDIATION PROCESS
      • A   WHEN DOES THE MEDIATION START?
      • B   THE STAGES IN MEDIATION
      • C   THE OPENING STAGE
        • Introductions
        • The opening joint meeting (plenary session)
        • Opening statements by the parties
        • Witnesses and experts
        • Closing the opening joint meeting
        • Extension of the plenary session
        • The separate private meetings (or closed meetings)
      • D   THE EXPLORATION/INFORMATION STAGE
        • Carrying out a ‘reality test’
        • Probing the underlying issues
        • Devising options for settlement
      • E   THE NEGOTIATING/BARGAINING STAGE
        • Acting as a shuttle-diplomat
        • Devising strategies to help the parties work through deadlock
      • F   JOINT OPEN MEETINGS IN THE EXPLORATION OR BARGAINING STAGE
        • Joint meetings of representatives of the parties
        • Joint meetings between the lay clients
        • Joint meetings of the experts
      • G   THE SETTLEMENT/CLOSING STAGE
        • If settlement is reached
        • If no settlement is reached
      • H   THE CLOSING JOINT MEETING
      • I    TERMINATION AND ADJOURNMENT OF THE MEDIATION
      • J   THE MEDIATOR’S ROLE FOLLOWING THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEDIATION
      • K   THE MAIN VARIATIONS IN THE PROCESS
        • Evaluative mediation
        • Evaluation of the merits of the case requested by both parties
        • Evaluation of one or more issues requested by one party only
        • Med-Arb
        • Arb-Med
        • Telephone mediations
        • Mediations conducted online
      • L   THE ROLE OF THE ADVOCATE IN MEDIATION
        • Preparation and case analysis
        • Mediation advocacy
        • Advisory skills in mediation
        • Delivery of the opening statement at the opening joint meeting
        • The advocate’s role during private closed meetings
        • Settlement
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 17   REACHING A SETTLEMENT
      • A   CONTRACTUAL PRINCIPLES
      • B   ORAL AGREEMENT AND EMAIL
      • C   THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE LAWYER
      • D   CHECKING COVERAGE AND DETAIL
      • E   RECORDING THE OUTCOME
      • F   BUILDING IN ENFORCEABILITY
      • G   IF NO AGREEMENT IS REACHED
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 18   COURT MEDIATION SCHEMES AND OTHER SCHEMES
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   HISTORIC SCHEMES
        • The Central London County Court Voluntary Mediation Pilot Scheme
        • The Central London County Court Compulsory Mediation Pilot Scheme
        • The National Mediation Helpline
      • C   CURRENT COURT MEDIATION SCHEMES
        • The Mayor’s and City of London County Court Mediation Scheme
        • The HMCTS Small Claims Mediation Scheme
        • The Court of Appeal Mediation Scheme
        • The West Midlands Family Mediation Scheme
        • County court local schemes
      • D   MEDIATION INFORMATION PILOT COURT SCHEMES
        • The Birmingham, Manchester, and Central London County Courts Mediation Information Pilot Schemes
        • The Court of Appeal Mediation Pilot Scheme
        • The Central London County Court Pilot Scheme
      • E   THE CIVIL MEDIATION ONLINE DIRECTORY
      • F   FIXED PRICE MEDIATION SCHEMES
      • G   JUDICIAL MEDIATION SCHEMES
        • The Court Settlement Process in the Technology and Construction Court
        • Judicial mediation in family cases
        • Judicial mediation in Employment Tribunals
      • H   MEDIATION IN SPECIFIC CASES
        • Mediation in cases in the Commercial Court
        • Complex construction, engineering, and technology disputes
        • Family cases
        • Workplace mediation
        • Mediation in employment disputes
        • Mediation in personal injury cases
      • I    MEDIATING MULTI-PARTY DISPUTES
      • J   OTHER SPECIALIST MEDIATION SCHEMES
      • K   OTHER MEDIATION PROCESSES
        • Project mediation
        • The mini-trial or executive tribunal
        • Consensus-building mediation in environmental disputes or disputes that involve public policy issues
        • Deal mediation
      • L   RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
      • M   COMMUNITY MEDIATION
      • N   PRO BONO MEDIATION AND LAWWORKS
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 19   INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   THE ADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION IN INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES
      • C   PREPARATION FOR MEDIATION IN INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES
      • D   THE PROCESS IN INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION
      • E   THE GROWTH OF MEDIATION IN EUROPE
      • F   A MOVE TOWARDS HARMONIZING PRACTICES IN INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION
      • G   THE EU DIRECTIVE ON MEDIATION IN CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL CASES (DIRECTIVE 2008/52/EC)
        • The objective of the Directive
        • The application of the Directive
        • Implementation of the Directive by the United Kingdom
        • The main provisions of the Directive and the implementation of these provisions by the United Kingdom
        • Application of the Directive to domestic mediations
        • Implementation of the EU Mediation Directive in other member states
      • H   THE EUROPEAN CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MEDIATORS
      • I    ENFORCEABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION SETTLEMENT AGREEMENTS
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
  • PART IV  EVALUATION, CONCILIATION, AND OMBUDSMEN
    • 20   CONCILIATION
      • A   WHAT IS CONCILIATION?
      • B   AN OUTLINE OF THE PROCESS
      • C   ADVISORY, CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION SERVICE
        • Mandatory Early Conciliation
        • Post-claim conciliation
        • Collective conciliation
      • D   CONCILIATION IN FAMILY CASES
        • The process
      • E   JUDICIAL CONCILIATION IN SMALL CLAIMS CASES
      • F   OTHER CONCILIATION SCHEMES
        • The Disability Conciliation Service
        • The Furniture Ombudsmen Conciliation Scheme
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 21   COMPLAINTS, GRIEVANCES, AND OMBUDSMEN
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   COMPLAINTS AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES
        • Definitions
        • Complaints handling
        • Complaints against solicitors
        • Employment grievances
        • Acting for a party in a complaint
        • Decisions in complaints and grievance investigations
        • Effectiveness of complaints and grievance procedures
        • Information following exhaustion of complaints procedures
      • C   OMBUDSMEN
        • Complaints handling by ombudsmen
        • Procedure on references to ombudsmen
        • Grounds on which ombudsmen make their decisions
        • Effect of ombudsman’s decision
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 22   EARLY NEUTRAL EVALUATION
      • A   WHAT IS EARLY NEUTRAL EVALUATION?
      • B   AT WHAT STAGE SHOULD IT BE EMPLOYED?
      • C   WHEN SHOULD IT BE USED?
      • D   WHO SHOULD BE APPOINTED TO CARRY OUT THE EVALUATION?
      • E   THE PROCEDURE
      • F   NEUTRAL FACT FINDING
      • G   JUDICIAL EVALUATION
        • Judicial evaluation in the Commercial Court
        • Judicial evaluation in the Technology and Construction Court
        • Judicial evaluation in the Chancery Division
        • Judicial evaluation in the Employment Tribunal
      • H   EVALUATION IN PERSONAL INJURY CASES
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
  • PART V  RECORDING SETTLEMENT
    • 23   RECORDING SETTLEMENT
      • A   REACHING AGREEMENT
      • B   FORMS OF RECORDED OUTCOME
        • Compromise agreements
        • Full and final settlement
        • Subject to contract
      • C   RECORDS MADE DURING THE ADR PROCESS
      • D   WHO SHOULD PRODUCE A FORMAL RECORD?
      • E   ENFORCEABLE FORMS FOR RECORDING SETTLEMENT
        • An oral contract
        • A written contract
        • An award with statutory authority
        • A court order
        • Other legal documents
      • F   DRAFTING TERMS OF SETTLEMENT
      • G   METHODS OF RECORDING SETTLEMENT AGREEMENTS
        • Exchange of letters
        • Contract or deed
        • Settlements where there are existing court proceedings
        • Endorsement on briefs
        • Interim order
        • Consent order
        • Tomlin order
        • Relitigating after settlement
      • H   TERMS AS REGARDS COSTS
      • I    INFORMING THE COURT OF SETTLEMENT
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
  • PART VI  ADJUDICATIVE ADR
    • 24   EXPERT OR NEUTRAL DETERMINATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   WHEN SHOULD NEUTRAL OR EXPERT DETERMINATION BE USED?
        • Stage at which the parties may agree to expert determination
        • Cases where expert determination is particularly suitable
      • C   AGREEMENT TO USE EXPERT (OR NEUTRAL) DETERMINATION
      • D   THE GENERAL APPROACH OF THE COURTS TO EXPERT DETERMINATION
        • Contractual effect of expert determination clauses
        • Applications to stay court proceedings pending expert determination
      • E   ADVANTAGES OF EXPERT DETERMINATION
      • F   DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERT DETERMINATION AND NEGOTIATION, MEDIATION, AND NEUTRAL EVALUATION
      • G   SIMILARITIES WITH OTHER FORMS OF ADR
      • H   SELECTION OF THE NEUTRAL OR EXPERT DETERMINER
      • I    THE PROCESS
      • J   CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
      • K   THE NATURE OF THE DECISION
      • L   REASONS FOR THE DECISION
      • M   THE COURT IS THE FINAL DECISION MAKER AS TO WHETHER THE EXPERT HAS JURISDICTION
      • N   OTHER GROUNDS FOR CHALLENGING A FINAL DECISION BY COURT PROCEEDINGS
        • Material departure from instructions
        • Fraud
        • Collusion
        • No reasons for decision
        • Manifest error
        • An error of law
        • Failure to act lawfully or fairly
        • The decision is not intended to be final on matters of construction
      • O   PROCEDURE FOR MAKING A CHALLENGE
      • P   ENFORCING A DECISION
      • Q   SUING THE EXPERT
      • R   HOW NEUTRAL OR EXPERT DETERMINATION DIFFERS FROM ARBITRATION
      • S   DISPUTES REVIEW PANELS
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 25   CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ADJUDICATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   NATURE OF ADJUDICATION
      • C   REQUIREMENTS
        • Construction contract
        • Dispute
        • Requirement to include written terms for adjudication
      • D   EXPRESS CONTRACTUAL RIGHT TO ADJUDICATION
      • E   DEFAULT PROVISIONS IN THE SCHEME FOR CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS
      • F   COMMENCEMENT OF THE ADJUDICATION
        • Notice of adjudication: the commencement of adjudication
        • Ambit of the reference
        • Nomination of adjudicator
        • Referral notice
      • G   PROCEDURE BEFORE THE HEARING
        • Response to referral notice
        • Subsequent statements of case
        • Timetable for procedural steps
        • Documents, questions, and impartiality
        • Site visits
        • Related disputes
        • Confidentiality
      • H   ADJUDICATOR’S DECISION
        • Inquisitorial approach
        • Hearing
        • The decision-making process
        • Communicating decision to the parties
        • Reasons, interest, and costs
      • I    BINDING, BUT INTERIM EFFECT, OF DECISIONS
      • J   IMMUNITY OF ADJUDICATOR
      • K   ADJUDICATION IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDING CONTRACTS
      • L   COURT ENFORCEMENT OF SUM FOUND DUE ON ADJUDICATION
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 26   ARBITRATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   ARBITRATION AND LITIGATION
      • C   FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN ARBITRATION
      • D   HISTORY OF ARBITRATION
      • E   INTERPRETATION OF THE ARBITRATION ACT
      • F   CONTRACTUAL FOUNDATION TO ARBITRATION
        • Separability of arbitration clause
        • Mandate of the arbitral tribunal
      • G   REQUIREMENTS
        • Dispute or difference
        • Arbitrable dispute
        • Agreement to arbitrate
        • The arbitration agreement
        • Dispute must come within the arbitration agreement
        • Capacity
        • Conditions precedent to arbitration
      • H   OVERVIEW OF ARBITRATION PROCEDURE
      • I    GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND DUTIES
      • J   FAIR RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES
        • Saving costs and expedition
        • General duty of the tribunal
        • Duty to follow the rules of natural justice
        • Arbitration need not be adversarial
      • K   PARTY AUTONOMY
        • Mandatory and non-mandatory provisions
        • Sources of party agreement
      • L   COURT APPLICATIONS
      • M   DIFFERENT TYPES OF ARBITRATION
        • Institutional arbitration
        • Ad hoc arbitration
        • Non-binding arbitration
        • Statutory arbitration
        • Consumer arbitration
        • Med-arb
        • Family arbitration
      • N   MULTI-TIERED DISPUTE RESOLUTION
      • O   ONE-STOP ADJUDICATION
      • P   EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ARBITRATION
      • Q   MAIN FEATURES OF ARBITRATION
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 27   ARBITRAL TRIBUNALS
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   COMMENCEMENT OF ARBITRATION
        • Importance of the date of commencement of an arbitration
        • Contractual time limits
        • Limitation periods
        • Date of commencement of arbitration
        • Avoiding the consequences of failing to comply with a time limit
      • C   NOTICE OF ARBITRATION
      • D   APPOINTMENT OF ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL
        • Number of arbitrators
        • Appointing the arbitrators
        • Chairperson
        • Umpire
        • Judges as arbitrators
        • Failure of appointment procedure
      • E   CONTRACTUAL BASIS OF THE ARBITRATORS’ MANDATE
        • Qualifications of arbitrators
        • Impartiality and independence
      • F   TERMS OF REFERENCE
      • G   REMOVAL, RESIGNATION, AND VACANCIES
        • Removal
        • Resignation
        • Death
        • Vacancies
      • H   IMMUNITIES
        • Immunity of arbitrators
        • Immunity of arbitral institutions
      • I    LIABILITY FOR ARBITRATORS’ FEES
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 28   THE COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION PROCESS
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   DEFINITION OF ‘COMMERCIAL’
      • C   PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
        • Privacy
        • Confidentiality
      • D   RANGE OF PROCEDURAL APPROACHES IN ARBITRATION
      • E   PROCEDURAL RULES GOVERNING THE ARBITRATION
        • Bespoke arbitration clause
        • Arbitral institution rules
        • Silence in institutional rules
      • F   ROLE OF LEGAL REPRESENTATIVES IN ARBITRATION
        • Advice on the arbitration clause
        • Reference of a dispute to arbitration
        • Defining the issues
        • Putting together the case
        • Hearings
      • G   COMMENCEMENT
      • H   ‘LOOK-SNIFF’ ARBITRATIONS
      • I    SHORT-FORM ARBITRATIONS
      • J   GENERAL PROCEDURE IN COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION
        • Preliminary meeting
        • Procedural orders
        • Peremptory orders
        • Dismissal for inordinate and inexcusable delay
        • Statements of case
        • Evidence
        • Witness statements
        • Experts
        • Pre-trial hearing/conference
        • No right to an oral hearing
        • Bundles
        • Arrangements for the hearing
        • The hearing
        • The decision
        • Ex aequo et bono/amiable compositeur (equity clauses)
        • The award and appeals
      • K   EXAMPLE OF ARBITRAL RULES THAT CLOSELY FOLLOW COURT PROCEDURES
        • Commencement of arbitration
        • Counter-notice
        • Appointment of tribunal
        • Procedure
        • Statements of case
        • Documents and samples
        • Directions
        • Hearings
        • Awards
        • Appeals
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 29   INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   MEANING OF ‘INTERNATIONAL’ IN ARBITRATION
      • C   ADVISING THE CLIENT
      • D   SEAT
        • Designation of seat
        • Supervisory jurisdiction
        • Place of award
      • E   PROBLEMS CAUSED BY DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF LAW
      • F   APPLICABLE LAW
        • Proper law of the contract
        • Law of the arbitration agreement
        • Jurisdiction Regulation (Brussels Convention)
        • Procedural law of the arbitration (curial law)
        • Law of the place of enforcement
        • Stateless arbitrations
      • G   OBJECTIONS TO JURISDICTION
        • Procedures available for raising an objection to jurisdiction
        • Substantive jurisdiction
        • Time when an objection to jurisdiction should be taken
        • Reserving client’s position
        • Taking a step in the arbitration
        • Kompetenz-Kompetenz
        • Anti-suit injunctions
      • H   PROCEDURAL MATTERS RELEVANT TO INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION
        • Language of the arbitration
        • Meetings and hearings
        • Privilege
        • Security for costs
      • I    ICC RULES OF ARBITRATION
        • Request for arbitration
        • Answer to the request
        • ICC arbitral tribunals
        • Seat of the arbitration
        • Terms of reference
        • Procedure prior to the hearing
        • Hearings and the decision
      • J   UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION
        • Interpretation of the Model Law
        • Commencement of Model Law arbitration
        • Model Law arbitral tribunals
        • Interim measures
        • Statements of case under the Model Law
        • Subsequent procedure
        • Hearings
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 30   ARBITRATION AWARDS AND ORDERS
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   PROCEDURAL ORDERS
      • C   INTERIM AWARDS AND AWARDS ON DIFFERENT ISSUES
      • D   SETTLEMENT
      • E   MAIN AWARDS
        • Majority decisions
        • Reasons
        • Seat of the arbitration
        • Date of award
        • Place where award is made
        • Remedies
        • Notification of award
        • Binding effect
      • F   AWARD OF COSTS
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 31   HIGH COURT JURISDICTION IN ARBITRATION CLAIMS
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   ORDERS TO PREVENT PARTIES BREACHING AGREEMENTS TO ARBITRATE
        • Stay of legal proceedings
        • Taking a step in the proceedings
        • Anti-suit injunctions
      • C   APPOINTMENT, REMOVAL, AND REPLACEMENT OF ARBITRATORS
        • Extending time for beginning arbitral proceedings
        • Setting aside appointment of sole arbitrator
        • Failure of the appointment procedure
        • Removal of arbitrators
        • Relief from liability after resignation of an arbitrator
      • D   PROCEDURAL ORDERS TO ASSIST IN THE DETERMINATION OF ARBITRAL PROCEEDINGS
        • Powers to secure evidence etc available to tribunals
        • Court jurisdiction on procedural matters
        • Disclosure in aid of arbitration
        • Interim injunctions
        • Applications for procedural orders
        • Exclusion of section
      • E   JUDICIAL REVIEW OF ARBITRAL PROCEEDINGS
      • F   PRELIMINARY POINTS OF LAW
        • Conditions to be satisfied
        • Procedure on applications on preliminary points of law
      • G   SERIOUS IRREGULARITY
        • Meaning of ‘serious irregularity’
        • Substantial injustice
        • Loss of right to object
        • Powers available to deal with a serious irregularity
      • H   APPEAL ON A POINT OF LAW
        • Question of law
        • No contrary agreement
        • No agreement to dispense with reasons
        • Tribunal asked to determine the point
        • Exhaustion of arbitral appeals and reviews
        • Point must arise from an award
        • Appeal must be made within 28 days
        • Agreement or permission to appeal
        • Permission of the court
        • Powers available to deal with points of law
      • I    PROCEDURE IN ARBITRATION CLAIMS
        • Application or Part 8 claim
        • Time limit
        • Defendants to the arbitration claim
        • Courts having jurisdiction over arbitration claims
        • Procedure on arbitration claims
        • Hearings in arbitration claims under Part
      • J   APPEALS TO THE COURT OF APPEAL
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
    • 32   ENFORCEMENT OF SETTLEMENTS AND AWARDS
      • A   INTRODUCTION
      • B   BASIC METHODS OF ENFORCING COMPROMISE AGREEMENTS
      • C   MERGER OR DISCHARGE OF ORIGINAL OBLIGATION BY COMPROMISE
        • Express term reviving old obligations in the event of non-performance
        • Compromise based on performance of the agreed terms
        • Compromise ineffective
      • D   MAKING A CHOICE ON ENFORCEMENT OPTIONS
      • E   ENFORCEMENT OF COMPROMISES RECORDED AS A CONTRACT
        • Enforcement by civil proceedings
        • Defences to claims for breach of compromise agreements
        • Bankruptcy and winding up
      • F   CHALLENGING A SETTLEMENT RECORDED AS A CONTRACT
      • G   ENFORCEMENT OF COURT ORDERS
      • H   COSTS ONLY PROCEEDINGS
      • I    ENFORCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ADJUDICATION DECISIONS
      • J   ARBITRATION SETTLEMENTS AND AWARDS
        • Negotiated settlements in arbitration proceedings
        • Enforcement of domestic arbitral awards
        • Recognition and enforcement of New York Convention arbitration awards
        • Grounds for refusing recognition or enforcement of a New York Convention award
        • Enforcement of Geneva Convention awards
      • KEY POINTS SUMMARY
  • Appendices
  • APPENDIX 1 CEDR Model Mediation Agreement (13th edn)
  • APPENDIX 2 Arbitration Act
  • Index

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Vörumerki: Oxford
Tilboði lýkur 25.06.2019
Vörunúmer: 9780192555953
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A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

Vörumerki: Oxford
Tilboði lýkur 25.06.2019
Vörunúmer: 9780192555953
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